Literature Database on Gender in Subsahara Africa

Literature on politics - wars violent conflicts

Africa OverviewAngolaBenin
BotswanaBurkina FasoBurundi
CameroonCentral African RepublicChad
D.R. Congo / ZaireDjiboutiEquatorial Guinea
EritreaEthiopiaGabon
GambiaGhanaGuinea
Guinea BisseauIvory CoastKenya
LesothoLiberiaMadagascar
MalawiMaliMauritius
MozambiqueNamibiaNiger
NigeriaRwandaSenegal
Sierra LeoneSomaliaSouth Africa
South SudanSudanSwaziland / Eswatini
TanzaniaThe CongoTogo
UgandaZambiaZimbabwe

Africa Overview

Affi, Ladan / Tonnessen, Liv / Tripp, Aili Mari (2021): Women and peacebuilding in Africa, Boydell and Brewer, Rochester. [11613]

Apeadu, Nana (1993): An ignored population: Female-headed households among refugees in Africa, in: Mencher, Joan P. / Okongwu, Anne (eds.): Where did all the men go? Female-headed/female-supported households in cross-cultural perspective, Westview Press, Boulder, pp. 171-191. [6600]

Baaz, Maria Eriksson / Utas, Mat (eds.) (2012): Beyond ‘gender and stir’, Reflections on gender and SSR in the aftermath of African conflits, Nordic Africa Institute, Uppsala. [6601]

Bennett, Olivia / Bexley, Jo / Warnock, Kitty (eds.) (1995): Arms to fight, arms to protect, women speak out about conflict, Panos, London. [6602]

Bouta, Tsjeard / Frerks, Georg / Hughes, Bib (2005): Gender and peacemaking in the West African context, Netherlands Institute of International Relations, ‘Clingendael’, Conflict Research Unit, The Hague. [6603]

Buckley-Zistel, Susanne / Krause, Ulrike (eds.) (2017): Gender, Violence, Refugees, Berghahn, New York, Oxford. [11566]

Cheldelin, Sandra / Mutisi, Martha (eds.) (2015): Deconstructing women, peace and security, A critical review of approaches to gender and empowerment, HSRC Press, Pretoria. [11604]

Coulter, Chris / Persson, Mariam / Utas, Mats (2008): Young female fighters in African wars, conflict and its consequences, Nordic Africa Institute, Uppsala. [6604]

Das, Veena / Kleinman, Arthur / Lock, Margaret / Ramphele, Mamphela / Reynolds, Pamela (eds.) (2001): Remaking a world, Violence, social suffering, and recovery, University of California Press, Berkeley. [6605]

El-Bushra, Judy (2000): Transforming conflict, Some thoughts on a gendered understanding of conflict processes, in: Jacobs, Susie / Jacobson, Ruth / Marchbank, Jen (eds.): States of conflict, Gender, violence and resistance, Zed Books, London, pp. 66-86. [6606]

El-Bushra, Judy (2003): Fused in combat, Gender relations and armed conflict, in: Development in Practice, vol. 13, no. 2-3, pp. 252-265. [6607]

El-Bushra, Judy / El-Karib, Asha / Hadjipateras, Angela (2002): Gender sensitive programme design and planning in conflict affected situations, Research Report, Acord, London. [6608]

El-Bushra, Judy / Mukarubuga, Cécile (1995): Women, war and transition, in: Gender and Development, vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 16-22. [6609]

El-Bushra, Judy / Sahl, Ibrahim (2005): Cycles of violence, Gender relations and armed conflict, ACORD Publications, London. [6610]

Farr, Vanessa (2000): ‘The pain of violence is a powerful silencer’, African women writing about conflict, in: Canadian Journal of Women`s Studies, vol. 19, pp. 102-107. [6611]

Higate, Paul (2004): Men, masculinities and peacekeeping in Sub-Saharan Africa, in: Karamé, Kari (ed.): Gender and peacebuilding in Africa, Training for Peace Programme, Norsk Utenrikspolitisk Institutt, Oslo, pp. 67-90. [6612]

Higate, Paul / Henry, Marsha (2004): Engendering (in)security in peace support operations, in: Security Dialogue, vol. 35, no. 4, pp. 481-498. [6613]

Hudson, Heidi (2005): Peacekeeping trends and their gender implications for regional peacekeeping forces in Africa, Progress and challenges, in: Mazurana, Dyan E. / Raven-Roberts, Angela / Parpart, Jane L. (eds.): Gender, Conflict and Peacekeeping, Rowman and Littlefield Lanham, pp. 111-133. [6614]

Hudson, Heidi (2017): The power of mixed messages, Women, peace, and security language in National Action Plans from Africa, in: Africa Spectrum, vol. 52, no. 3, pp. 3-29. [6615]

International Crisis Group (2006): Beyond victimhood, Women’s peacebuilding in Sudan, Congo and Uganda, Brussels. [6616]

Jacobs, Susie / Jacobson, Ruth / Marchbank, Jen (eds.) (2000): States in conflict, Gender violence and resistance, Zed Books, London. [6617]

Karamé, Kari (2004): Gender and peacebuilding in Africa, Training for Peace Programme, Norsk Utenrikspolitisk Institutt, Oslo. [6618]

Krause, Ulrike (2020): Violence Against Women in Camps? Exploring Links between Refugee Camp Conditions and the Prevalence of Violence, in: Crepaz, Katharina / Becker, Ulrich / Wacker, Elisabeth (eds.): Health in Diversity – Diversity in Health,(Forced) Migration, Social Diversification, and Health in a Changing World Springer, Wiesbaden, pp. 187-208 [11564]

Kumar, Krishna (ed.) (2001): Women and civil war - Impact, organisations, and action, Lynne Rienner, Boulder. [6619]

MacDonald P. / Ardener, A. (eds.) (1987): Images of women in peace and war: Cross-cultural perspectives, London. [6620]

Maloba, Wunyabari (2007): African women and revolution, Africa World Press, Trenton. [6621]

Meintjes, Sheila / Pillay, Anu / Turshen, Meredeth (eds.) (2001): The aftermath, Women in post-conflict transformation, Zed Books, London [6622]

Moser, Caroline / Clark, Fiona (eds.) (2001): Victims, perpetrators or actors? Gender, armed conflict and political violence, Zed Books, London [6623]

Muthien, Bernedette (2000): Human security paradigms through a gendered lens, in: Agenda, no. 43, pp. 46-56. [6624]

Oloka-Onyango, J. (1996): The plight of the larger half, Human rights, gender violence and the legal status of refugee and internally displaced women in Africa, in: The Denver Journal of International Law and Policy, vol. 24, no. 2-3, pp. 349-394. [6625]

Schäfer, Rita (2008): Frauen und Kriege in Afrika, ein Beitrag zur Gender-Forschung, Brandes und Apsel Verlag, Frankfurt a.M. [11876]

Sideris, Tina (2000): Rape in war and peace, some thoughts on social contexts and gender roles, in: Agenda, no. 43, pp. 41-45. [6626]

Tadesse, Z. (1989): African women`s report, Post-conflict reconstrution in Africa, United Nations Economic Commission for Africa, ECA, Addis Abeba. [6627]

Tamale, Sylvia (1996): Taking the beast by its horns, Formal resistance to women`s oppression in Africa, in: Africa Today, vol. 22, no. 4, pp. 5-21. [6628]

Turshen, Meredeth / Twagiramariya, Clothilde (eds.) (1998): What women do in wartime, Gender and conflict in Africa, Zed Books, London. [6629]

United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) / UNESCO et al. (2001): Best practices in peace buildung and non-violent conflict resolution, Some documented African Women’s Peace Initiatives, UNHCR/UNESCO Publication, Geneva/Paris. [6630]

Urdang, Stephanie (1984): Women in national liberation movements, in: Hay, Margaret / Stichter,Sharon (eds.): African Women South of the Sahara, Longman Publishers, London, pp. 156-169. [6631]

Vickers, Jeanne (1993): Women and war, Zed Books, London. [6632]

Zdunnek, Gabriele (1997): Geschlechterverhältnisse in ethnischen Konflikten und Bürgerkriegen, in: Peripherie, No. 68, pp. 24-39. [6633]


Angola

Agadjanian, Victor / Prata, Ndola (2001): War and reproduction, Angola’s fertility in comparative perspective, in: Journal of Southern African Studies, vol. 27, no. 2, pp. 329-347. [6634]

Agadjanian, Victor / Prata, Ndola (2002): War, peace and fertility in Angola, in: Demography, vol. 39, no. 3, pp. 215-231. [6635]

Anstee, Margaret (1994): Margaret Anstee: ‘Not very optomistic’ on Angola, in: Southern Africa Political and Economic Monthly, vol. 7, pp. 18-22. [6636]

Campbell, Horace (1999): The search for peace in Angola, The crucial role of women, I, in: Africa Quarterly, vol. 29, no. 1, pp. 1-40. [6637]

