Literature Database on Gender in Subsahara Africa

Literature on Religion - traditional rituals and spirit mediumship

Africa OverviewAngolaBenin
BotswanaBurkina FasoBurundi
CameroonCentral African RepublicChad
D.R. Congo / ZaireDjiboutiEquatorial Guinea
EritreaEthiopiaGabon
GambiaGhanaGuinea
Guinea BisseauIvory CoastKenya
LesothoLiberiaMadagascar
MalawiMaliMauritius
MozambiqueNamibiaNiger
NigeriaRwandaSenegal
Sierra LeoneSomaliaSouth Africa
South SudanSudanSwaziland / Eswatini
TanzaniaThe CongoTogo
UgandaZambiaZimbabwe

Africa Overview

Arens, W. / Karp, Ivan (eds.) (1989): The creativity of power, Cosmology and action in African societies, Smithonian Institution Press, Washington. [10200]

Berger, Iris (1976): Rebels or status seekers: Women as spirit mediums in East Africa, in: Hafkin, Nancy / Bay, Edna (eds.): Women in Africa, Studies in Social and economic change, New York. [10201]

Berger, Iris (1995): Fertility as power: Spirit mediums, priestesses and the pre-colonial state in Interlacustrine East Africa, in: Anderson, D.M. / Johnson, D.H. (ed.): Revealing prophets, Prophecy in Eastern African History, London, pp. 65-82. [10202]

Boddy, Janice (1994): Spirit posession revisited, Beyond instrumentality, in: Annual Review of Anthropology, 23, pp. 407-434. [10203]

Burton, John (1991): Representations of the feminine in Nilotic cosmologies, in: Jacobson-widding, Anita (ed.): Body and space, Almquist and Wiksell, Uppsala, pp. 81-98. [10204]

Castleman, Virginia (1996): Mommi water, Spirit of the river, Flatland Tales Publishing, Ottawa. [10205]

Diduk, Susan (2001): Women and religious movements in Sub-Saharan Africa, in: Glazier, S. (ed.): Encyclopedia of African and African American religions, Routledge, London, pp. 375-381. [10206]

Herbert, Eugenia (1993): Iron, gender and power, Rituals of transformation in African societies, Indiana University Press, Bloomington. [10207]

Hoch-Smith, Judith / Spring, Anita (eds.) (1978): Women in ritual and symbolic roles, Plenum Press, New York. [10208]

Hopkins, Elizabeth (1970): The Nyabingi cults, in: Mazrui, Ali / Rotberg, Robert (eds.): Protest and power in black Africa, New York. [10209]

Jules-Rosette, Bennetta (ed.) (1979): New religion of Africa, Ablex Publishing, Norwood. [10210]

Kaplan, Flora (ed.) (1997): Queens, queen mothers, priestress, and power, Case studies in African gender, Academy of Sciences, New York. [10211]

Keller, Mary (2002): The hammer and the flute, Women, power and spirit possession, John Hopkins University Press, Baltimore. [10212]

Kilson, Marion (1976): Women in African traditional religions, in: Journal of Religion in Africa, vol. 8, 2, pp. 133-143. [10213]

MacClain, C. (ed.) (1989): Women as healers, cross-cultural perspectives, Rutgers University Press, New Jersey. [10214]

Moore, Henrietta (1999): Those who play with fire, gender, fertility and transformation in East and Southern Africa, Athlone Press, New York. [10216]

Wilson, Peter (1967): Status ambiguity and spirit possession, in: Man, 2, pp. 366-378. [10215]


Angola

no entries to this combination of country and topic


Benin

Sargent, Carolyn (1988): Born to die, Witchcraft and infanticide in Bariba culture, in: Ethnology, vol. 27, no. 1, pp. 79-85. [10217]

Sargent, Carolyn (1989): Women's roles and women healers in contemporary rural and urban Benin, In: McClain, Carol S. (ed.): Women as healers: Cross-cultural perspectives, Rutgers University Press, New Brunswick, pp. 204-218. [10218]

Sargent, Carolyn (1989): Maternity, medicine and power, Reproductive decisions in urban Benin, University of California Press, Berkeley. [10219]

Sargent, Carolyn (1990): The politics of birth: Cultural dimensions of pain virtue and control among the Bariba of Benin, In: Handwerker, W. Penn (ed.): Births and power: Social change and the politics of reproduction, Westview Press, Boulder, pp. 69-79. [10220]


