Literature Database on Gender in Subsahara Africa

Literature on health - fgc fgm

Africa OverviewAngolaBenin
BotswanaBurkina FasoBurundi
CameroonCentral African RepublicChad
D.R. Congo / ZaireDjiboutiEquatorial Guinea
EritreaEthiopiaGabon
GambiaGhanaGuinea
Guinea BisseauIvory CoastKenya
LesothoLiberiaMadagascar
MalawiMaliMauritius
MozambiqueNamibiaNiger
NigeriaRwandaSenegal
Sierra LeoneSomaliaSouth Africa
South SudanSudanSwaziland / Eswatini
TanzaniaThe CongoTogo
UgandaZambiaZimbabwe

Africa Overview

Abdalla, Raqiya (1983): Sisters in affliction, Circumcision and infibulation of women in Africa, Zed Books, London [3000]

Abdel Halim, Asma Mohamed (1992): Claiming our bodies and our rights, Exploring female circumcision as an act of violence in Africa, in: Schuler, Margaret (ed.): Freedom from violence, Women’s strategies around the world, UNIFEM Publication, New York, pp. 141-156. [3001]

Abusharaf, Mustafa Rogaia (2006): Female circumcision, Multicultural perspectives, University of Pennesylvania Press, Philadelphia. [3002]

Accad, Evelyn (2001): Die Beschnittene, Horlemann Verlag, Bad Honnef. [3003]

Ahmadu, Fuambai (2000): Rites and wrongs, An insider/outsider reflects on power and excision, in: Shell-Duncan, Bettina / Hernlund, Ylva (eds.): Female circumcision in Africa, Culture, controversy, and change, Lynne Rienner, Boulder, pp. 283-312. [3004]

Amnesty International (AI) (2000): What is female genital mutilation? AI Publications, London. [3005]

Annas, Catherine (1999): Irreversible error, The power and prejudice of female genital mutilation, in: Mann, Jonathan / Gruskin, Sofia / Grodin, Michael / Annas, George (eds.): Health and human rights, Routledge, London, pp. 336-362. [3006]

Arbesman, M. / Kahler, L. / Buck, G.M. (1993): Assessment of the impact o female circumcision on the gynaecological, genitouriaray and obstetrical health problems of women from Somalia, Literature review and case studies, in: Women and Health, vol. 20, pp. 27-42. [3007]

Asefa, Semra (1998): Female genital mutilation, Violence in the name of tradition, religion and social imperative, in: French, Stanley / Teays, Wanda / Purdy, Laura (eds.): Violence against women, Philosophical perspectives, Cornell University Press, Ithaca, pp. 92-104. [3008]

Bekers, Elisabeth (2010): Rising anthills, African and African American writing on female genital excision, 1960-2000, University of Wisconsin Press, Madison. [3009]

Berggren, Vanja (2005): Female genital mutilation, Studies on primary and repeat female genital cutting, Karolinska University Press, Stockholm. [3010]

Boody, Janice (1998): Violence embodied, Circumcision, Gender politics and cultural aesthetics, in: Dobash, Emerson / Dobash, Russel (eds.): Rethinking violence against women, Sage Publications, London, pp. 77-110. [3014]

Boyle, Elisabeth Heyer (2003): Female genital cutting, John Hopkins University Press, New York. [3011]

Bradley,Tamsin (2011): Women, violence and tradition, Taking FGM and other practices to a secular state, Zed Books, London. [3012]

Braun, Ingrid / Levin, Tobe / Schwarzbauer, Angelika (1979): Materialien zur Unterstützung von Aktionsgruppen gegen Klitorisbeschneidung, Frauenoffensive, München. [3013]

Caldwell, John / Caldwell, Pat / Orubuloye, I.O. (2000): Female genital mutilation, Conditions of decline, in: Population Research, vol. 19, no. 3, pp. 233-254. [3016]

Carr, Dara (1997): Female genital cutting, Findings from the demographic and health survey program, Marco International, Calverton. [3015]

Davide, Arne (2005): Female genital cutting, Save the Children, Stockholm. [3017]

Davis, Anne (1998): Female genital mutilation, Some ethical questions, in: Medicine and Law, 17, pp. 143-148. [3018]

Dawit, Seble (1993): Female Genital Mutilation, Violence and women's human rights, Zed Books, London. [3019]

Denniston, George / Mansfield, Frederick / Hodges, Marilyn (eds.) (1999): Male and female circumcision, Medical, legal and ethical considerations in pediatric practive, Kluwer Academic Publishers, New York. [3020]

Diaby-Pentzlin, Friederike / Göttke, Edith (Hg.) (1999): Einschnitte, Materialband zu Female Genitale Cuttings (FGC), Eschborn. [3021]

Dinslage, Sabine (1981): Mädchenbeschneidung in Westafrika, Kulturanthropologische Studien Bd.5, Klaus Renner Verlag, Hohenschäftlarn/München. [3022]

Dinslage, Sabine (1986): Kindheit der Leyla, Kindheit und Jugend im kulturellen Wandel bei den Leyla in Burkina Faso, Klaus Renner Verlag, Hohenschäftlarn/München. [3023]

Dokenoo, Efna / Elworthy, Scilla (1994): Female genital mutilation, in: Davies, Miranda (ed.): Women and violence, Zed Books, London, pp. 137-148. [3027]

Dorkenoo, Efna (1994): Cutting the rose, Female genital mutilation, its practice and its prevention, Minority Rights Group Publication, London. [3024]

Dorkenoo, Efna (1999): Combating female genital mutilation, An agenda for the next decade, in: Women’s Studies Quarterly, vol. 27, no. 1-2, pp. 87-96. [3025]

Dorkenoo, Efna (2006): Female genital mutilation, Politics and prevention, Hurst, London. [3026]

Dualeh, R.H. (1982): Sisters in affliction, Circumcision and infibulation of women in Africa, Zed Books, London. [3028]

Easton, Peter / Monkman, Karen / Miles, Rebecca (2003): Social policy from the bottom up, Abandoning FGC in Sub-Saharan Africa, in: Development in Practice, vol. 13, no. 5, pp 445-458. [3029]

El Darrer, Asma (1982): Woman, why do you weep? Female circumcision and its consequence, Zed Books, London. [3030]

Erchak, Gerald (1979): Socialization and subsistence, Symbol and surgery, Women in West African society, in: Sociology, no. 29, pp. 84-96. [3031]

Erhardt, Bettina (Hg.) (1999): Beschnittene Lust, Ein grausames Ritual im Brennpunkt der Diskussion, Berlin. [3032]

Faveli, Lydia / Pateman, Roy (2003): Blood, land and sex, Legal and political pluralism in Eritrea, Indiana University Press, Bloomington. [3033]

Frank, Silvia (1999): Beschneidung von Frauen und Mädchen in Afrika, Möglichkeiten der Bildungsarbeit im Kontext beharrender Stammestraditionen, unveröffentlichte Studie, Köln. [3034]

Gevins, Adi (1987): Tackling tradition, African women speak out against female circumcision, in: Davies, Miranda (ed.): Third world – Second sex, vol. 2, London, pp. 244-249. [3035]