Campbell, Horace (1999): The search for peace in Angola, The crucial role of women II, in: Africa Quarterly, vol. 29, no. 2, pp. 105-140. [6638]

Crystal, Paul / Ehrlich, Lisa (2004): No product? No programme! The logistics of reproductive health supplies in conflict affected settings, in: Forced Migration Review, vol. 19, pp. 18-19. [6639]

Ducados, Henda (2000): An all men show? Angolan women`s survival in the 30-years war, in: Agenda, no. 43, pp. 11-22. [6640]

Ducados, Henda (2004): Angolan women in the aftermath of conflict, in: Accord: An International Review of Peace Initiatives, vol.15, pp.1-15. [6641]

El-Bushra, Judy (2003): Fused in combat, Gender relations and armed conflict, in: Development in Practice, vol. 13, no. 2-3, pp. 252-265. [6642]

El-Bushra, Judy / El-Karib, Asha / Hadjipateras, Angela (2002): Gender sensitive programme design and planning in conflict affected situations, Research Report, Annex 2: Angola Case Study, written by Marina da Souza and Tyiteta Areline, ACORD, London. [6643]

Human Rights Watch (2003): Struggling through peace, Return and resettlement in Angola, Human Rights Watch, vol. 15, no. 16, New York. [6644]

Jacobson, Ruth (2005): Gender, war, and peace in Mozambique and Angola: Advances and absences, in: Mazurana, Dyan E. / Raven-Roberts, Angela / Parpart, Jane L. (eds.): Gender, Conflict and Peacekeeping, Rowman and Littlefield, Lanham, pp. 134-147. [6645]

Laudowicz, Edith (1987): Ich werde arbeiten und kämpfen, Frauen in Angola, in: Laudowicz, Edith (Hg.): Befreites Land – befreites Leben? Frauen in Befreiungsbewegungen und Revolutionen, Pahl-Rugenstein Verlag, Köln, pp. 57-93. [6646]

Nzatuzola, Jo Baptista Lukombo (2005): Gender and family life in Angola: Some aspects of the post-war conflict concerning displaced persons, in: African Sociological Review, vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 106-133. [6647]

Organization of Angolan Women (1984): Angolan women building the future, From national liberation to women's emancipation, Zed Books, London. [6648]

Powles, Julia (2002): Refugee voices: Home and homelessness: The life history os Susanna Mwana-uta, an Angolan refugee, in: Journal of Refugee Studies, vol. 15, pp. 81-101. [6649]

Scott, Catherine (1994): „Men in our country behave like chiefs, Women and the Angolan revolution, in: Tétreault, Mary Ann (ed.): Women and the revolution in Africa, Asia and the New World, University of California Press, Columbia, pp. 89-109. [6650]

Scott, Catherine (1995): Contradictions in the challenges to dependency: The roots of counter-revolution in Southern Africa, in: Scott, Catherine V. (ed.): Gender and development: Rethinking modernizaton and dependency theory, Lynne Rienner, Boulder/London, pp. 105-119. [6651]

Wilson, Zoe (2005): State making, Peacemaking, and the inscription of gendered politics into peace: Lessons from Angola, in: Mazurana, Dyan E. / Raven-Roberts, Angela / Parpart, Jane L. (eds.): Gender, conflict and peacekeeping, Rowman and Littlefield, Lanham, pp. 232-264. [6652]


Benin

no entries to this combination of country and topic


Botswana

no entries to this combination of country and topic


Burkina Faso

Labaume, Cendrine (2020): Survivors and Heroines, Women in the Crisis in Burkina Faso, Oxfam, Oxford. [11892]


Burundi

Berghof Foundation (2020): I have to speak, Voices of female ex-combatants from Aceh, Burundi, Mindanao and Nepal, Berghof Foundation, Berlin. [11671]

Cheldelin, Sandra / Mutisi, Martha (eds.) (2015): Deconstructing women, peace and security, A critical review of approaches to gender and empowerment, HSRC Press, Pretoria. [11608]

Daley, Patricia (1991): Gender, displacement and reproduction, Settling Burundi refugees in Western Tanzania, in: Journal of Refugee Studies, vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 148-166. [6653]

Human Rights Watch (2000): Seeking protection, Addressing sexual and domestic violence in Tanzania’s refugee camps, Human Rights Watch, New York. [6654]

Idriss, Shamil (2000): Who can prevent genocide? Ask the women of Burundi, in: Agenda, no. 43, pp. 57-62. [6656]

International Alert (2014): Rebuilding dignified lives, Gender and peacebuilding in Burundi, International Alert, London. [11670]

ISIS-WICCE (2005): African women’s unique peace initiatives, ISIS-WICCE Publications, Kampala. [6657]

Jooma, Bibi Mariam (2005): “We can’t eat the constitution”, Transformation and socio-economic reconstruction in Burundi, Institute of Security Studies, ISS, Working Paper no. 106, Pretoria. [6655]

Puechgirbal, Nadine (2004): Involving women in peace process, Lessons from four African countries (Burundi, DRC, Liberia and Sierra Leone, in: Karamé, Kari (ed.): Gender and peacebuilding in Africa, Training for Peace Programme, Norsk Utenrikspolitisk Institutt, Oslo, pp. 47-66. [6658]

Sabimbona, Sabine (2001): The problem of displaced and returnee women faced with current land tenure politics in Burundi,: Buregeya, Alfred / Gorling, Marguerite et al. (eds.): Women’s land and property rights in situations of conflicts and reconstruction, Unifem Publications, New York, pp. 69-81. [6659]

Schäfer, Rita (2008): Frauen und Kriege in Afrika, ein Beitrag zur Gender-Forschung, Brandes und Apsel Verlag, Frankfurt a.M. [11877]

Stensrud, Ellen / Husby, Gorill (2005): Resolution 1325, From rhetoric to practice, A report on women’s role in reconciliation process in the Great Lakes of Africa, PRIO Report, Oslo. [6660]

UNIFEM (2001): Engendering peace, Reflections on the Burundi peace process, Unifem Publications, New York. [6661]


Cameroon

International Crisis Group (2022): Rebels, Victims, Peacebuilders, Women in Cameroon’s Anglophone Conflict, Africa Report 307, Brussels. [11893]


Central African Republic

UNOCHA (2022): Gender-based violence, a scourge with devastating consequences, UNOCHA, Geneva. [11894]


Chad

Sy, Achta Djibrine (1993): Conflict and the women of Chad, in: Focus on Gender, vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 10-12. [6662]

Women's Commission of the Human Rights League of Chad (1998): Women denounce their treatment in Chad, in: Turshen, Meredith / Twagiramariya, Clotilde (eds.): What women do in wartime: Gender and conflict in Africa, Zed Books, pp. 118-128. [6663]


D.R. Congo / Zaire

Baaz, Maria Eriksson / Stern, Maria (2011): Whores, men and other misfits, Undoing ‚feminisation’ in the armed forces in the DRC, in: African Affairs, vol. 110, nol 441, pp. 563-585. [6664]

Baaz, Maria Eriksson / Stern, Maria (2013): Sexual violence as a weapon of war? Perceptions, prescriptions, problems in the Congo and beyond, Zed Books, London. [6665]

Brittain, Victoria (2002): Calvary of the women of the Eastern Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), in: Review of African Political Economy, vol. 29, pp. 595-601. [6666]

Crystal, Paul / Ehrlich, Lisa (2004): No product? No programme! The logistics of reproductive health supplies in conflict affected settings, in: Forced Migration Review, vol. 19, pp. 18-19. [6667]

Higate, Paul (2004): Gender and peacekeeping, Case studies: The Democratic Republic of Congo and Sierra Leone, ISS Monographs, no. 91, Pretoria. [6668]

Higate, Paul (2005): Peacekeeping and gender, DRC and Sierra Leone. www.peacewomen.org [6669]

Higate, Paul / Henry, Marsha (2004): Engendering (in)security in peace support operations, in: Security Dialogue, vol. 35, no. 4, pp. 481-498. [6670]

Human Rights Watch (2002): The war within the war, Sexual violence against women and girls in Eastern Congo, Human Rights Watch Publications, New York. [6671]

Human Rights Watch (2005): Seeking justice, Human Rights Watch Publication, vol. 17, New York. [6672]

Mbombo, Banza / Bayolo, Christian Hemedi (2001): Women’s rights violations during the conflict in the democratic republic of the Congo, unpublished report, Kinshasa. [6673]

Meger, Sara (2010): Rape of the Congo, Understanding sexual violence in the conflict in the Democratic Republic of Congo, in: Journal of African Studies, vol. 28, no. 2, pp. 119-135. [6674]

Puechguirbal, Nadine (2003): Women and war in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, in: Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society, vol. 28, no. 4, pp. 1271-1282. [6675]

Puechguirbal, Nadine (2003): Women and peacekeeping in the Democratic Republic of Congo, Towards a common goal, in: Conflict Trends, no. 3, pp. 23-25. [6676]