Botswana

no entries to this combination of country and topic


Burkina Faso

no entries to this combination of country and topic


Burundi

no entries to this combination of country and topic


Cameroon

Diduk, Susan (2000): A woman's pillow and the political economy of Kedjom family life in Cameroon, in: Houseknecht, Sharon K. / Pankhurst, Jerry G. (eds.): Family, religion, and social change in diverse societies, Oxford University Press, Oxford. [10221]

Lyons, Diane E. (1998): Witchcraft, gender, power and intimate relations in Mura compounds in Dela, Northern Cameroon, in: World Archaeology, vol. 29, pp. 344-362. [10222]

Pradelles de Latour, Charles-Henry (1995): Witchcraft and the avoidance of physical violence in Cameroon, in: Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute, vol. pp. 599-610. [10223]


Central African Republic

no entries to this combination of country and topic


Chad

no entries to this combination of country and topic


D.R. Congo / Zaire

Braun, Lesley Nicole (2021): Tales from the Congo River, Catching Mami Wata, in: Shima Journal, pp. 1–16. [11658]


Djibouti

no entries to this combination of country and topic


Equatorial Guinea

no entries to this combination of country and topic


Eritrea

no entries to this combination of country and topic


Ethiopia

Natvig, R. (1987): Oromos, slaves, and the zar spirits, A contribution to the history of the zar cult, in: International Journal of African Historical Studies, vol. 20, no. 4, pp. 669-689. [10224]


Gabon

no entries to this combination of country and topic


Gambia

no entries to this combination of country and topic


Ghana

Aborampah, Asei-Mensah (1999): Women’s role in mourning rituals of the Akan in Ghana, in: Ethnology, vol. 38, no. 3, pp. 257-271. [10225]

Adinkrah, Mensah (2004): Witchcraft accusations and female homicide victimization in contemporary Ghana, in: Violence against Women, vol. 10, pp. 325-356. [10226]

Adongo, Philip B. / Phillips, James F. et al. (1998): The influence of traditional religion on fertility regulation among the Kassena-Nankana of Northern Ghana, in: Studies in Family Planning, vol. 29, pp. 23-40. [10227]

Akyeampong, Emmanuel / Obeng, Pashington (1995): Spirituality, gender and power in Asante history, Working Paper no. 198, African Studies Centre, Boston University, Boston. [10228]

Amoah, Elizabeth (1987): Women, witches and social change in Ghana, in: Eck, Diana / Jain, Devaki (eds.): Speaking of faith, Global perspectives on women, religion and social change, Kali for Women, New Dehli, Philadelphia, pp. 84-94. [10229]

Anane, M. (1999): Religion, men and HIV/AIDS in Ghana, in: Foreman, M. (ed.): AIDS and men, Zed Books, London. [10230]

Bahl, R. / Bhandari, N. et al. (1999): Women's fears and men's anxieties, The impact of family planning on gender relations in Northern Ghana, in: Studies in Family Planning, vol. 30, pp. 54-66. [10231]

Boateng, Abayie (2001): The Trokosi system in Ghana, Discrimination against women and children, in: Rwomire, Apollo (ed.): African women and children, Crisis and response, Praeger Publishers, Westport, pp. 91-103. [10232]

Drucker-Brown, Susan (1993): Mamaprusi witchcraft, subversion and changing gender relations, in: Africa, vol. 63, no. 4, pp. 531-549. [10233]

Kilson, Marion (1971): Ambivalence and power, Mediums in traditional religion, in: Journal of African Religion, vol. 4, pp. 171-177. [10234]

Kilson, Marion (1979): Ritual portrait of a Ga medium, in: Jules-Rosette, Benetta (ed.): The new religions of Africa, Noorwood, pp. 67-79. [10235]

Meyer, Birgit (1992): ‘If you are a devil you are a witch and if you are a witch you are a devil’: The integration of `pagan' ideas into the conceptual universe of Ewe christians in Southeastern Ghana, in: Journal of Religion in Africa, vol. 27, no. 2, pp. 98-132. [10236]

Quashingah, E.K. (1998): Religious freedom and vestal virgins: The Trokosi practice in Ghana, in: African Journal of International and Comparative Law, vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 193-215. [10237]


Guinea

no entries to this combination of country and topic


Guinea Bisseau

De Sousa, A.O. (1999): Defunct women: Possession Among the Bijagos Islanders, in: Behrend, Heike / Luig, Ute (eds.): Spirit possession, modernity and power in Africa, James Currey, pp. 81-88. [10238]