Ginsburg, Faye (1991): What do women want? Feminist anthropology confronts clitoridectomy, in: Medical Anthropology Quarterly, vol. 5, pp.17-19. [3036]

Gruenbaum, E. (2000): Is female circumcision a maladaptive cultural pattern? in: Shell-Duncan, Bettina / Hernlund, Ylva (eds.): Female circumcision in Africa, Culture, controversy, and change, Lynne Rienner, Boulder, pp. 41-54. [3037]

Gruenbaum, E. (2001): The female circumcision controversy, An anthropological perspective, University of Pennsylvania Press, Philadelphia. [3038]

Grunning, Isabelle (1988): Women and Traditional Practices: Female Genital Surgery, in: Askin, Kelly / Koening, Dorean (eds.): Women and International Human Rights Law, Vol.1, Transnational Publishers, Ardsley. [3039]

Grunning, Isabelle (1992): Arrogant perception: World travelling and multicultural feminism: The case of female genital surgeries, in: Columbia Human Rights Law Review, vol. 23, pp. 189-248. [3040]

Hale, Sondra (1994): A question of subjects: The 'female circumcision', Controversy and the politics of knowledge, in: Ufahamu, vol. 22, no. 3, pp. 26-35. [3041]

Hassan, Amna (2000): Kampf gegen genitale Verstümmelung, in: Frauensolidarität, Nr. 3, pp. 14-17. [3042]

Hermann, Conny (Hg.) (1998): Das Recht auf Weiblichkeit, Hoffnung im Kampf gegen Genitalverstümmelung, Dietz Verlag, Bonn. [3043]

Hicks, Ester (1993): Infibulation, Female mutilation in Islamic Northeastern Africa, Transaction Publishers, New Brunswick. [3044]

Hosken, Fran P. (1976): Female circumcision and fertility in Africa, in: Women and Health, vol. 1, pp. 3-11. [3045]

Hosken, Fran P. (1979): The Hosken Report, Genital and sexual mutilation of females, Lexington. [3046]

Hosken, Fran P. (1981): Female genital mutilation and human rights, in: Feminist Issues, 1, pp. 3-23. [3047]

Hrzán, Daniela (2004): TOSTAN, Eine Herausforderung für die Entwicklungstheorie? Weibliche Genitalverstümmelung im Kontext von Geschlecht, Kultur und postkolonialer Kritik, in: Boekle, Bettina / Ruf, Michael (Hrsg.): Eine Frage des Geschlechts, ein Gender-Reader, Verlag für Sozialwissenschaften, Wiesbaden, pp. 167-178. [3048]

Huber, Alfons (1961): Genitalverletzungen afrikanischer Mädchen durch rituelle Eingriffe, in: Ethnomedizin, 1, pp. 71-79. [3049]

Izett, Susan / Toubia, Nahid (1999): Learning about social change, A research and evaluation guidebook using female circumcision as a case study, New York. [3050]

James, Stanlie (1998): Shades of othering, Reflections on female circumcision, Genital mutilation, in: Signs, vol. 23, no. 1, pp.1031-1048. [3051]

James, Stanlie / Robertson, Claire (eds.) (2005): Genital cutting and transnational sisterhood, University of Illinois Press, Urbana. [3052]

Kalthegener, Regina (2003): Rechtliche Regelungen gegen Genitalverstümmelung in Afrika, in: Terre des Femmes (Hg.): Schnitt in die Seele, Mabuse Verlag, Frankfurt a.M., pp. 203-214. [3053]

Kassamali, Noor J. (1998): When modernity confronts traditional practices: Female genital cutting in Northeast Africa, in: Bodman, Herbert / Tohidi, Nayereh (eds.): Women in Muslim societies: Diversity within unity, Lynne Rienner, Boulder, pp. 39-61. [3054]

Kisaakye, Esterh (2002): Women, culture and human rights, Female genital mutilation, Polygamy and bride price, in: Benedeck, Wolfgang / Kisaaklye, Esther / Oberleitner, Gerd (eds.): The human rights of women, International instruments and African experiences, London, Zed Books, pp. 268-285. [3055]

Koso-Thomas, O. (1987): The circumcision of women, A strategy for eradiction, London. [3056]

Kouba, Leonard / Muasher, Judith (1985): Female circumcision in Africa: An overview, in: African Studies Review, vol. 28, no. 1, pp. 95-110. [3057]

Kwaak, Anke van der (1992): Female circumcision and gender identity: A questionable alliance? in: Social Science and Medicine, vol. 35, no. 6, pp. 777-787. [3058]

Lewnes, Alexia (ed.) (2005): Changing a harmful social convention, Female genital mutilation/cutting, UNICEF, New York. [3059]

Lightfoot-Klein, Hanny (1989): Rites of purification and their effects, Some psychological aspects of female genital circumcision and infibulation (pharaonic circumcision) in an Africo-Arabic Islamic society (Sudan), in: Journal of Psychology and Human Sexuality, vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 79-91. [3060]

Lightfoot-Klein, Hanny (1989): The sexual experience and marital adjustment of genitally circumcised and infibulated females in Sudan, in: The Journal of Sex Research, vol. 26, no. 3, pp. 375-393. [3061]

Lightfoot-Klein, Hanny (1993): Das grausame Ritual - Sexuelle Verstümmelung afrikanischer Frauen, Fischer Verlag, Frankfurt a.M. [3062]

Lightfoot-Klein, Hanny (2003): Der Beschneidungsskandal, Orlanda Verlag, München. [3063]

Lyons, Harriet (1981): Anthropologists, moralists, and relativists, The problem of genital mutilation, in: Canadian Review of Sociology and Anthropology, vol. 18, no. 4, pp. 499-518. [3064]

Mascia-Lees, France / Sharpe, Patricia (eds.) (1992): Tatoo, torture, mutilation and adornment, The denaturalization of the body in culture and text, State University of New York Press, Albany. [3065]

McLean, Scilla / Graham, Stella Efua (eds.) (1983): Female circumcision, Excision and infibulation, The facts and proposals for change, Minority Rights Group, London. [3066]

Mende, Janne (2012): Begründungsmuster weiblicher Genitalverstümmelung, Zur Vermittlung von Kulturrelativismus und Universalismus, Transcript Verlag, Bielefeld. [3067]

Momoh, Comfort (ed.) (2005): Female genital mutilation, Radcliff Publishing, Abington. [3068]

Mottin-Sylla Marie-Helene / Palmieri, Joelle (2011): Confronting female genital mutilation, The role of Youth, Pambazuka News, Nairobi/London. [3069]

Nnaemeka, Obioma (2001): If female circumcision did not exist, Western feminism would invent it, in: Perry, Susan / Schenck, Celeste (eds.): Eye to eye, Women practicing development across cultures, Zed Books, pp. 171-189. [3070]

Nnaemeka, Obioma (2005): Female circumcision and the politics of knowledge, Greenwood Publishing Group, Westport. [3071]

Norbakk, Mari / Tonnessen, Liv (2020): Prevalence, drivers, and review of the literature on the effects of interventions to reduce the prevalence of female genital mutilation, CMI, Bergen. [11630]