Puechguirbal, Nadine (2003): Gender training for peace keepers, Lessons from the DRC, in: International Peacekeeping, vol. 10, 4, pp. 113-128. [6677]

Puechguirbal, Nadine (2004): Involving women in peace process, Lessons from four African countries (Burundi, DRC, Liberia and Sierra Leone, in: Karamé, Kari (ed.): Gender and peacebuilding in Africa, Training for Peace Programme, Norsk Utenrikspolitisk Institutt, Oslo, pp. 47-66. [6678]

Schroeder, Emily (2004): A window of opportunitiy in the Democratic Republic of Congo, Incorporating a gender perspective in the disarmament, demobilisation and reintegration process, in: Peace, Conflict and Development, An Interdisciplinary Journal, July 2004, pp. 1-31. [6679]

Schäfer, Rita (2008): Frauen und Kriege in Afrika, ein Beitrag zur Gender-Forschung, Brandes und Apsel Verlag, Frankfurt a.M. [11878]

Stensrud, Ellen / Husby, Gorill (2005): Resolution 1325, From rhetoric to practice, A report on women`s role in reconciliation process in the Great Lakes of Africa, PRIO Report, Oslo. [6680]

Whiteman, Shelly (2006): Women and peace-building in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, An assessment of their role in the Inter-Congolese Dialogue, in: African Journal of Conflict Resolution, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 29-48. [6681]

Yengo, Patrice (2006): Brazzaville’s marche total, Women’s alliance during the civil war in the Congo, in: Cahiers d’Etudes Africaines, vol. 46, no. 182, pp. 333-346. [6682]


Djibouti

WILPF (2017): Remote warfare and sexual violence in Djibouti, WILPF, London. [11895]


Equatorial Guinea

no entries to this combination of country and topic


Eritrea

Blanc, Ann (2004): The role of conflict in the rapid fertility decline in Eritrea and prospects for the future, in: Studies in Family Planning, vol. 353, pp. 236-245. [6683]

Bruchhaus, Eva-Maria / Mehreteab, Amanuel (2000): `Leaving the warm house´, The impact of demobilisation in Eritrea, in: Kingma, Kees (ed.): Demobilisation in Sub-Saharan Africa, The development and security impacts, MacMillan Publishers, Houndsmills, Basingstoke, pp. 95-131. [6684]

Burgess, Doris (1989): Women and war: Eritrea, in: Review of African Political Economy, no. 45/46, pp. 126-132. [6685]

Campbell, Patricia (2005): Gender and post-conflict civil society in Eritrea, in: International Feminist Journal of Politics, vol. 7, pp. 377-399. [6686]

Christman, Stefanie (1996): Die Freiheit haben wir nicht von den Männern, Frauen in Eritrea, Horleman Verlag, Bad Honnef. [6687]

Colijn, Inge (1990): Eritrean refugee women in eastern Sudan: Changes in roles and responsibilities, and the consequences, in: VENA Newsletter vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 23-27. [6688]

Eikenberg, Kathrin (1985): Frauen in Eritrea, Zur Frauenpolitik der EPLF, Institut für Afrika-Kunde, Hamburg. [6689]

Hale, Sondra (2001): Liberated but not free, Women in post-conflict Eritrea, in: Meintjes, Sheila / Pillay, Anu / Turshen, Meredeth (eds.): The aftermath, Women in post-conflict transformation, Zed Books, London, pp. 122-141. [6690]

Hale, Sondra (2001): The soldier and the state, Post-Liberation women: The case of Eritrea, in: Waller, Marguerite / Rycenga, Jennifer (eds.): Frontline feminsms, women, war and resistance, Garland Publishing, New York. [6691]

Israel, Mark / Lyons, Tanya / Mason, C. (2002): Women, resistance and Africa: Armed struggles in Zimbabwe, South Africa and Eritrea, in: Humanity and Society, vol. 26, no. 3, pp. 196-213. [6692]

Kibreab, Gaim (1995): Eritrean women refugees in Khartoum, Sudan, 1970-1990, in: Journal of Refugee Studies, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 1-25. [6693]

Kibreab, Gaim (2003): Rethinking household headship among Eritrean refugees and returnees, in: Development and Change, vol. 34, no. 2, pp. 311-337. [6694]

Klingebiel, Stephan / Gärke, Inge / Kreidler, Corinna et al. (1995): Promoting the reintegration of former female and male combatants in Eritrea, Possible contributions of development co-operation to the reintegration programme, Deutsches Institut für Entwicklungspolitik, Reports and Working Papers, 6, Bonn. [6695]

Koenig, Angela (1990): Überleben in Gewaltverhältnissen, Zur Situation eritreischer und äthiopischer Flüchtlingsfrauen, in: Donner-Reichle, Carola / Klemp, Ludgera (Hrsg.): Frauenwort für Menschenrechte, Breitenbach Verlag, Saarbrücken, pp. 141-169. [6696]

LaDuke, Betty (1997): Eritrea: Artisits/fighters with new visions, in: LaDuke, Betty. Africa: Women's art, Women lives, Africa World Press, Trenton, pp. 147-187. [6697]

Lindstrom, D. / Berhanu, Betemariam (1999): The impact of war, famine and economic decline on marital fertility in Ethiopia, in: Demography, vol. 36, no. 2, pp. 247-326. [6698]

Lochen-Tschhofen, Doris (1985): Die eritreischen Frauen, Zärtlichkeit im Überlebenskampf, in: Furrer-Kreski, Elisabeth et al. (Hg.): Handbuch Eritrea, Geschichte und Gegenwart eines Konfliktes, Zürich, pp. 69-98. [6699]

MacKay, Angela (2005): Mainstreaming gender in United Nations peacekeeping training, Examples from East Timor, Ethiopia, and Eritrea, in: Mazurana, Dyan E. / Raven-Roberts, Angela / Parpart, Jane L. (eds.): Gender, conflict and peacekeeping, Rowman and Littlefield, Lanham, pp. 265-279. [6700]

Mama, Amina (1992): The need for gender analysis, A comment on the prospects for peace, recovery and development in the Horn of Africa, in: Doornbos, M. / Cliffe, L. / Ahmed, A.G.M. / Markakis, J. (eds.): Beyond conflict in the horn, Africa World Press, Trenton, pp. 72-78. [6701]

Mariam, Yeshi (1994): Ethiopian women in the period of socialist transformation, in: Economic and Political Weekly, vol. 29, pp. WS57-62. [6702]

Mason, Christine (2001): Gender, nationalism and revolution: Reassessing women's relationships with the Eritrean Liberation Front, Working Paper no. 274, Women and International Development, Michigan State University, East Lansing. [6703]

Matsuoka, Atsuko / Sorenson, John (2000): Eritrean women in Canada, Negotiating new lives, in: Candian Journal of Women’s Studies, vol. 19, no. 3, pp. 104-109. [6704]

Matzke, Christine (2002): Comrades in arts and arms, Stories of war and watercolours from Eritrea, in: Matatu, no. 25-26, pp. 21-54. [6705]

Matzke, Christine (2003): Engendering theatre in Eritrea: The roles and representations of women in the performing arts, Bruchhaus, Eva-Marie (ed.): Hot spot Horn of Africa, Between integration and disintegration, Lit-Verlag, Münster/Berlin. [6706]

Moussa, Helene (1995): Caught between two worlds, Eritrean women refugees and voluntary repatriation, in: Sorenson, John (ed.): Disaster and development in the Horn of Africa, St. Martin`s Press, New York, pp. 208-227. [6707]

Odede, Rachel / Asghedom, Eden (2001): The continuum of violence against women in Eritrea, in: Development, vol. 44, no. 3, pp. 69-73. [6708]

Oku Bright, Nancee (1997): Mothers of steel, The women of Um Garur, An Eritrean refugee settlement in Sudan, Africa World Press, Trenton. [6709]

Pankhurst, Helen (1999): Gender and conflict, Case study on Eritrean fighters, unpublished paper, ACORD, London. [6710]

Schamaneck, Claudia (1998): Frauenemanzipation in revolutionären und militärischen Kontexten, Aspekte der Geschlechterverhältnisse am Beispiel eritreischer EPLF-Kämpferinnen, Beiträge zur Afrikanistik, 61, Wien. [6711]

Schuckar, Monika (1990): Lebensbedingungen, Widerstand und Verfolgung von Frauen vor dem Hintergrund des eritreischen Unabhängigkeitskampfes, Berliner Institut für vergleichende Sozialforschung, Edition Parabolis, Berlin. [6712]

Schäfer, Rita (2008): Frauen und Kriege in Afrika, ein Beitrag zur Gender-Forschung, Brandes und Apsel Verlag, Frankfurt a.M. [11879]