Gable, Eric (1996): Women, ancestors, and alternity among the Manjaco of Guinea Bisseau, in: Journal of African Religion, vol. 26, no. 2, pp. 104-121. [10239]

Kurz, Antje (1996): Die Jangue-Jangue in Guinea Bissau - eine moderne Anti-Hexerei Bewegung? - Machtkonflikte im Kontext von Alter, Geschlecht und Reproduktion, IKO-Verlag, Frankfurt a.M. [10240]

Peleikis, Anja (1994): „Ohne Kind bist Du keine Frau“, Frausein, Ritual und Autonomie bei den Jola-Frauen in Guinea-Bisseau, Sozialanthropologische Arbeitspapiere, Nr. 59, Institut für Ethnologie, Schwerpunkt Sozialanthropologie, FU-Berlin, Berlin. [10241]


Ivory Coast

Peleikis, Anja (1994): „Ohne Kind bist Du keine Frau“, Frausein, Ritual und Autonomie bei den Jola-Frauen in Guinea-Bisseau, Sozialanthropologische Arbeitspapiere, Nr. 59, Institut für Ethnologie, Schwerpunkt Sozialanthropologie, FU-Berlin, Berlin. [10242]


Kenya

Amuyunzu-Nyamongo, Mary (1998): Willing the spirits to reveal themselves: Rural Kenyan mother's responsibility to restore their children's health, in: Medical Anthropology Quarterly, vol. 12, pp. 490-502. [10243]

Behrend, Heike (1987): Die Zeit geht krumme Wege, Raum, Zeit und Ritual bei den Tugen im Nordwesten Kenias, Frankfurt. [10244]

Ciekawy, Diane (1999): Women’s work and the construction of witchcraft accusations in coastal Kenya, in: Women’s Studies International Forum, vol. 22, no. 2, pp. 225-237. [10245]

Dolan, Catherine (1998): Conflict and compliance, Cristianity and the occult in horticultural exporting, in: Sweetman, Caroline (ed.): Gender, religion and spirituality, Oxfam Publications, Oxford, pp. 23-30. [10246]

Dolan, Catherine (2002): Gender and witchcraft in agrarian transition, The case of Kenyan horticulture, in: Development and Change, vol. 33, no. 4, pp. 659-681. [10247]

Giles, I. (1987): Posession cults of the Swahili Coast, a re-examination of theories of marginality, in: Africa, vol. 57, no. 1, pp. 234-258. [10250]

Gomm, Roger (1979): Bargaining from weakness, Spirit possession on the South Kenya coast, in: Tiffany, Sharon (ed.): Women and society, An anthropological reader, Eden Press, Montreal. [10251]

Hodgson, Dorothy (1997): Embodying the contradictions of modernity, Gender and spirit possession among Maasai in Tanzania, in: Grosz-Ngate, Maria / Kokole, Omari (eds.): Cultural encounters: Gender at the intersection of the local and the global in Africa, Routledge Publishers, New York, pp. 111-129. [10248]

Hoehler-Fatton, Cynthia (1996): Women of fire and spirit, History, faith, and gender in Roho religion in Western Kenya, Oxford University Press, New York. [10249]

LeVine, Robert A. (1962): Witchcraft and co-wife proximity in South Western Kenya, in: Ethnology, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 39-45. [10252]


Lesotho

Murray, Colin (1975): Sex, smoking and the shades, A Sotho symbolic idiom, in: Whisson, M.B. / West, M. (eds.): Religion and social change in Southern Africa, David Philip Publishers, Cape Town, pp. 58-77. [10253]

Murray, Colin (1979): The work of men, women and the ancestors: Social reproduction in the periphery of Southern Africa, in: Wallman, Sandra (ed.): Social anthropology of work, Academic Press, London, New York, pp. 337-363. [10254]


Liberia

no entries to this combination of country and topic


Madagascar

no entries to this combination of country and topic


Malawi

Kaspin, Deborah (1999): The lion at the waterhole: The secrets of life and death in Chewa rites de passage, in: Moore, Henrietta L. / Sanders, Todd / Kaare, Bwire (eds.):Those who play with fire: Gender, fertility and transformation in East and Southern Africa, Athlone Press, New Brunswick, pp. 83-99. [10255]


Mali

no entries to this combination of country and topic


Mauritius

no entries to this combination of country and topic


Mozambique

Agadjanian, Victor (2005): Gender, religious involvement, and HIV/AIDS prevention in Mozambique, in: Social Science and Medicine, vol. 61, pp. 1529-1539. [10256]