Nypan, A. (1991): Revival of female circumcision, A case of neo-traditionalism, in: Stolen, K.A. / Vaa, M. (eds.): Gender and change in developing countries, Norwegian University Press, Oslo, pp. 39-65. [3072]

Ogiamien, T.B.E. (1988): A legal framework to eradicate female circumcision, in: Medicine, Science and the Law, vol. 28, no. 2, pp. 115-119. [3073]

Okwubanego, John Tochukwu (1999): Female circumcision and the girl child in Africa and the Middle East, The eyes of the world are blind to the conquered, in: International Lawyer, vol. 33, no. 1, pp. 159-187. [3074]

Packer, Corinne (2005): Understanding the sociocultural and traditional context of female circumcision and the impact of the Human Rights discourse, in: Nnaemeka, Obioma / Ezeilo, Joy Ngozi (eds.): Engendering human rights, Cultural and socio-economic realities in Africa, Palgrave, Houndsmills, pp. 223-247. [3077]

Parker, Melissa (1995): Rethinking female circumcision, in: Africa, vol. 65, no. 4, pp. 507-523. [3078]

Pedersen, Susan (1991): National bodies, unspeakable acts, The sexual politics of colonial policymaking, in: Journal of Modern History, vol. 63, pp. 647-680. [3079]

Peller, Annette (2002): Chiffrierte Körper, Disziplinierte Körper, Female genital cutting, Rituelle Verwundung als Statussymbol, Weißensee Verlag, Berlin. [3075]

Peller, Annette (2003): No pain, no gain – Zur Verbesserung sozialer Chancen durch das Ertragen von Schmerz, in: Afrika Spectrum, vol. 38, no. 2, pp. 197-214. [3076]

Rahman, Anika / Toubia, Nahid (eds.) (2000): Female Genital Mutilation: A guide to laws and policies worldwide, Zed Books, London. [3080]

Ramsay, Susan Jane (2004): Female genital mutilation (FGM) and human rights, GTZ, Eschborn. [3081]

Rosenke, Marion (2001): Die rechtlichen Probleme im Zusammenhang mit der weiblichen Genitalverstümmelung, Peter Lang Verlag, Frankfurt a.M. [3082]

Sanderson, Lilian Passmore (1981): Against the mutilation of women, The struggle to end unnecessary suffering, Ithaca Press, London. [3083]

Schnüll, Petra / Terre des Femmes (1999): Weibliche Genitalverstümmelung, Eine fundamentale Menschenrechtsverletzung, Textsammlung, Göttingen. [3084]

Schnüll, Petra / Terre des Femmes (2003): Schnitt in die Seele, Mabuse Verlag, Frankfurt am Main. [3085]

Shell-Duncan, Bettina (2001): The medicalization of female „circumcision“: Harm reduction or promotion of a dangerous practice, in: Social Science and Medicine, vol. 52, pp. 1013-1028. [3086]

Shell-Duncan, Bettina / Herlund, Ylva (eds.) (1992): Visions and discussion on genital mutilation of girls, An international survey, Netherlands Directorate for Development Cooperation, The Hague. [3087]

Shell-Duncan, Bettina / Herlund, Ylva (eds.) (2000): Female „circumcision“ in Africa, Culture, controversy, and change, Lynne Rienner Publications, Boulder. [3088]

Skaine, Rosemarie (2005): Female genital mutilation: Legal, cultural and medical issues, McFarland Publishers, New York. [3089]

Skinner, Elliott (1988): Female circumcision in Africa, The dialectics of equality, in: Randolph, Richard / Schneider, David / Diaz, May (eds.): Dialectics in gender, Anthropological perspectives, Boulder, pp. 195-210. [3090]

Slack, Alison (1988): Female circumcision, A critical appraisal, in: Human Rights Quarterly, vol. 10, no. 4, pp. 439-486. [3091]

Smith, Jaqueline / Longbottom, Peter (1995): Visions and discussions on genital mutilation of girls, An international survey, Defence for Children International / Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Amsterdam / Den Haag. [3092]

Strong-Leek, Linda (2009): Excising the spirit, A literary analysis of female circumcision, Africa World Press, Trenton. [3093]

Thiam, Awa (1983): Women’s fight for the abolition of sexual mutilation, in: International Social Science Journal, vol. 35, no. 4, pp. 747-756. [3094]

Thiam, Awa (1986): Die Stimme der schwarzen Frau, Reinbek. [3095]

Toubia, Nahid (1995): Female Genital Mutilation, in: Peters, Julie / Wolper, Andrea (eds.): Women's rights, Human rights: International Feminist Perspectives, Routledge Publishers, New York, pp. 224-36. [3096]

Toubia, Nahid (1995): Female genital mutilation, A call for global action, Women’s Inc., New York. [3097]

Toubia, Nahid / Izett, Susan (1998): Female genital mutilation, An overview, WHO Publications, Geneva. [3098]

UNICEF (2008): Changing a harmful social convention, Female genital cutting, New York. [3107]

United Nations (1995): Harmful traditional practices affecting the health of women and children, Fact sheet 23, New York. [3099]

Wallerstein, Edward (1989): Säkulare Beschneidung in den USA, ein medizinischer Skandal, in: Zeitschrift für Sexualforschung, vol. 2, pp. 160-170. [3103]

Walley, Christine J. (1997): Searching for 'Voices': Feminism, Anthropology and the Global Debate Over Female Genital Operations, in: Cultural Anthropology, vol. 12, no. 3, pp. 405-438. [3100]

WHO / UNICEF / UNDP (eds.) (1995): Female genital mutilation, A joint WHO / UNICEF / UNDP statement, Geneva. [3102]

WHO – World Health Organisation (2000): Female genital mutilation, A handbook for frontline workers, Geneva. [3101]

Wiggings, Desmond (2001): Male and female circumcision in Africa, Pharaonic Egyptian and religious origins, in: Africa Update, vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 1-9. [3104]

Winter, Browyn (1996): Frauen, Recht und Kulturelativismus in Frankreich, Das Problem der Exzision, in: Lenz, Ilse / Germer, Andrea (Hrsg.): Wechselnde Blicke, Frauenforschung in internationaler Perspektive, Leske und Budrich, Opladen, pp. 152-187. [3105]

Winthrop, R. (2001): The real world and the limits of relativism: debating female circumcision, in: Practicing Anthropology, vol. 23, no. 4, pp. 39-40. [3106]


Angola

no entries to this combination of country and topic


Benin

no entries to this combination of country and topic


Botswana

no entries to this combination of country and topic


Burkina Faso

Bouédibéla-Amangoua, Regine / Hütt, Anette (1999): Die Kampagne gegen Genitalverstümmelung in Burkina Faso, in: Schnüll, Petra / Terre des Femmes (Hrsg.): Weibliche Genitalverstümmelung, eine fundamentale Menschenrechtsverletzung, Terre des Femmes, Tübingen, pp. 152-159. [3108]

Damien, Ini / Krämer, Paul (1999): Can female excision be transformed into a symbolic rite? The experience of Lobi women in Burkina Faso, in: Entwicklungsethnologie, Heft 1, 8. Jg., pp. 12-23. [3109]