Selassie, Wubnesh (1992): The changing position of Eritrean women: An overview of women’s participation in the EPLF, in: Doonbos, Martin / Cliffe, Lionel / Ahmed, Abdel Ghaffar (eds.): Beyond conflict in the Horn, Red Sea Press, Trenton, pp. 67-71. [6713]

Silkin, T. (1983): Eritrea, Women in the struggle, in: Third World Quarterly, vol. 5, no. 4, pp. 909-914. [6714]

Silkin, T. (1989): Women can only be free when the power of the kin groups in smashed, New marriage laws and social change in liberated zones in Eritrea, in: International Journal of the Sociology of Law, vol. 17, pp. 147-163. [6715]

Sorensen, John (1988): Eritrean women, Dual struggle in the Horn of Africa, in: Canadian Women’s Studies, vol. 9, pp. 96-110. [6716]

Tseggai, Araia (1990): Eritrean women and Italian soldiers, Status of Eritrean women under Italian rule, in: Journal of Eritrean Studies, vol. vi, no. 1-2, pp. 7-12. [6717]

Volker-Saad, Kerstin (2004): Zivilistinnen und Kämpferinnen in Eritrea, Berliner Beiträge zur Ethnologie, Bd. 7, Weißensee Verlag, Berlin. [6718]

Volker-Saad, Kerstin (2004): Eritrea und der Krieg, Frauen im Spannungsfeld zwischen traditionellen Kompetenzen und militärischer Notwendigkeit, in: Dilger, Hansjörg / Wolf, Angelika / Frömming, Urte Undine / Volker-Saad, Kerstin (Hg.): Moderne und postkoloniale Transformation, Weißensee-Verlag, Berlin, pp. 114-127. [6719]

Wilson, Amrit (1991): Women and the Eritrean revolution, The challenge road, The Read Sea Press, London. [6720]

Zimprich, Elke (1996): Reintegration von Ex-Kämpferinnen in Eritrea, Eine gender-spezifische Studie in friedens- und entwicklungspolitischer Perspektive, Veröffentlichungen aus dem Institut für Afrika-Kunde, Hamburg. [6721]


Ethiopia

Andrew, Florence Aate / Lukajo, Nelson Mono (2005): Golden opportunities, reality or myths? Horn of Africa female migrants, refugees and asylum seekers in The Netherlands, in: Community Development Journal, vol. 40, no. 2, pp. 224-231. [6722]

Bennett, Olivia / Bexley, Jo / Warnock, Kitty (eds.) (1995): Arms to fight, arms to protect, women speak out about conflict, Panos, London. [6723]

Berhanu, Betemariam / White, Michael (2000): War, famine, and female migration in Ethiopia, 1960-1989, in: Economic Development and Cultural Change, vol. 49 pp. 91-113. [6724]

Beswick Stephanie (2001): ‚If you leave your country, you will have no life!’ Rape, suicide, and violence, The voices of Ethiopian, Somali and Sudanese female refugees in Kenyan Refugee Camps, in: Northeast African Studies, vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 69-88. [6725]

Girma, Kebbede (1991): The agonies of displacement, Ethiopian women refugees in Khartoum, Sudan, in: Geo Journal, vol. 23, no. 2, pp. 99-106. [6726]

Hammond, Jenny / Druce, Neil (1990): Sweeter than honey, Ethiopian women and revolution: Testimonies of Tigrayan women, Africa World Press, Trenton. [6727]

Kebbede, G. (1991): The agonies of displacement: Ethiopian women refugees in Khartoum, Sudan, in: GeoJournal, vol. 23, pp. 99-106. [6728]

Koenig, Angela (1990): Überleben in Gewaltverhältnissen, Zur Situation eritreischer und äthiopischer Flüchtlingsfrauen, in: Donner-Reichle, Carola / Klemp, Ludgera (Hrsg.): Frauenwort für Menschenrechte, Breitenbach Verlag, Saarbrücken, pp. 141-169. [6729]

Krug, Stefanie (2001): Anthropologie der Kriegs- und Nachkriegszeit in Äthiopien, “Helderhafter Kämpfer nannten sie Dich - Wie heißt Du jetzt?” TPLF (Ex-)-Guerillakämpfer/innen in Äthiopien, Lit-Verlag, Münster. [6730]

Leisure, Susan (1999): Exchanging participation for promises: Mobilization of women in Eritrea, in: Bystydzienski, Jill M. and Sekhon, Joti (eds.): Democratization and women’s grassroots movements, Indiana University Press, Bloomington, pp. 95-109. [6731]

Lindstrom, D. / Berhanu, Betemariam (1999): The impact of war, famine and economic decline on marital fertility in Ethiopia, in: Demography, vol. 36, no. 2, pp. 247-326. [6732]

MacKay, Angela (2005): Mainstreaming gender in United Nations peacekeeping training, Examples from East Timor, Ethiopia, and Eritrea, in: Mazurana, Dyan E. / Raven-Roberts, Angela / Parpart, Jane L. (eds.): Gender, conflict and peacekeeping, Rowman and Littlefield, Lanham, pp. 265-279. [6733]

Schäfer, Rita (2008): Frauen und Kriege in Afrika, ein Beitrag zur Gender-Forschung, Brandes und Apsel Verlag, Frankfurt a.M. [11880]

Veale, Angela (2003): From child soldiers to ex-fighters, Female fighters, demobilisation and reintegration in Ethiopia, ISS Monographs, no. 85, Pretoria. [6734]

Veale, Angela (2005): Collective and individual identities, Experiences of recruitment and reintegration of female ex-combatants of the Tigrean People’s Liberation Army, Ethiopia, in: McIntyre, Angela (ed.): Invisible stakeholders, Children and war in Africa, ISS Publications, Pretoria, pp. 105-126. [6735]


Gabon

no entries to this combination of country and topic


Gambia

no entries to this combination of country and topic


Ghana

Ertürk, Yakin (2015): Ghana, women at war in a country at peace, OpenDemocracyNet, 25.11.2015. [11915]


Guinea

Macedo, Gustavo (2018): Lessons From Guinea Could Improve the U.N.´s Focus on Prevention, in: The New Humanitarian, 20.6.2018. [11898]


Guinea Bisseau

Carvalho, Clara (2020): Women and Peacebuilding in Guinea-Bissau, ACCORD, Durban. [11897]

Interpeace (2018): Peacebuilding through a gender lens: Enhancing women’s role in governance and conflict resolution in Guinea-Bissau, Interpeace, Geneva. [11896]


Ivory Coast

Roth, Francoise Natalie (2013): Cote D´Ivoire gender based violence, conflicts, and the political transition, a case study report, CMI/WANEP, Brussels/Accra. [11913]

Diallo, Kamina (2017): When Women Take Part in the Rebellion, the Ex-Fighters from Ivory Coast, Noria Research, Paris. [11914]


Kenya

Blacker, John (2007): The demography of Mau Mau, Fertility and mortality in Kenya in the 1950w, A demographer’s viewpoint, in: African Affairs, 106, pp. 205-227. [6736]

Brandley, Cynthia (1986): Mekatilili and the role of women in Giriama resistance, in: Crummey, Donald (eds.): Banditry, rebellion and social protest in Africa, Heinemann Publishers, Porthsmouth, pp. 333-347. [6737]

Brankamp, Hanno (2021): ‘Madmen, Womanisers, and Thieves’, Moral disorder and the cultural text of refugee encampment in Kenya, in: Africa, vol. 91, no. 1, pp. 153-176 [11672]

Brownhill, Leigh / Turnier, Terisa (2003): Mau Mau women rise again: The re-assertion of commoning in twenty-first century Kenya, in: Canadian Woman Studies, vol. 23, no. 1, pp. 168-176. [6738]

Brownhill, Leigh / Turnier, Terisa (2004): Feminism in the Mau-Mau resurgence, in: Journal of Asian and African Studies, vol. 39, 1-2, pp. 95-117. [6739]

Cheldelin, Sandra / Mutisi, Martha (eds.) (2015): Deconstructing women, peace and security, A critical review of approaches to gender and empowerment, HSRC Press, Pretoria. [11606]

Cloete, Elsie (2000): Deliberations on names and spaces, Wambui Waiyaki Otieno and Mau Mau daughter, in: English Studies in Africa, vol. 43, pp. 65-86. [6740]

Cloete, Elsie (2006): A time of living dangerously, Flanking histories of Wambui Waiyaki Otieno’s account of Mau Mau, in: English in Africa, vol. 33, no. 1, pp. 133-135. [6741]

Gladden, Jessica (2013): Coping strategies of Sudanese refugee women in Kakuma Refugee Camp, Kenya, in: Refugee Survey Quarterly, vol. 32, no. 4, pp. 66–89. [11697]

Horn, R. (2010): ‘Exploring the impact of displacement and encampment on domestic violence in Kakuma refugee camp’, in: Journal of Refugee Studies, vol. 23, no. 3, pp. 356–376 [11677]