Macamo, Elísio (2003): Frauen als moralischer Körper der Gesellschaft, Schweizer Mission in Mosambik und die Erfingung der Tsonga, in: Lienemann, C. / Strahm, D. / Walz, H. (eds.): Als hätten sie uns neu erfunden, Beobachtungen zu Fremdheit und Geschlecht, Edition Exodus, Luzern, pp. 153-164. [10257]


Namibia

no entries to this combination of country and topic


Niger

no entries to this combination of country and topic


Nigeria

Abdullah, Hussaina (2002): Religious revivalism, human rights activism and the struggle for women's rights in Nigeria, in: Na'im, Abd A.A. (ed.): Cultural transformation and human rights in Africa, Zed Books, London, pp. 151-191. [10258]

Abiodun, Rowland (1989): Women in Yoruba religious images, in: African Languages and Cultures, vol. 2, pp. 1-18. [10259]

Amadiume, Ifi (1997): Re-inventing Africa, Matriarchy, religion and culture, Zed-Books, London. [10260]

Bastian, Misty (1997): Married in the water, Spirit kin and other afflictions of modernity in Southeastern Nigeria, in: The Journal of Religion in Africa, vol. 27, no. 2, pp. 116-134. [10261]

Beneduce, Roberto / Taliani, Simona (2006): Embodied powers, deconstructed bodies, Spirit possession, sickness, and search for wealth in Nigerian immigrant women, in: Anthropos, vol. 101, no. 2, pp. 429-450. [10262]

Besmer, Fremont (1977): Initiation into the Bori cult: A case study in Ningi town, in: Africa, vol. 47, no. 1, pp. 1-13. [10263]

Chiwuzie, J.C. / Okolocha, C. (2001): Traditional belief systems and maternal mortality in a semi-urban community in Southern Nigeria, in: African Journal of Reproductive Health, vol. 5, pp. 75-82. [10264]

Drewal, Henry (1968): Art and the perception of women in Yoruba culture, in: Cahiers d’Etudes Africaines, vol. 17, no. 4, pp. 545-567. [10265]

Drewal, Henry (1988): Mermaids, mirrors and snake charmers, Igbo Mammi Water shrines, in: African Arts, vol. XXI, no. 2, pp. 38-45. [10266]

Drewal, Henry (1988): Performing the other, Mammy Water worship in West Africa, in: Drama Review, 118, pp. 160-185. [10267]

Drewal, Henry (1989): Dancing for Ogun in Yorubaland and in Brazil, in: Barnes, Sandra T. (ed.): Africa's Ogun: Old world and new, Indiana University Press, Bloomington, pp. 199-234. [10268]

Drewal, Henry John / Drewal, Margaret Thompson (1983): Gelede, Art and female power among the Yoruba, Indiana University Press, Bloomington. [10269]

Driesen, I.H. van den (1972): Some observations on the family unit, religion and the practice of polygyny in the Ife division of Western Nigeria, in: Africa, no. 42, pp. 44-56. [10270]

Frank, Barbara (1995): Permitted and prohibited wealth, Commodity processing spirits, Economic morals, and the goddess Mami Wata in West Africa, in: Ethnology, vol. 34, no. 4, pp. 331-346. [10271]

Frank, Barbara (2004): Gendered ritual dualism in a partilineal society, Opposition and complementary in Kulere fertility cults, in: Africa, vol. 74, no. 2, pp. 217-240. [10272]

Hoch-Smith, Judith (1978): Radical Yoruba female sexuality, The witch and the prostitute, in: Hoch-Smith, Judith /Spring, Anita (eds.): Women in ritual and symbolic roles, New York, pp. 245-267. [10273]

Jell-Bahlsen, Sabine (1997): Eze Mrimi Di Egwu, The water monarch is awesome, Reconsidering Mammy Water myths, in: Kaplan, Flora Edouwaye (ed.): Queens, Queen Mothers, Priestresses, and power, Case studies in African gender, Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, New York, pp. 103-134. [10274]

Jell-Bahlsen, Sabine (1997): Female power, Water pristresses of the Oru Igbo, in: Nnaemeka, Obioma (ed.): Sisterhood, feminism, and power, Africa World Press, Trenton. [10275]

Kalu, Ogbu (1991): Gender ideology in Igbo religion: The changing religious role of women in Igboland, in: Africa (Rome),vol. 46, no. 2, pp. 184-202. [10276]