Dehne, K.L. / Wacker, J. / Nadembega, J. / Ira, R. (1997): Female genital mutilation in the North of Burkina Faso, in: Curare, vol. 20, no. 2, pp. 221-242. [3110]

Jones, Heidi / Diop, Nafissatou / Askew, Ian (1999): Female genital cutting practices in Burkina Faso and Mali and their negative health outcomes, in: Studies in Family Planning, vol. 30, no. 3, pp. 219-239. [3111]

Krämer, Paul / Damien, Ini (1999): Can female excision be transformed into a symbolic rite? The experiences of Lobi women in Burkina Faso, in: Entwicklungsethnologie, 8, 1, pp. 12-23. [3112]

Lallemand, Suzanne (1986): Entre excision et accouchement, Les sacrifications des filles Mossi du Burkina Faso, in: Archiv für Völkerkunde, 40, pp. 63-74. [3113]


Burundi

no entries to this combination of country and topic


Cameroon

no entries to this combination of country and topic


Central African Republic

Larsen, Ulla / Yan, Sharon (2000): Does female circumcision affect infertility and fertility? A study of the Central African Republic, Cote d’Ivoire, and Tanzania, in: Demography, vol. 37, 3, pp. 313-321. [3114]

Stewart, Holley / Morison, Linda (2002): Determinants of coital frequency among married women in Central African Republic: The role of female genital cutting, in: Journal of Biosocial Science, vol. 34, pp. 525-540. [3115]


Chad

Leonard, Lori (1996): Female circumcision in southern Chad, Origins, meanings and current practice, in: Social Science and Medicine, vol. 43, pp. 255-263. [3116]

Leonard, Lori (2000): Adopting female “circumcision” in Southern Chad, The experience of Myabé, in: Shell-Duncan, Bettina / Hernlund, Ylva (eds.): Female circumcision in Africa, Culture, controversy, and change, Lynne Rienner, Boulder, pp. 167-192. [3117]


D.R. Congo / Zaire

no entries to this combination of country and topic


Djibouti

no entries to this combination of country and topic


Equatorial Guinea

no entries to this combination of country and topic


Eritrea

Davis, Gary / Ellis, Julius et al. (1999): Female circumcision: The prevalence and nature of the ritual in Eritrea, in: Military Medicine, vol. 164, pp. 11-16. [3118]

Mekonnen, Daniel (2007): The abolition of female circumcision in Eritrea, Inadequacies of new legislation, in: African Human Rights Law Journal, vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 389-411. [3119]

Woldemicae, Gebremariam (2009): Female genital cutting in contemporary Eritrea, Determinants, future prospects, and strategies for eradication, EASSRR, vol.25, no. 2, Addis Abeba. [3120]


Ethiopia

Gemeda, Hirut Terefe (2000): A study of female genital mutilation and reproductive health. The Case of Arsi Oromo, Ethiopia, Edition RE, Göttingen. [3121]

Olenick, I. (1998): Female circumcision is nearly universal in Egypt, Eritrea, Mali and Sudan, in: International Family Planning Perspectives, vol. 24, pp. 47-49. [3122]

Peller, Annette (2002): Chiffrierte Körper, Disziplinierte Körper, Female genital cutting, Rituelle Verwundung als Statussymbol, Weißensee Verlag, Berlin. [3123]

Peller, Annette (2003): No pain, no gain – Zur Verbesserung sozialer Chancen durch das Ertragen von Schmerz, in: Afrika Spectrum, vol. 38, no. 2, pp. 197-214. [3124]

Peller, Annette (2003): Other countries, other customs, Background and perspectives of the controversial rite of passage of FGC, in: Bruchhaus, Eva-Marie (ed.): Hot Spot Horn of Africa: Between integration and disintegration, Lit-Verlag, Münster/Berlin, pp. 81-87. [3125]

Reminick, Ronald (1976): The symbolic significance of ceremonial defloration among the Amhara of Ethiopia, in. American Ethnologist, 3, pp. 751-763. [3126]

Spadacini, B. / Nichols, P. (1998): Campaigning against female genital mutilation in Ethiopia using popular education, in: Gender and Development, vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 44-52. [3127]

Terefe, Almaz (2003): Gender and female genital mutilation in Ethiopia, The case of Arsi Oromo, in: Böll, Verena / Günther, Ursula et al. (Hg.): Umbruch – Bewältigung – Geschlecht, Genderstudien zu afrikanischen Gesellschaften in Afrika und Deutschland, Waxmann Verlag, Münster, pp. 185-206. [3128]

Willcox, Sandy / Short, Arina (2005): Cut flowers, Female genital mutilation and a biblical response, Addis Abeba University, Addis Abeba. [3129]


Gabon

no entries to this combination of country and topic


Gambia

Herlund, Ylva / Shell-Duncan, Bettina (2007): Contingency, context, and change, Negotiating female gential cutting in the Gambia and Senegal, in: Africa Today,vol. 53, no. 4. [3131]

Hernlund, Ylva (2000): Cutting without ritual and ritual without cutting, Female “circumcision” and the Re-ritualization of initiation in Gambia, in: Shell-Duncan, Bettina / Hernlund, Ylva (eds.): Female circumcision in Africa, Culture, controversy, and change, Lynne Rienner, Boulder, pp. 235-252. [3130]

Skramstad, Heidi (1990): The fluid meaning of female circumcision in a multi-ethnic context in Gambia, Distribution of knowledge and linkages to sexuality, Working Paper D 12, Chr. Michelsen Institute, Bergen. [3132]

Traoray, Isatou (1998): Tradition, culture and ideology: The problem of female genital mutilation in the Gambia, in: SAFERE: Southern African Feminist Review, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 71-74. [3133]


Ghana

Adongo, Philip / Akweongo, Patricia et al. (1998): Female genital mutilation, Socio-cultural factors that influence the practice in Kassena-Nankana District, Ghana, in: African Reproductive Health, vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 25-36. [3134]

Aseweh, Abor, Patience (2006): Female genital mutilation: Psychological and reproductive health consequences, The case of Kayoro traditional area in Ghana. In: Gender and Behaviour, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 659-684. [3135]

Hodzic, Saida (2010): The logics of controversy, Gender violence as a site of frictions in Ghanaian advocacy, in: Burrill, Emily / Roberts, Richard / Thornberry, Elizabeth (eds.): Domestic violence and the law in colonial and post-colonial Africa, Ohio University Press, Athens, pp. 220-238. [3136]

Jackson, Elizabeth / Akweongo, Patricia / Sakeah, Evelyn et al. (2003): Inconsistent reporting of female genital cutting status in Northern Ghana, Explanatory factors and analytical consequences, in: Studies in Family Planning, vol. 34, no. 3, pp. 200-210. [3137]

Mbacké, Cheikh / Andongo, Philip / Akweongo, Patricia / Binka, Fred (1998): Prevalence and correlates of female genital mutilation in the Kassena-Nankana District of Northern Ghana. In: African Journal of Reproductive Health, vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 13-24. [3138]