Kanogo, Tabitha (1987): Kikuyu women and politics of protest: Mau Mau, in: Halden, MacDonald P. / Ardener, A. (eds.): Images of women in peace and war: Cross-cultural perspectives, Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp. 78-99. [6742]

Kiura, A. W. (2014): ‘Constrained agency on contraceptive use among Somali refugee women in the Kakuma refugee camp in Kenya’, in: Gender, Technology and Development, vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 147–61 [11674]

Likimani, Muthoni (1985): Passbook number F.47927, Women and Mau Mau in Kenya, MacMillan Publications, London. [6743]

Mugo, M. (1975): The role of women in the struggle for freedom, in: Pala, Achola / Awori, Thelma / Krystall, Abigail (eds.): The participation of women in Kenya society, Kenya Literature Bureau, Nairobi, pp. 210-219. [6744]

Nderitu, Wairimu (2019): Mukami Kimathi, Women Mau Mau Freedom fighter, African Books Collective, Oxford. [6745]

Otieno, Wamuio Waiyaki (1998): Mau Mau’s daughter: The life history of Wambui Waiyaki Otieno, Lynne Rienner Publications, Boulder. [6746]

Presley, Cora Ann (1986): Kikuyu women in Mau-Mau rebellion, in: Okihiro, Gary (ed.): In resistance, Studies in African, Afro-American, and Carribean resistance, Amherst, University of Massachusetts Press. [6747]

Presley, Cora Ann (1986): Labour unrest among Kikuyu women in colonial Kenya, in: Robertson, Claire / Berger, Iris (eds.): Women and class in Africa, New York, Africana Publishing, pp. 216-236. [6748]

Presley, Cora Ann (1988): Mau Mau rebellion, Kikuyu women and social change, in: Canadian Journal of African Studies, 22, pp. 503-527. [6749]

Presley, Cora Ann (1990): Kikuyu women, the Mau Mau rebellion, and social change in Kenya, Westview Press, Boulder. [6750]

Presley, Cora Ann (1994): The Mau Mau rebellion, Kikuyu women, and social change, in: Crenshaw, Martha (ed.): Terrorism in Africa, G.K. Hall Publishers, New York, pp. 205-230. [6751]

Presley, Cora Ann (2002): Gender and political struggle in Kenya, 1948-1998, in: Higgs, Catherine / Moss, Barbara / Ferguson, Earline (eds.): Stepping forward, Black women in Africa and the Americas, Ohio University Press, Athens, pp. 173-188. [6752]

Thomson, Susan (2013): Agency as silence and muted voice, The problem-solving networks of unaccompanied Young Somali refugee women in Eastleigh, Nairobi, in: Conflict, Security and Development, vol. 13, no. 5, pp. 589–609 [11704]

Wipper, Audrey (1975): The Maendeleo ya wanawake movement in the colonial period: The Canadian connection, Mau Mau, embroidery and agriculture, in: Rural Africana, 21, pp. 195-213. [6753]

Wipper, Audrey (1985): Riot and rebellion among African women: Three examples of political clout, Working Paper 108, Michigan State University. (und in: O’Barr, Jean F. (eds.): Perspectives on power: Women in Africa, Asia and Latin America, Durham, pp. 50-72.) [6754]

Wipper, Audrey (1989): Kikuyu women and the Harry Thuku disturbances, Some uniformities of female militancy, in: Africa, vol. 59, no. 3, pp. 300-337. [6755]


Lesotho

no entries to this combination of country and topic


Liberia

African Women and Peace Support Group (2004): Liberian women peacemakers, Fighting for their right to be seen, heard and counted, Africa World Press, Trenton. [6756]

Aisha, Fatoumata (2005): Mainstreaming gender in peace support operations, The United Nations Mission in Liberia, in: Aboagye, Festus / Bah, Alahji (eds.):A tortuous road to peace, The dynamics of regional, UN and international humanitaran interventions in Liberia, Publications of the Institute of Security Studies, Pretoria, pp. 147-163. [6757]

Aning, E.K. (1998): Gender and civil war, The cases of Sierra Leone and Liberia, in: Civil Wars, vol. 1, no. 4, pp. 1-26. [6758]

Aning, E.K. (1998): Women and civil conflict: Liberia and Sierra Leone, in: African Journal of International Affairs, vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 45-58. [6759]

Association of Female Lawyers of Liberia (1998): Hundreds of victims silently grieving, in: Trushen, M. et al. (ed.): What women do in wartime, Zed Books, London, pp. 129-137. [6760]

Bennett, Olivia / Bexley, Jo / Warnock, Kitty (eds.) (1995): Arms to fight, arms to protect, women speak out about conflict, Panos, London. [6761]

Bouta, Tsjeard / Frerks, Georg / Hughes, Bib (2005): Gender and peacemaking in the Westafrican context, Netherlands Institute of International Relations, ‘Clingendael’, Conflict Research Unit, The Hague. [6762]

Cheldelin, Sandra / Mutisi, Martha (eds.)1 (2015): Deconstructing women, peace and security, A critical review of approaches to gender and empowerment, HSRC Press, Pretoria. [11607]

Initiative for Peacebuilding / International Alert/ International Centre for Transitional Justice (2008): Liberia is not just a man thing, Transitional justice lessons for women, study written by Campbell-Nelson, Karen, Initiative for Peacebuilding / International Alert / International Centre for Transitional Justice, Brussels/New York. [6763]

Kreitzer, L. (2002): Liberian refugee women: A qualitative study of their participation in Plann Camp Programmes, in: International Social Work, vol. 45, pp. 45-58. [6764]

Lucas, Emma (1997): Sexual abuses as wartime crimes against women and children: The Case of Liberia, in: Liberian Studies Journal, vol. 22, no. 2, pp. 240-260. [6765]

Medie, Peace A. (2013): Fighting gender-based violence, The women’s movement and the enforcement of rape law in Liberia, in: African Affairs, vol. 112, 448, pp. 377-397. [6766]

Medie, Peace A. (2021): Gender and postconflict security, Domestic violence and law enforcement in Liberia, in: Daniel, Antje / Mageza-Barthel, Rirhandu / Richter-Montpetit, Melanie / Scheiterbauer, Tanja (eds.): Gewalt, Krieg und Flucht, Feministische Perspektiven auf Sicherheit, Barbara Budrich, Leverkusen pp. 119-136. [6767]

Moran, Mary (1997): Warriors or soldiers? Masculinity and ritual transvestism in the Liberian civil war, in: Lamphere, Louise / Rangoné, Helena / Zavella, Patricia (eds.): Situated lives, Gender and culture in everyday life, Routledge, London, pp. 440-450. [6768]

Moran, Mary (2000): Gender and aging: Are women ‘warriors’ among the Glebo of Liberia? In: Liberian Studies Journal, vol. 25, no. 2, pp. 24-41. [6769]

Puechgirbal, Nadine (2004): Involving women in peace process, Lessons from four African countries (Burundi, DRC, Liberia and Sierra Leone, in: Karamé, Kari (ed.): Gender and peacebuilding in Africa, Training for Peace Programme, Norsk Utenrikspolitisk Institutt, Oslo, pp. 47-66. [6770]

Schäfer, Rita (2008): Frauen und Kriege in Afrika, ein Beitrag zur Gender-Forschung, Brandes und Apsel Verlag, Frankfurt a.M. [11881]

Specht, Irma (2005): Girl combatants, Women warriors fight their way back into Liberian society, in: World of Work, The Magazine of the ILO, issue 54, pp. 8-11. [6771]

Swiss, S. / Jennings, P. et al. (2002): Violence against women during the Liberian civil conflict, in: Jouranl of the American Medical Association, 279, 8, pp. 625-629. [6772]

Utas, Mats (2005): Agency of victims, Young women in the Liberian civil war, in: Honwana, Alicinda / De Boeck, Filip (eds.): Children and youth in postcolonial Africa, James Currey, Oxford, pp. 53-80. [6773]

Veney, Cassandra (2006): Between the devil and the deep blue sea, Internally displaced women and girls in Liberia and Uganda and the role of the international community, in: Journal of International Women’s Studies, vol. 7, pp. 209-223. [6774]


Madagascar

no entries to this combination of country and topic


Malawi

no entries to this combination of country and topic


Mali

Chauzal, G. / Gorman, Z. (2019): `Hand in hand´, A study of insecurity and gender in Mali, SIPRI, Stockhholm. [11901]

Lorentzen, Jenny (2017): Women and the Peace Process in Mali, GPS Policy Brief, 2. Oslo, PRIO. [11899]

Lorentzen, Jenny (2020): Women´s Inclusion in the Malian Peace Negotiations, Norms and Practices, in: SPSR, vol. 26, no. 4, pp. 487-505. [11903]

Lorentzen, Jenny (2021): Women as `new security actors´ in preventing and countering violent extremism in Mali, in: International Affairs, vol. 97, no. 3, pp. 721–738. [11904]