Kassam, Aneesa / Bashuna, Ali Balla (2004): Gendered ritual dualism in a patrilineal society, Opposition and complementary in Kulere fertility cults, in: Africa, vol. 74, no. 2, pp. 217-240 [10277]

Lewis, I.M. / Al-Safi, A. / Hurreiz, S. (eds.) (1991): Women’s medicine, The Zar-Bori cult in Africa and beyond, Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh. [10278]

Lincoln, Bruce (1975): The religious significance of women’s scarification among the Tiv, in: Africa, vol. 45, no. 3, pp. 45-61. [10279]

Matory, Lorand (1994): Sex and the empire that is no more, Gender and the politics of metaphor in Oyo Yoruba religion, Minneapolis University Press, Minneapolis. [10280]

Matory, Lorand (1997): The kings male order bride, The modern making of a Yoruba priest, in: Kaplan, Flora Edouwaye (ed.): Queens, Queen Mothers, Priestresses, and power, Case studies in African gender, Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, New York, pp. 381-400. [10281]

Matory, Lorand (2003): Gendered agendas, The secrets scholars keep about Yorùbá Atlantic religion, in: Gender and History, vol. 15, no. 3, pp. 409-439. [10282]

Odugbesan, Clara (1969): Femininity in Yoruba religious art, in: Douglas, Mary / Kaberry, Phyllis (esd.): man in Africa, London, pp. 199-211. [10283]

Olajube, Oyeronke (2003): Women in the Yoruba religious sphere, State University of New York Press, New York. [10285]

Olaoba, O.B. (2002): The female factor in Yoruba traditional festivals, in: Humanities Review Journal, vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 21-31. [10284]

Omari-Obayemi, Mikelle (1996): An indigenous anatomy of power and art, a new look at Yoruba women in society and religion, in: Dialectical Anthropology, vol. 21, pp. 89-98. [10286]

Peel, J.D. (2002): Gender in Yoruba religious change, in: Journal of Religion in Africa, vol. 32, no. 2, pp. 1-31. [10287]


Rwanda

Berger, Iris (1995): Fertility as power: Spirit mediums, priestesses and the precolonial state in Interlacustrine East Africa, in: Anderson, D.M. / Johnson, D.H. (eds.): Revealing prophets, Prophecy in Eastern African History, London, pp. 65-82. [10288]


Senegal

Langeveld, Kirsten (2002): Gender and the ´kankurang´ mask: An analysis of myth and female ritual, in: Mande Studies, no. 4, pp. 83-100. [10289]

Langeveld, Kirsten (2004): Initiation rituals as the stage of interaction between genders, in: Mande Studies, no. 6, pp. 113-137. [10290]

Madge, Clare (2000): Forest spirits and the negotiation of ethnicity and gender among the Jola, in: Cline-Cole, R.A. / Madge, Clare (eds.): Contesting Forestry in West Africa, Ashgate, Aldershot/Burlington, pp. 124-147. [10291]


Sierra Leone

Jambai, A, Mac Cormack, C. (1996): Maternal health, war and religious tradition: Autorative knowledge in Pujehun district, Sierra Leone, in: Medical Anthropology Quarterly, 10, 2, pp. 270-286. [10292]

Leopold, R. S. (1983): The shaping of men and the making of metaphors, The meaning of white clay in Poro and Sande initiation society rituals, in: Anthropology, vol 7, no. 2, pp. 21-42. [10293]

MacCormack, Carol (1979): Sande, The public face of a secret society, in. Jules-Rosette, B. (ed.): New religions of Africa, Ablex Publishers, Norwood, pp. 27-37. [10294]

Richards, J.V.O. (1973): The Sande and some of the forces that inspired its creation or adaptation with some reference to the Poro, in: Journal of Asian and African Studies, no. 1-2. [10295]

Rosen, David (1981): Dangerous women, ‘Ideology, ’knowledge’ and ritual among the Kono of Easterm Sierra Leone, Dialectical Anthropology, vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 151-163. [10296]

Schäfer, Rita (1990): Die Sande-Frauengeheimgesellschaft der Mende in Sierra Leone. Ihre Organisation und Masken im zeitlichen, intra- und interethnischen Vergleich, Mundus Reihe Ethnologie, Bd. 36, Holos Verlag, Bonn. [10298]

Shaw, Rosalind (1985): Gender and the structuring of reality in Temne divination, An interactive study, in: Africa, vol. 55, no. 3, pp. 286-303. [10297]