Sakeah, Evelyn et al. (2007): Factors associated with males' intention to circumcise their daughters in northern Ghana, in: Journal of Social Development in Africa, vol. 22, no. 1, pp. 71-88. [3139]


Guinea

Kamara, Hedrington connie (1998): Guinea means women, Guinea’s national efforts in the fight against female genital mutilation, RAINBO Publications, New York. [3140]

Keita, D. / Blankhart, D (2001): Community-based survey on female genital excision in Faranah District, Guinea, in: Reproductive Health Matters, vol.18, pp. 135-142. [3141]


Guinea Bisseau

Johnson, Michelle (2000): Becoming a Muslim, Becoming a person, Female “circumcision”, religious identity, and personhood in Guinea-Bissau, in: Shell-Duncan, Bettina / Hernlund, Ylva (eds.): Female circumcision in Africa, Culture, controversy, and change, Lynne Rienner, Boulder, pp. 215-234. [3142]

Pleikis, Anja (1994): „Ohne Kind bist Du keine Frau“, Frausein, Ritual und Autonomie bei den Jola-Frauen in Guinea-Bisseau, Sozialanthropologische Arbeitspapiere, Nr. 59, Institut für Ethnologie, Schwerpunkt Sozialanthropologie, FU-Berlin, Berlin. [3143]


Ivory Coast

Deluz, Ariane (1987): Social and symbolic values of feminine KNE initiation among the Guro of the Ivory Coast, in: Parkin, David / Nyamwaya, David (eds.): Transformations of African Marriage, Manchester, pp. 113-135. [3144]

Larsen, Ulla / Yan, Sharon (2000): Does female circumcision affect infertility and fertility? A study of the Central African Republic, Cote d’Ivoire, and Tanzania, in: Demography, vol. 37, 3, pp. 313-321. [3145]


Kenya

Ahlberg, Beth et al. (1991): Women, sexuality and the changing social order: The impact of government policies on reproductive behaviour in Kenya, Gordon and Beach, Philadelphia. [3146]

Ahlberg, Beth et al. (2000): Gender masked or self-inflicted pain, Female circumcision, eradication and persistance in Central Kenya, in: African Sociological Review, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 35-54. [3147]

Barreto, Ulla / Feuerbach, Melanie (2003): Bildung statt Beschneidung, Aufklärung in Kenia, in: Terre des Femmes (Hg.): Schnitt in die Seele, Mabuse Verlag, Frankfurt a.M., pp. 142-150. [3148]

Gwako, Edwin Laban Moogi (1995): Continuity and change in the practice of clitoridectomy in Kenya, A case of the Abagusii, in: Journal of Modern African Studies, vol. 33, no. 2, pp. 330-337. [3151]

Hetherington, Penelope (1998): The politics of female circumcision in the Province of Colonial Kenya, 1920-1930, in: Journal of Imperial and Commonwealth History, vol. 26, no. 1, pp. 93-126. [3150]

Hobley, C.W. (1910): Kikuyu customs and beliefs, Thahu and its connections with circumcision rites, in: Journal of the Anthropological Institute, vol. 40, pp. 428-452. [3149]

Kabeberi-Macharia, Janet (1997): Female genital mutilation and the girl-child in Kenya, in: Female genital mutilation and the rights of the girl-child in Kenya, Ncube, Welshman (ed.): Law, culture, tradition and children’s rights in Eastern and Southern Africa, Ashgate Publishers, Darmouth, pp. 249-259. [3153]

Leaky, L.S.B. (1931): The Kikuyu problem of the initiation of girls, in: Journal of the Royal Tropical Institute, vol. 61, pp. 277-285. [3152]

Murray, Kabeberi Joycelyn (1977): The church missionary society and the „female circumcision issue“ in Kenya, in: Journal of Religion in Africa, vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 92-104. [3154]

Natsonlas, Theodore (1998): The politization of the ban of female circumcision and the rise of the independent school movement in Kenya, the KCA, the missions and the government, 1929-1932, in: Journal of Asian and African Studies, vol. 33, no. 2, pp. 137-158. [3155]

Prazak, Miroslava (2007): Introducing alternative rites of passage, in: Africa Today,vol. 53, no. 4. [3156]

Robertson, Claire (1996): Grassroots in Kenya: Women, genital mutilation and collective action, 1920-1990, in: Signs, Journal of Culture and Society, vol. 21, no. 3, pp. 615-642. [3157]

Shell-Duncan, Bettina / Ob ungu Obiero, Walter / Muruli, Leunita Auko (2000): Women without choices, The debate over medicalization of female genital cutting and its impact on a Northern Kenyan community, in: Shell-Duncan, Bettina / Hernlund, Ylva (eds.): Female circumcision in Africa, Culture, controversy, and change, Lynne Rienner, Boulder, pp. 109-128. [3158]

Thomas, Lynn (1997): Ngaitana (I will circumcise myself): The gender and generational politics of the1957 ban on clitoridectomy in Meru, Kenya, in: Hunt, Nancy Rose / Lui, Tessie / Quataert, Jean (Hg.): Gendered colonialisms in African history, pp. 16-41. (and published in: Gender and History, 8, 1996, pp. 338-363). [3159]

Thomas, Lynn (1998): Imperial concerns and „women’s affairs“: State efforts to regulate clitoridectomy and eradicate abortion in Meru, Kenya, c.1910-1950, in: Journal of African History, vol. 39, pp. 121-145. [3160]

Thomas, Lynn (2003): Politics of the womb - Women, reproduction and the state in Kenya, University of California Press, Berkeley. [3161]

Wangila, Nyangweso (2007): Female circumcision, The interplay of religion, culture and gender in Kenya, Orbis Books, New York. [3162]


Lesotho

no entries to this combination of country and topic


Liberia

Dennis, Yede / Dennis, Emmet (2002): The Liberian perspective on the issue of female circumcision in the context of global practices: Tradition versus laws, Policies and human rights, in: Liberian Studies Journal, vol. 26, no. 2, pp. 19-32. [3163]


Madagascar

no entries to this combination of country and topic


Malawi

no entries to this combination of country and topic


Mali

Gosselin, Claudie (2000): Feminism, anthropology, and the politics of excision in Mali, Global and local debates in a postcolonial world, in: Anthropologia, vol. 42, no. 1, pp. 43-60. [3164]

Gosselin, Claudie (2000): Handing over the knife, Numu women and the campaign against excision in Mali, in: Shell-Duncan, Bettina / Hernlund, Ylva (eds.): Female circumcision in Africa, Culture, controversy, and change, Lynne Rienner, Boulder, pp. 193-214. [3165]

Jones, Heidi / Diop, Nafissatou / Askew, Ian (1999): Female genital cutting practices in Burkina Faso and Mali and their negative health outcomes, in: Studies in Family Planning, vol. 30, no. 3, pp. 219-239. [3166]


Mauritius

no entries to this combination of country and topic


Mozambique

no entries to this combination of country and topic


Namibia

no entries to this combination of country and topic


Niger

no entries to this combination of country and topic


Nigeria

Babatunde, Emmanuel (1998): Women’s rights versus women’s rites, A study of circumcision among the Ketu Yoruba of South Western Nigeria, Africa World Press, Trenton. [3167]