Moderan, Ornella (2020): Time to tackle violence against women in Mali, ISS Today, 20.11.2020, ISS, Pretoria. [11902]

Pujol Chica, Irene (2020): The strategic role of women in Mali´s peacebuilding process, IEEE 17, Madrid. [11900]


Mauritius

no entries to this combination of country and topic


Mozambique

Ager, A. / Ager, W. / Long, L. (1995): The differential experience of Mozambican refugee women and men, in: Journal of Refugee Studies, vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 265-287. [6775]

Arnfeld, Signe (1988): Women in Mozambique: Gender struggle and gender politics, in: Review of African Political Economy, 41, pp. 5-16. [6776]

Baden, Sally (1998): Post-conflict Mozambique, Women’s special situation, Population issues and gender perspectives, IDS Report, no. 44, Brighton. [6777]

Cliffe, Julie (1991): The war on women in Mozambique: Health consequences of South African destabilization, economic crisis, and structural adjustment, in: Meredeth, Trushen (ed.): Women and health in Africa, Trenton, pp. 15-34. [6778]

Cliffe, Julie (1992): Destabilisation, Economic adjustment and the impact on women, in: Agenda, vol. 14, pp. 25-38. [6779]

Connor, Teresa (2020): Reformulating identity in post war Mozambique, Sexuality and initiation of women in the Pafuri Triangle, in: New Contree, vol. 84, pp. 57-73. [11669]

De Abreu, Alcinda Antonio (1998): Mozambican women experiencing violence, in: Trushen, Meredeth / Twagiramariya, Clotilde (eds.) What women do in wartime: Gender and conflict in Africa, Zed Books, London, pp. 73-84. [6780]

Dzimbiri, L.B. (1995): Challenging gender stereotypes in training: Mozambican refugees in Malawi, in: Development in Practice, 5, 2, pp. 154-157. [6781]

Feijo, Joao (2021): The role of women in the conflict in Cabo Delgado, Understanding vicious cycles of violence, FES, Dakar/Maputo. [11918]

Gengenbach, Heidi (1997): ‘I’ll bury you in the border!: Women’s land struggle in post- war facazisse (Magude District), Mozambique, in: Journal of Southern African Studies, vol. 24, no. 1, pp. 7-36. [6782]

Igreja, Victor (2008): Gamba spirits, Gender relations, and healing in post-civil war Gorongosa, Mozambique, in: Journal of Royal Anthropological Institute, n.s. 14, pp. 350-367. [6783]

Igreja, Victor (2009): Christian religious transformation and gender relations in postwar Mozambique, in: Journal of Religion in Africa, vol. 39, pp. 262-294. [6784]

Igreja, Victor / Lambranca, Béatrice (2009): The Thursdays as they live, Christian religious transformation and gender relations in postwar Gorongosa, Central Mozambique, in: Journal of Religion in Africa, vol. 39, no. 3, pp. 262-294. [6785]

Jacobson, Ruth (1999): Complicating complexity, Integrating gender into the analysis of the Mozambiquan conflict, in: Third World Quarterly, vol. 20, 1, pp. 175-187. [6786]

Jacobson, Ruth (2005): Gender, war, and peace in Mozambique and Angola: Advances and absences, in: Mazurana, Dyan E. / Raven-Roberts, Angela / Parpart, Jane L. (eds.): Gender, Conflict and Peacekeeping, Rowman and Littlefield Lanham. [6787]

Jose, Marie Arthur (1998): Mozambique, Women in armed struggle, in: MacFadden, Patricia (ed.): Southern Africa in Transtition, A gendered perspective, SAPES Publications, Harare, pp. 67-82. [6788]

Junior, Boia Efraime (2004): Armed conflict and sexual abuse of children in Mozambique, in: Richter, Linda / Dawes, Andrew / Higson-Smith, Craig (eds.): Sexual abuse of young children in Southern Africa, Publications of the Human Science Research Council, Pretoria, pp. 411-426. [6789]

Katto, Jonna (2020): Women’s lived landscapes of war and liberation in Mozambique, Bodily memory and the gendered aesthetics of belonging, Routledge, London. [11581]

Katto, Jonna (2014): Landscapes of belonging, Female ex-combatants remembering the liberation struggle in urban Maputo, in: Journal of Southern African Studies, vol. 40, no. 3, pp. 539-557. [6790]

Machel, Graca Simbine (1988): The terror and the resistance, in: African Women, Autumn, pp. 6-9. [6791]

Madzokere, C. (1993): Gender and work, Past, present and future, The situation of rural Mozambican women at Mazowe River Bridge Camp in Zimbabwe, in: Journal of Social Development in Africa, vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 23-32. [6792]

Nordstrom, Carolyn (1997): Girls and warzones, Troubling questions, Publications of theLife and Peace Institute, Uppsala. [6793]

Nordstrom, Carolyn (1998): Girls behind the (front) lines, in: Lorentzen, Lois Ann / Turpin, Jennifer (eds.): The women and war reader, New York University Press, New York, pp. 80-89. [6794]

Nordstrom, Carolyn (1999): Visible wars and invisible girls, Shadow industries, and the politics of not-knowing, in: International Feminist Journal of Politics, vol. 1, pp. 14-33. [6795]

Rodriguez, Anabella (1983): Mozambican women after the revolution, in: Davies, Miranda (ed.) Third World - second sex. Women's struggles and national liberation, Zed Books, London, pp. 127-134. [6796]

Schäfer, Rita (2008): Frauen und Kriege in Afrika, ein Beitrag zur Gender-Forschung, Brandes und Apsel Verlag, Frankfurt a.M. [11882]

Sheldon, Kathleen (1994): Women and revolution in Mozambique, A luta continua, in: Tétreault, Mary Ann (ed.): Women and the revolution in Africa, Asia and the New World, University of California Press, Columbia, pp. 33-59. [6797]

Tranberg Hansen, Karen / Ashbaugh, Leslie (1991): Women on the front line: development issues in Southern Africa, in: GALLIN, Rita S. / FERGUSON, Anne (eds.): The women and international development annual, vol. 2, Boulder Westview Press, pp. 205-240. [6798]

Urdang, Stephanie (1988): And still they dance, Women, war and the struggle for change in Mozambique, London. [6799]

West, Harry (1997): Power, hope, and suspicion in post-war Mozambique, in: Cahiers d’Etudes Africaines, 3, pp. 675-698. [6800]

West, Harry (2000): Girls with guns, Narrating the experience of war of Frelimo’s female detachment, in: Anthropology Quarterly, vol 73, no. 4, pp. 180-194. [6801]

Wilson, Zoe (2005): State making, Peacemaking, and the inscription of gendered politics into peace: Lessons from Angola, in: Mazurana, Dyan E. / Raven-Roberts, Angela / Parpart, Jane L. (eds.): Gender, conflict and peacekeeping, Rowman and Littlefield, Lanham. [6802]


Namibia

Allison, Caroline (1989): “It’s like holding the key to your own jail” – Women in Namibia, Publications of the World Council of Churches, Geneva. [6803]

Becker, Heike (2003): Junge Frauen im Exil, Ellen Ndeshi Namhila, eine Autobiographie, in: Periplus, 12. Jahrgang, pp. 60-74. [6804]

Becker, Heike (2001): „We want women to be given an equal chance“, Post independence rural politics in Northern Namibia, in: Meredeth, Sheila / Pillay, Anu / Turshen, Meredeth (eds.): The aftermath, Women in post-conflict transformation, Zed Books, London, pp. 225-242. [6805]

Cleaver, Tessa / Wallace, Marion (1990): Women and war, Zed Books, London. [6806]

Hervé, Florence (Hg.) (1993): Namibia, Frauen mischen sich ein, Orlanda Frauenverlag, Berlin. [6807]

McFadden, Patricia (1988): Forms and spheres of anti-colonial resistance with special reference to Namibian women, in: Wood, Brian (ed.): Namibia 1884-1984: Readings on Namibia’s history and society, selected papers, London, pp. 622-626. [6808]

Olsson, Louise (2001): Gender mainstreaming in practice, The United Nations Transitional Assistance Group in Namibia, in: Olsson, Louise / Tryggestad, Torunn, (eds.): Women and international peacekeeping, Frank Cass Publishers, London, pp. 97-110. [6810]

Olsson, Louise (2005): The Namibian peace operation in a gender context, in: Mazurana, Dyan E. / Raven-Roberts, Angela / Parpart, Jane L. (eds.): Gender, Conflict and Peacekeeping, Rowman and Littlefield Lanham, pp. 168-182. [6811]

Preston, Rosemary (1997): Integrating fighters after war: Reflections on the Namibian experience, 1989-1993, in: Journal of Southern African Studies, vol. 23, 3, pp. 453-461. [6809]

Schäfer, Rita (2008): Frauen und Kriege in Afrika, ein Beitrag zur Gender-Forschung, Brandes und Apsel Verlag, Frankfurt a.M. [11883]