Somalia

no entries to this combination of country and topic


South Africa

Badstuebner, Jennifer (2003): “Drinking the hot blood of humans”, Witchcraft confessions in a South African Pentecostal Church, in: Anthropology and Humanism, vol. 28, no. 1, pp. 8-22. [10299]

Bähre, Erik (2002): Witchcraft and the exchange of sex, blood and money among Africans in Cape Town, South Africa, in: Journal of African Religion, vol. 32, no. 3, pp. 300-334. [10300]

Niehaus, Isak (2002): Perversion of power, Witchcraft and the sexuality of the evil in the South African lowveld, in: Journal of Religion in Africa, vol. 32, no. 2, pp. 269-299. [10301]


South Sudan

no entries to this combination of country and topic


Sudan

Boehringer-Abdalla, Gabriele (1987): Frauenkultur im Sudan, Frankfurt. [10302]

Boehringer-Abdalla, Gabriele (1991): Besessene Frauen, in: Kramer, Fritz / Streck, Bernhard (Hg.): Sudanesische Marginalien, Trickster Verlag, Berlin, pp. 79-89. [10303]

Constantinides, Pamela (1978): Women's spirit possession and urban adaptation in the Muslim northern Sudan, Caplan, Patricia / Burja, Janet (eds.): Women united, women divided, Cross-cultural perspectives on female solidarity, Tavistock Publications, London, pp. 185-206. [10304]

Groteberg, Edith (1990): Mental health aspects of Zar for women in Sudan, in: Rotheblum, Esther D. / Cole, Ellen (eds.): Women's mental health in Africa, Heinemann Publishers, Harrington Park Press, New York, pp. 15-24. [10305]

Lewis, I.M. / Al-Safi, Ahmed / Hurreiz, Sayyid (eds.) (1991): Women’s medicine, The zar-bori cult in Africa and beyond, Edingburg University Press, Edingburgh. [10306]


Swaziland / Eswatini

Gort, Enid (1997): Swazi traditional healers, role transformation, and gender, in: Mikell, Gwendolon (ed.): African feminism: the politics of survival in Sub-Saharan Africa, Philadelphia, pp. 298-309. [10308]

Green, Edward (1989): Mystical black power, The calling to diviner mediumship in Southern Africa, in: Shepheard, Caroline et al. (eds.): Women as healers, Cross-cultural perspectives, London, pp. 186-200. [10307]


Tanzania

Alpers, Edward (1984): Ordinary household chores, Ritual and power in nineteenth century Swahili women’s spirit possession cult, in: International Journal of African Historical Studies, 17, 4, pp. 677-702. [10309]

Mesaki, Simeon (1995): The preponderance of women as victims in Sukuma witch killings, in: Forster, Peter / Maghimbi, Sam (eds.): The Tanzanian peasantry, Further studies, Avebury, Alderhot, pp. 279-290. [10310]


The Congo

Plancke, Carine (2011): The spirit’s wish, Possession trance and female power among the Punu of Congo-Brazzaville, in: Journal of Religion in Africa, vol. 41, no. 4, pp. 366-395. [10311]


Togo

no entries to this combination of country and topic


Uganda

Curely, Richard (1973): Elders, shades and women, Ceremonial change in Lango, Uganda, University of California Press, Berkeley. [10312]

Doyle, Shane (2003): The Chewi-kubandwa debate: Gender, hegemony and pre-colonial religion in Bunyoro, Western Uganda, in: Africa, vol. 77, no. 4, pp. 559-581. [10313]

Sadgrove, Jo (2007): ‘Keeping up appearances’, Sex and religion amongst University students in Uganda, in: Journal of Religion in Africa, vol. 37, no. 1, pp. 116-144. [10314]


Zambia

Hinfelaar, Hugo (1994): Bemba-speaking women of Zambia in a century of religious change (1892-1992), Brill Publishers, Leiden. [10315]

Jules-Rosette, Benetta (1979): Women as ceremonial leaders in an African church, The Apostoles of John Maranke, in: Jules-Rosette (ed.): The new religions of Africa, Noorwood, pp. 127-144. [10316]

Jules-Rosette, Benetta (1980): Changing aspects of women’s initiation in Southern Africa, An exploratory study, in: Canadian Journal of African Studies, vol. 13, pp. 389-405. [10317]


Zimbabwe

Vijfhuizen, Carin (1997): Rain-making, political conflicts and gender images: A case from Mutema chieftaincy in Zimbabwe, in: Zambezia, 24, i, pp. 31-49. [10318]

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