Caldwell, John / Caldwell, Pat / Orubuloye, I.O. (1997): Male and female circumcision in Africa from a regional to a specific Nigerian examination, In: Social Science and Medicine, vol. 44, no. 8, pp. 1181-1193. [3168]

Caldwell, John / Caldwell, Pat / Orubuloye, I.O. (2000): Female ‘circumcision’ among the Yoruba of Southwestern Nigeria, The beginning of change, in: Shell-Duncan, Bettina / Herlund, Ylva (eds.): Female ‘circumcision’ in Africa, Culture, controversy and change, Westwiew Press, Boulder, pp. 73-94. [3169]

Caldwell, John / Caldwell, Pat / Orubuloye, I.O. (2000): Female genital mutilation, Conditions of decline, in: Population Research, vol. 19, no. 3, pp. 233-254. [3170]

Diejomaoh, F.M:E. / Fall, M.K.B. (1981): Adhesion of the labia minora complicating circumcision in the neonatal period in a Nigerian community, in: Tropical and Geographical Medicine, vol. 33, pp. 135-138. [3171]

Mandara, Mairo Usman (2000): Female genital cutting in Nigeria, Views of Nigerian doctors on the medicalization debate, in: Shell-Duncan, Bettina / Hernlund, Ylva (eds.): Female circumcision in Africa, Culture, controversy, and change, Lynne Rienner, Boulder, pp. 95-108. [3172]

Megafu, Uche (1983): Female ritual circumcision in Africa, An investigation of the presumed benefits among Ibos of Nigeria, in: East African Medical Journal, vol. 60, no. 11, pp. 793-800. [3173]

Olamijulo, Samuel / Joiner, Kabba / Oyedeji, Gabriel (1983): Female child circumcision in Ilesha, Nigeria, in: Clinical Pediatrics, 22, 3, pp. 580-581. [3174]

Omoigu, M. (2001): Protest against outlawing FGM in Nigeria, in: Jenda, Journal of Culture and African Women’s Studies, vol. 1, no. 1. [3175]

Omorodin, Isi Francisca / Myers, Robert (1989): Reasons for female circumcision among some ethnic groups in Bendel State, Nigeria, in: African Studies Monography, vol. 9, no. 4, pp. 197-207. [3176]

Omoyibo, Kingsley (2002): Adolescent females' reproductive health in Nigeria: A study on the legislation and socio-cultural impediments to abortion and against female circumcision, Peter Lang Publishers, Frankfurt am Main. [3177]

Onadeko, Modupe / Adekunle, Lola (1985): Female circumcision in Nigeria, A fact of a farce? in: Journal of Tropical Pediatrics, vol. 31, no. 4, pp. 180-184. [3178]

Orubuloye, I.O. / Caldwell, Patt / Caldwell, John (2000): Female “circumcision” among the Yoruba of Southwestern Nigeria, The beginning of chanbe, in: Shell-Duncan, Bettina / Hernlund, Ylva (eds.): Female circumcision in Africa, Culture, controversy, and change, Lynne Rienner, Boulder, pp. 73-94. [3179]

Slanger, Tracy et al. (2002): The impact of female genital cutting on first delivery in Southwestern Nigeria, in: Studies in Family Planning, vol. 33, no. 2, pp. 173-184. [3180]


Rwanda

no entries to this combination of country and topic


Senegal

Dellenborg, Liselott (2004): A reflection on the cultural meanings of female circumcision, Experiences from fieldwork in Casamance, Southern Senegal, in: Arnfred, Signe (ed.): Re-Thinking Sexualities in Africa, Publications of the Nordic Africa Institute, Uppsala, pp. 79-86. [3201]

Herlund, Ylva / Shell-Duncan, Bettina (2007): Contingency, context, and change, Negotiating female gential cutting in the Gambia and Senegal, in: Africa Today, vol. 53, no. 4. [3202]

TOSTAN (ed.) (1999): Breakthrough in Senegal, Ending female genital cutting, Dakar. [3203]


Sierra Leone

Ahmadu, Fuambai (2000): Rites and wrongs, An insider/outsider reflects on power and excision, in: Shell-Duncan, Bettina / Hernlund, Ylva (eds.): Female circumcision in Africa, Culture, controversy, and change, Lynne Rienner, Boulder, pp. 283-312. [3181]

Bledsoe, Caroline (1984): The political use of Sande ideology an symbolism, in: American Ethnologist, vol. 11, pp. 455-472. [3182]

Bledsoe, Caroline (1990): The politics of children: Fosterage and the social management of fertility among the Mende in Sierra Leone, in: Handwerker, P. (ed.): Birth and power - social change and the politics of reproduction, Westview Press, Boulder, pp. 81-100. [3183]

Boone, Sylvia Ardyn (1986): Radiance from the waters, Ideals of feminine beauty in Mende art, Yale University Press, New Haven. [3184]

D’Azvedo, W.L. (1980): Gola Poro and Sande, Primal task in social custodianship, in: Ethnologische Zeitschrift Zürich, 1, pp. 13-24. [3185]

Gage, A.J. / Bledsoe, C. (1994): The effects of education and social stratification on marriage and the transition to parenthood in Freetown, Sierra Leone, in: Bledsoe, Caroline / Pison, G. (eds.): Nuptiality in Sub-Saharan Africa, Contemporary anthropological and demographic perspectives, Claredon Press, Oxford. [3186]

Hoffer, Carol (1975): Bundu, Political implications of female solidarity in a secret society, in: Raphael, D. (ed.): Being female, Reproduction, power and change, Mouton, The Hague, pp. 155-173. [3187]

Jambai, A, Mac Cormack, C. (1996): Maternal health, war and religious tradition: Autorative knowledge in Pujehun district, Sierra Leone, in: Medical Anthropology Quarterly, 10, 2, pp. 270-286. [3188]

Ketkar, S.L. (1978): Female education and fertility, Some evidence from Sierra Leone, in: Journal of Developing Areas, vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 23-33. [3189]

Koso-Thomas, O. (1987): The circumcision of women, A strategy for eradiction, Zed Books, London. [3190]

Leopold, R. S. (1983): The shaping of men and the making of metaphors, The meaning of white clay in Poro and Sande initiation society rituals, in: Anthropology, vol 7, no. 2, pp. 21-42. [3191]

MacCormack, Carol (1979): Sande, The public face of a secret society, in. Jules-Rosette, B. (ed.): New religions of Africa, Ablex Publishers, Norwood, pp. 27-37. [3192]

MacCormack, Carol (1980): Proto social to adult, A Sherbro transformation, in: MacCormack, Carol / Strathern, Marilyn (eds.): Nature, culture and gender, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 1-24. [3193]

MacCormack, Carol (1997): Health, fertility and birth in Moyamba District, Sierra Leone, in: Harcort, Wendy (ed.) Power, reproduction and gender: Intergenerational transfer of knowledge, Zed Books, London, pp. 75-114. (and in: MacCormack, Carol (ed.): Ethnography of fertility and birth, Academic Press, London, 1982, pp. 115-139.). [3194]

Phillips, Ruth (1978): Masking in Mende society initiation ritual, in: Africa, vol. 48, no. 3, pp. 265-277. [3195]