Soiri, Lina (1996): The radical motherhood, Namibian women’s independence struggle, Uppsala. [6812]

Trewhela, Paul (1993): Women and the SWAPO, Institutionalised rape in SWAPO`s prisions, in: Searchlight South Africa, vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 23-29. [6813]


Niger

no entries to this combination of country and topic


Nigeria

Abimbola, Foluke Oluyemisi (2019): Women in Post-Conflict Niger-Delta of Nigeria, Amnesty versus Restorative Justice, in: Journal of Law and Criminal Justice, 7, 1, pp. 23-34. [11905]

Affi, Ladan / Tonnessen, Liv / Tripp, Aili Mari (2021): Women and peacebuilding in Africa, Boydell and Brewer, Rochester [11617]

Ekhator-Mobayode, Uche Eseosa / Hanmer, Lucia C. et al. (2020): Effect of Armed Conflict on Intimate Partner Violence, Evidence from the Boko Haram Insurgency in Nigeria, Policy Research Working Paper, No. 9168, World Bank, Washington, DC. [11908]

International Crisis Group (2016): Nigeria, Women and the Boko Haram Insurgency, Africa report no. 242, Brussels. [11906]

Mikell, Gwendolyn (2005): Working from within: Nigerian women and conflict resolution, in: Georgetown Journal of International Affairs, vol. 6, no. 2 pp. 87-94. [11907]

Ogege, S.O. (2009): Conflict resolution and peace building, The gender question in the Niger delta crisis in Nigeria, in: African Research Review, vol. 3, no. 5. [11909]


Rwanda

African Rights (1995): Rwanda, Not so innocent, When women become killers, African Rights, London. [6814]

African Rights (2004): Women taking a lead, Progress towards empowerment and gender equality in Rwanda, Discussion Paper no. 12, African Rights, Kigali. [6815]

Askin, Kelly (1999): Sexual violence in decisions and indictments of the Yugoslav and Rwandan tribunals, Current Status, in: The American Journal of International Law, vol. 39, no. 1, pp. 97-123. [6816]

Baines, Erin (2003): Body politics and the Rwandan crisis, in: Third World Quarterly, vol. 24, no. 3, pp. 479-493. [6817]

Baines, Erin (2005): Les femmes aux mille bras, Buildung peace in Rwanda, in: Mazurana, Dylan / Raven-Roberts, Angela / Parpart, Jane (eds.): Gender, conflict, and peacekeeping, Rowman and Littlefield, Boulder, pp. 220-230. [6818]

Bayisenge, Jeannette (2009): Does the law work in their favor? The complexity of land rights of women living in polygamous relationships in Rwanda, in: Jenda, 15. [6819]

Bayisenge, Jeannette (2016): Reshaping gender norms in post-genocide Rwanda, in: Genocide Studies International, vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 230-250. [6820]

Brown, Jennifer (2016): Reshaping gender norms in post-genocide Rwanda, in: Genocide Studies International, vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 230-250. [6821]

Brunet, Ariane / Helal, Solon Isabelle (1998): Monitoring the prosecution of gender-related crimes in Rwanda, A brief field report, in: Peace and Conflict, vol. 4, no. 4, pp. 393-397. [6824]

Burnet, Ariane (2003): Culture, practice and law, Women’s access to land in Rwanda, in: Wanyeki, Muthoni (ed.): Women and land in Africa, Culture, religion and realizing women’s rights in Africa, Zed Books, London, pp. 176-206. [6822]

Burnet, Ariane (2008): Gender balance and the meanings of women in governance in post-genocide Rwanda, in. African Affairs, 10/428, pp. 361-386. [6823]

Burnet, Jennie (2012): Genocide lives with us, Women, memory, and silence in Rwanda, University of Wisconsin Press, Madison. [6825]

Burnet, Jennie (2015): Rape as a weapon of genocide. Gender, patriarchy, and sexual violence in Rwanda, in. Randall, Amy (ed.): Genocide and gender in the twentieth century, A comparative survey, Bloomsbury Academy, London, pp. 140-161. [6826]

De Smedt, Johan (1998): Child marriage in Rwandan refugee camps, in: Africa, vol. 68, pp. 211-237. [6827]

El-Bushra, Judy / El-Karib, Asha / Hadjipateras, Angela (2002): Gender sensitive programme design and planning in conflict affected situations, Research Report, Annex 6 Rwanda, written by Josepha Nyirankundabera, ACORD, London. [6828]

El-Bushra, Judy / Mukarubuga, Cecile (1995): Women, war and transition, in: Gender and Development, vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 16-22. [6829]

Feliciati, Clara Chapdelaine (2006): Restorative justice for the girl child in post-conflict Rwanda, in: Journal of Intertnational Women’s Studies, vol. 7, pp. 14-35. [6830]

Gervais, Myriam (2003): Human security and reconstruction efforts in Rwanda, Impact on the lives of women, in: Development in Practice, vol. 13, no. 5, pp. 542-551. [6831]

Hickey, Breeda (1996): Women and conflicts: The challenges, the future for women in Ruanda, in: Lieshout, Mary Van (Hg.): A woman’s workd, Beyound the headlines, Attic Press, Dublin, pp. 65-71. [6832]

Jones, Adam (2004): Gender and genocide in Rwanda, in: Jones, Adam: Gendercide and genocide, Vanderbilt University Press, Nashville, pp. 98-130. [6833]

Krüger, Karen (2004): Die Vergewaltigung von Tutsi-Frauen im rwandischen Genozid 1994, in: Feministische Studien, Heft 2, pp. 277-290. [6834]

Madsen, Hojlund Diana (2020): Women, peace and security in Rwanda, Nordic Africa Institute, NAI Policy Note 6, Uppsala. [6835]

Mageza-Barthel, Rirhandu (2012): Asserting their presence! Women’s quest for transitional justice in post-genocide Rwanda, in. Buckley-Zistel, Susanne / Stanley, Ruth (eds.): Gender in transitional justice, Palgrave Macmillan, Basingstoke, pp. 163-190. [6836]

Mageza-Barthel, Rirhandu (2015): Mobilizing transnational gender politics in post-genocide Rwanda, Ashgate, Farnham. [6837]

Mageza-Barthel, Rirhandu (2016): Tracing women’s rights after genocide, The case of Rwanda, in: Wibben, Annick (ed.): Researching war, Feminist methods, ethics and politics, Routledge, New York, pp. 147-166. [6838]

McNairn, Rosemarie (2005): Building capacity to resolve conflict in communities, Oxfam experience in Rwanda, in: Sweetman, Carol (ed.): Gender, peace building and reconstruction, Oxfam Publications, Oxford, pp. 84-93. [6839]

Mukamana, Donatilla / Collins, Anthony (2006): Rape survivors of the Rwandan genocide, in: Critical Psychology, International Journal of Critical Psychology, Issue 17: Critical Psychology in Africa, pp. 140-166. [6840]

Newbury, Catherine / Baldwin, Hannah (2001): Profile Rwanda, in: Kumar, Krishna (ed.): Women and civil war - Impact, organisations, and action, Lynne Rienner, Boulder, pp. 27-38. [6841]

Newbury, Catherine / Baldwin, Hannah (2001): Confronting the aftermath of conflict, Women’s organisations in postgenocide Rwanda, in: Kumar, Krishna (ed.): Women and civil war - Impact, organisations, and action, Lynne Rienner, Boulder, pp. 97-128. [6842]

Nowrojee, Binaifer (1996): Scattered lives: Sexual violence during the Rwanda genocide and its aftermath, Human Rights Watch, New York. [6843]

Nowrojee, Binaifer / Regan, Ralph (1988): Juctice for women victims of violence, Rwanda after the 1994 genocide, in: Amadiume, Ifi / An-Nai’im, Abdullahi (eds.): The politics of memory, Truth, healing and social justice, Zed Books, London, pp. 162-175. [6844]

Pillay, Navanethem (2001): Sexual violence in times of conflict, The jurisprudence of the international criminal tribunal for Rwanda, in: Chesterman, Simon (ed.): Civilians in war, Lynne Rienner, Boulder, pp. 167-176. [6845]

Schäfer, Rita (2008): Frauen und Kriege in Afrika, ein Beitrag zur Gender-Forschung, Brandes und Apsel Verlag, Frankfurt a.M. [11884]

Seewald, Magda (2006): Gender und bewaffnete Konflikte, Ruanda, Internetrecherche/Desk Studie, Wiener Institut für Entwicklungsfragen und Zusammenarbeit, Wien. [6846]

Sommers, Marc (2006): Fearing Africa’s young men, The case of Rwanda, Social Development Papers, Conflict Prevention and Reconstruction, CPR Paper no. 32, The World Bank, Washington D.C. [6847]

Stensrud, Ellen / Husby, Gorill (2005): Resolution 1325, From rhetoric to practice, A report on women`s role in reconciliation process in the Great Lakes of Africa, PRIO Report, Oslo. [6848]