Phillips, Ruth (1980): The iconography of the Mende Sowei mask, in: Ethnologische Zeitschrift Zürich, 1, pp. 113-132. [3196]

Richards, J.V.O. (1974): The Sande, A socio-cultural organisation in the Mende community in Sierra Leone, in: Baessler Archiv, vol. 22, no. 2, pp. 265-281. [3197]

Schäfer, Rita (1990): Die Sande-Frauengeheimgesellschaft der Mende in Sierra Leone. Ihre Organisation und Masken im zeitlichen, intra- und interethnischen Vergleich, Mundus Reihe Ethnologie, Bd. 36, Holos Verlag, Bonn. [3198]

Schäfer, Rita (1995): Frauenorganisationen und Entwicklungszusammenarbeit - Traditionelle und moderne afrikanische Frauenzusammenschlüsse im interethnischen Vergleich, Centaurus Verlag, Pfaffenweiler. [3199]

World Health Organisation (WHO) (2005): Fighting genital mutilation in Sierra Leone, in: Bulletin of the World Health Organisation, vol. 83, no. 11, pp. 806-807. [3200]


Somalia

Arbesman, M. / Kahler, L. / Buck, G.M. (1993): Assessment of the impact o female circumcision on the gynaecological, genitouriaray and obstetrical health problems of women from Somalia, Literature review and case studies, in: Women and Health, vol. 20, pp. 27-42. [3204]

Beck-Karrer, Charlotte (1996): Löwinnen sind sie, Gespräche mit somalischen Frauen und Männern über Frauenbeschneidung, Efef-Verlag, Bern. [3205]

Grassivaro, Gallo Pia / Abdisamed, Marian (1985): Female circumcision in Somalia, Anthropological traits, in: Anthropologischer Anzeiger, vol. 43, 4, pp. 311-326. [3206]

Grassivaro, Gallo Pia / Viviani, Franco (1988): Female circumcision in Somalia, in: Mankind Quarterly, vol. 29, 1-2, pp. 165-180. [3207]

Grassivaro, Gallo Pia / Viviani, Franco (1992): The origins of infibulation in Somalia, an ethnological hypothesis, in: Ethnology and Sociobiology, 13, pp. 253-265. [3208]

Hicks, Ester (1993): Infibulation, Female mutilation in Islamic Northeastern Africa, Transaction Publishers, New Brunswick. [3209]

Johansen, R. / Elise, B. (2002): Pain as a counterpoint to culture, Towards an analysis of pain associated with infibulation among Somali immigrants in Norway, in: Medical Anthropology Quarterly, vol. 16, no. 3, pp. 312-340. [3210]

Kassamali, Noor J. (1998): When modernity confronts traditional practices: Female genital cutting in Northeast Africa, in: Bodman, Herbert / Tohidi, Nayereh (eds.): Women in Muslim societies: Diversity within unity, Lynne Rienner, Boulder, pp. 39-61. [3211]

Kwaak, Anke van der (1992): Female circumcision and gender identity: A questionable alliance? in: Social Science and Medicine, vol. 35, no. 6, pp. 777-787. [3212]

Merryman, N.H. (1996): Women’s welfare in the Jubba Valley, Somali socialism and after, in: Besteman, C. / Casanelli, L.V. (ed.): The struggle for land in southern Somalia: The war behind the war, Westview Press, Boulder, pp. 179-198. [3213]

Talle, Aud (1993): Transforming women into ‘pure’ agnates: Aspects of female infibulation in Somalia, in: Broch-Due, Vigidis / Rudie, Ingrid / Bleie, Tone (eds.): Carved flesh, caste selves, Gendered symbols and social practices, Berg Publishers, Oxford, pp. 83-106. [3214]

Van der Kwaak, Anke (1992): Female circumcision and gender identity, A questionable allicane, in: Social Science and Medicine, 25, 6, pp. 777-787. [3215]


South Africa

no entries to this combination of country and topic


South Sudan

no entries to this combination of country and topic


Sudan

Abdel Halim, Mohamed Asma (1995): Rituals and angels, Female circumcision and the case of Sudan, in: Schuler, Margaret (ed.): From basic needs to basic rights, Women’s claims to human rights, Publications of the Institute for Women, Law and Development, Washington, D.C., pp. 249-266. [3216]

Abu-El-Futah, A. (1967): Circumcision and infibulation of females, A general consideration of the problems and a clinical study of the complications in the Sudanese women, in: Sudan Medical Journal, vol. 5, no. 4, pp. 178-212. [3218]

Abusharaf, Mustafa Rogaia (2000): Revisiting feminist discourses on infibulation, Responses from Sudanese feminists, in: Shell-Duncan, Bettina / Hernlund, Ylva (eds.): Female circumcision in Africa, Culture, controversy, and change, Lynne Rienner, Boulder, pp. 151-166. [3217]

Almroth, Lars (2005): Genital mutilations on girls in Sudan, Community and hospital based studies on female genital cutting, Karolinska University Press, Stockholm. [3219]

Aziz, Farouk Abdel (1994): Education and the professionals, Some aspects of innovations in medical education adopted by Ahfad University for Women, Ahfad Journal, vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 33-42. [3220]

Badri, Amna Elsadik (1984): Female circumcision in the Sudan, in: Ahfad Journal, vol. 1, pp. 11-21. [3222]

Balk, Deborah (2000): To marry and bear children? The demographic consequences of infibulation in Sudan, in: Shell-Duncan, Bettina / Hernlund, Ylva (eds.): Female circumcision in Africa, Culture, controversy, and change, Lynne Rienner, Boulder, pp. 55-72. [3221]

Bell, Heather (1998): Midwifery training and female circumcision in the inter-war Anglo-Egyptian Sudan, in: Journal of African History, vol. 39, pp. 293-312. [3223]

Berggren, V. / Ahmed, Musa / Hemlund, Y. et al. (2007): Being victims or beneficiaries? Perspectives on female genital cutting and refibulation in Sudan, in: African Journal of Reproductive Health, vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 67-75. [3224]

Boody, Janice (1992): Wombs as oasis, The symbolic content of pharaonic circumcision in rural Northern Sudan, in: American Ethnologist, vol. 9, no. 4, pp. 682-689. [3225]

Cloudsley, Anne (1981): Women of Oudurman, Victims of circumcision, Zed Books, London. [3226]

Cloudsley, Anne (1983): Women of Omdurman, Life, love and the cult of virginity, St. Martin’s Press, New York. [3227]

El Darrer, Asma (1982): Woman, why to you weep? Circumcision and its consequences, Zed Books, London. [3228]

El Darrer, Asma (1983): Attitudes of Sudanese people to the practice of female circumcision, in: International Journal of Epidemiology, vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 138-144. [3229]

Gordon, Daniel (1991): Female circumcision and genital operations in Egypt and the Sudan, A dilemma for medical anthropology, in: Medical Anthropology Quarterly, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 3-14. [3230]

Gruenbaum, Ellen (1982): The movement against clitoridectomy and infibulation in Sudan, Public health policy and women’s movement, in: Brettel, Caroline / Sargent, Carolyn (eds.): Gender in cross-cultural perspective, Eaglewood Cliffs, pp. 411-423. (u. in: Medical Anthropology Newsletter 13, 2, 1982, pp. 4-12.) [3231]

Gruenbaum, Ellen (1988): Reproductive ritual and social reproduction, Female circumcision and the subordination of women in Sudan, in: O’Neill, Norman / I’Brian, J. (eds.): Economy and class in Sudan, London, Gower Publishers, pp. 308-325. [3232]

Gruenbaum, Ellen (1990): Nuer women in southern Sudan: Health, reproduction, and work, Michigan State University (WID working paper, 215) East Lansing. [3233]

Gruenbaum, Ellen (1991): The Islamic movement, development and health education: Recent changes in the health of rural women in central Sudan, in: Social Science and Medicine, vol. 33, no. 6, pp. 637-645. [3234]

Gruenbaum, Ellen (1993): The movement against clitoridectomy and infibulation in Sudan: Public health policy and the women's movement, in: Brettel, Caroline / Sargent, Carolyn F. (eds.): Gender in cross-cultural perspective, Prentice Hall Publishers, Eaglewood Cliffs, pp. 411-423. [3235]

Gruenbaum, Ellen (1996): The cultural debate over female circumcision: The Sudanese are arguing this one out for themselves, in: Medical Anthropology Quarterly, vol. 10, no. 4, pp. 455-475. [3236]

Gruenbaum, Ellen (2000): Is female circumcision a maladaptive cultural pattern? in: Shell-Duncan, Bettina / Hernlund, Ylva (eds.): Female circumcision in Africa, Culture, controversy, and change, Lynne Rienner, Boulder, pp. 41-54. [3237]

Hall, Marjorie / Ismail, Bakhita Amin (1981): Sisters under the sun, The story of Sudanes women, Longman, London. [3238]

Hayes, R.O. (1975): Female genital mutilation, fertility control, women’s role and participation in the patrilineage in modern Sudan, A functional analysis, American Ethnologist, vol. 4, pp. 617-633. [3239]

Hicks, Ester (1993): Infibulation, Female mutilation in Islamic Northeastern Africa, Transaction Publishers, New Brunswick. [3240]

Huber, Yvonne (1992): Weibliche Beschneidung im Sudan, Institut für Ethnologie, Bern. [3241]

Jahn, Al Azahia Samia (1980): Zur Frage des Fortlebens der Beschneidung der Frauen, mit besonderer Berücksichtigung der Verhältnisse im Sudan, in: Curare, 3, pp. 23-30. [3242]

Khalifa, Nadia Kamal (1994): Reasons behind practicing re-circumcision among educated Sudanese women, in: Ahfad Journal, vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 16-32. [3243]

Lightfoot-Klein, Hanny (1989): Rites of purification and their effects, Some psychological aspects of female genital circumcision and infibulation (pharaonic circumcision) in an Africo-Arabic Islamic society (Sudan), in: Journal of Psychology and Human Sexuality, vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 79-91. [3244]

Lightfoot-Klein, Hanny (1989): The sexual experience and marital adjustment of genitally circumcised and infibulated females in Sudan, in: The Journal of Sex Research, vol. 26, no. 3, pp. 375-393. [3245]

Lightfoot-Klein, Hanny (1989): Über die radikale Beschneidung von Frauen im Sudan, in: Zeitschrift für Sexualforschung, 2, 2, pp. 147-159. [3246]

Lightfoot-Klein, Hanny / Shaw, Evelyn (1991): Special needs of ritually circumcised women patients, in: Journal of Obstetics, Gynecologic and Neonatal Nursing, vol. 20, no. 2, pp. 102-107. [3247]

Lowenstein, L.F. (1978): Attitudes and attitude differences to female genital mutilation in the Sudan, Is there a change in horizon? in: Social Science and Medicine, vol. 12, pp. 417-421. [3248]

Magid, Ahmed Abdel (1998): Some FGM terminology between negative and positive impacts, with special reference to Sudan, in: Ahfad Journal, vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 4-13. [3249]

Magid, Ahmed Abdel / Badri, Amna (1999): The attitudes of a sector of male health providers towards female circumcision (FC) in the Sudan, in: Ahfad Journal, vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 3-13. [3250]

Oldfield Hayes, Rose (1975): Female genital mutilation, fertility control, women’s roles, and the patrilineage in modern Sudan: A functional analysis, in: American Ethnologist, vol. 2, no. 3, pp. 617-633. [3252]

Olenick, I. (1998): Female circumcision is nearly universal in Egypt, Eritrea, Mali and Sudan, in: International Family Planning Perspectives, vol. 24, pp. 47-49. [3251]

Parker, Melissa (1995): Rethinking female circumcision, in: Africa, vol. 65, no. 4, pp. 507-523. [3253]

Toubia, Nahid (1985): The social and political implications of female circumcision, The case of Sudan, in: Ferney, E. (ed.): Women and the family in the Middle East, University of Texas Press, Austin, pp. 148-159. [3254]


Swaziland / Eswatini

no entries to this combination of country and topic


Tanzania

Caplan, A. (1976): Boys' circumcision and girls' puberty rites among the Swahili of Mafia Island, Tanzania, in: Africa, vol. 46, pp. 21-33. [3255]

Choumaini, Christa / Klingels-Haji Haji, Natalie (2003): Genitalverstümmelung zerstört das Selbstbewusstsein von Frauen, in: Terre des Femmes (Hg.): Schnitt in die Seele, Mabuse Verlag, Frankfurt a.M., pp. 151-158. [3256]

Chugulu, Juliet / Dixey, Rachel (1999): Female genital mutilation in Moshi rural district, Tanzania, in: International Quarterly of Community Health, vol. 19, no. 2, pp. 103-118. [3257]

Grohs, Elisabeth (1980): Kisazi, Reiferiten der Mädchen bei den Zigua und Ngulu Ost-Tanzanias, Berlin. [3258]

Larsen, Ulla / Yan, Sharon (2000): Does female circumcision affect infertility and fertility? A study of the Central African Republic, Cote d’Ivoire, and Tanzania, in: Demography, vol. 37, 3, pp. 313-321. [3259]

Mitzlaff, Ulrike von (1988): Maasai-Frauen, Leben in einer patriarchalen Gesellschaft, Feldforschungen bei den Parakuyo, Tanzania, Trickster Verlag, München. [3260]

Wada, S. (1984): Female initiation rites of the Iraqw and the Gorowa (Tanzania), in: Senri Ethnological Studies, vol. 15, pp. 187-191. [3261]

Wada, S. (1992): Changes in the practice of circumcision among the Iraqw of Tanzania, in: Senri Ethnological Studies, vol. 31, pp. 159-172. [3262]


The Congo

no entries to this combination of country and topic


Togo

Mullen Kreamer, Christine (1995): Transformation of power in Moba (Northern Togo) initiation rites, in: Africa, 65, 1, pp. 58-78. [3263]


Uganda

no entries to this combination of country and topic


Zambia

no entries to this combination of country and topic


Zimbabwe

no entries to this combination of country and topic

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