Twagiramariya, Clotilde / Trushen, Meredeth (1998): ‘Favours to give’ and ‘consenting victims’, The sexual politics of survival in Rwanda, What women do in wartimes, in: Turshen, Meredeth / Twagiramariya (eds.): What women do in wartime, Gender and conflict in Africa, Zed Books, London, pp. 101-117. [6849]

Williamson, Carolinee (2012): Assessing the impact of genocide on Rwandan women self-perception and identity, A discursive analysis of posttraumatic growth in survivors testimonies, in: Enquire, 5, 1, pp. 3-21. [6850]


Senegal

Amnesty International (2003): Senegal, Casamance women speak out, Amnesty International, AFR 49/002/2003, London. [11911]

Bakari, Rukia (2021): Women and Peacebuilding: The use of traditional methods of conflict resolution by women from Casamance, Senegal, Timbuktu Institute, African Centre for Peace Studies, Dakar. [11910]


Sierra Leone

Aning, E.K. (1998): Gender and civil war, The cases of Sierra Leone and Liberia, in: Civil Wars, 1, 4, pp. 1-26. [6851]

Beoku-Betts, Josephine / Day, Lynda (2014): Anatomy of an evolving movement, the women’s peace movement and political activism in Sierra Leone since the 1990s, in: Jenda, vol. 25. [6852]

Bouta, Tsjeard / Frerks, Georg / Hughes, Bib (2005): Gender and peacemaking in the Westafrican context, Netherlands Institute of International Relations, ‘Clingendael’, Conflict Research Unit, The Hague. [6853]

Conciliation Resources (2008): The role of women in the security sector, Peace, Security and Development Update, Conciliation Resources, New York. [6854]

Coulter, Chris (2006): Being a bush wife: Women’s lives through war and peace in northern Sierra Leone / Chris Coulter, PhD Dissertation, Department of Cultural Anthropology, Uppsala University, Uppsala. [6855]

Coulter, Chris (2006): Female fighters in the Sierra Leone war, Challenging the assumptions? In: Feminist Review, vol. 88, pp. 54-73. [6856]

Denov, Myriam / Gervais, Christine (2007): Negotiating (in)security, Agency, resistance, and resourcefulness among girls formerly associated with the Sierra Leone’s Revolutionary United Front, in: Signs, Journal of Women in Culture and Society, vol. 32, no. 4, pp. 885-910. [6858]

Denov, Myriam / Maclure, Richard (2006): Engaging the voices of girls in the aftermath of Sierra Leone's conflict, Experiences and perspectives in a culture of violence, in: Anthropologica (New Series), vol. 48, no. 1, p. 73-85 [6857]

Higate, Paul (2004): Gender and peacekeeping, Case studies: The Democratic Republic of Congo and Sierra Leone, ISS Monographs, no. 91, Pretoria. [6859]

Higate, Paul (2005): Peacekeeping and gender, DRC and Sierra Leone. www.peacewomen.org [6860]

Higate, Paul / Henry, Marsha (2004): Engendering (in)security in peace support operations, in: Security Dialogue, vol. 35, no. 4, pp. 481-498. [6861]

Human Rights Watch (2003): “We’ll kill you if you cry”, Sexual violence in the Sierra Leone conflict, Human Rights Watch, vol. 15, no. 1, New York. [6862]

Jambai, A, Mac Cormack, C. (1996): Maternal health, war and religious tradition: Autorative knowledge in Pujehun district, Sierra Leone, in: Medical Anthropology Quarterly, 10, 2, pp. 270-286. [6863]

McCormack-Hale, Fredline (2009): NGOs and women’s capabilities in post-war settings, The case of Sierra Leone, in: Jenda, 15. [6866]

McKay, Susan (2005): Girls as ‘weapons of terror’ in Northern Uganda and Sierra Leonean rebel fighting forces, in. Studies in Conflict and Terrorism, vol. 28, pp. 385-397. [6864]

McKay, Susan (2005): Reconstructing fragile lives, Girls’ social reintegration in Northern Uganda and Sierra Leone, in: Sweetman, Caroline (ed.): Gender, peace building and reconstruction, Oxfam Publications, Oxford, pp. 18-30. [6865]

Menzel, Anne (2020): The perils of recognized local agency, The case of victims of sexual violence and the Sierra Leone Truth and Reconciliation Commission (TRC), in: Journal of International Relations and Development, vol. 23, no. 3, pp. 584-606. [11665]

Molloy, Desmond (2004): The gender perspective as a deterrants to spoilers, The Sierra Leone experience, in: Conflict Trends, vol. 2, pp. 16-19. [6867]

Olaitan, Zainab / Isike, Christopher (2019): The role of the African Union in fostering women’s represenation in formal peacebuilding, a case study of Sierra Leone, in: Journal of African Union Studies, vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 135-154. [6868]

Olson, Einar Odd / Scharffscher, Kristin (2004): Rape in refugee camps as organisational failures, in: International Journal of Human Rights, vol. 8, no. 4, pp. 377-397. [6869]

Puechgirbal, Nadine (2004): Involving women in peace process, Lessons from four African countries (Burundi, DRC, Liberia and Sierra Leone, in: Karamé, Kari (ed.): Gender and peacebuilding in Africa, Training for Peace Programme, Norsk Utenrikspolitisk Institutt, Oslo, pp. 47-66. [6870]

Schroven, Anita (2006): Women after war, Gender mainstreaming and the social construction of identity in contemporary Sierra Leone, Lit-Verlag, Münster. [6871]

Schäfer, Rita (2008): Frauen und Kriege in Afrika, ein Beitrag zur Gender-Forschung, Brandes und Apsel Verlag, Frankfurt a.M. [11885]

Sesay, Fatmata Lovetta (2004): Where there is no ‘safe haven’, Human rights abuses of Sierra Leonean women at home and in exile, in: Agenda, no. 59, pp. 22-31. [6872]

Sesay, Kadi (2005): Sierra Leone, Women in conflict resolution and post-conflict reconstruction, in: Rawwida / Etchart, Linda / Onubogu, Elsie / Johnson, Tina (eds.): Building sustainable peace, Gender mainstreaming in conflict transformation, Commonwealth Secretariat, London, pp. 183-190. [6873]

Solomon, Christiana (2005): The Mano River Union Sub-Region, The role of women in building peace, in: Baksh, Rawwida / Etchart, Linda / Onubogu, Elsie / Johnson, Tina (eds.): Building sustainable peace, Gender mainstreaming in conflict transformation, Commonwealth Secretariat, London, pp. 171-180. [6874]

UNHCR / Save the Children (2001): Sexual violence and exploitation, The experience of refugee children in Guinea, Liberia and Sierra Leone, unpublished report, UNHCR / Save the Children, Geneva / London. [6875]


Somalia

Adelson, Anne / Hassan, Amina Sharif / Jowhar, Safia (2000): Enough is enough! Voice of Somali women for peace, reconsiliation and political rights, in: Candian Journal of Women`s Studies, vol. 19, no. 3, pp. 132-136. [6913]

Affi, Ladan / Tonnessen, Liv / Tripp, Aili Mari (2021): Women and peacebuilding in Africa, Boydell and Brewer, Rochester. [11616]

Africa Watch (1993): Seeking refuge, Finding terror, The widespread rape of Somali women refugees in Norht East Kenya, Africa Watch, vol. 5, no. 13, Women’s Rights Project, Africa Rights Watch/Human Rights Watch Publication, New York. [6914]

Bartels, Koos / Haaijer, Ineke (1990): Somali female refugees in baseline health care, in: Vena Journal, vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 14-17. [6915]

Bennett, Olivia / Bexley, Jo / Warnock, Kitty (eds.) (1995): Arms to fight, arms to protect, women speak out about conflict, Panos, London. [6916]

Bryden, Mat (1998): Somalia between peace and war, Somali women on the eve of the 21th century, UNIFEM Publications, New York. [6917]

Declich, F. (2000): Fostering ethnic reinvention, Gender impact of forced migration on Bantu Somali refugees in Kenya, in: Cahiers d’Etudes Africaines, vol. 157, no. 1, pp. 25-53. [6918]

El-Bushra, Judy / El-Karib, Asha / Hadjipateras, Angela (2002): Gender sensitive programme design and planning in conflict affected situations, Research Report, Annex 5: Somalia Case Study, written by Ibrahim Nur, Acord, London. [6919]

Elmi, Asha Hagi / Ibrahim, Dekha / Jenner, Janice (2000): Women`s role in peacemaking in Somali society, Hodgson, Dorothy (ed.): Rethinking pastroalism in Africa, Gender, culture and the myths of the patriarchal pastoralist, James Currey, Oxford, pp. 121-141. [6920]

Gardener, Judith / El Bushra, Judy (eds.) (2004): Somalia, The untold story, The war through the eyes of Somali women, Pluto Press, London. [6921]

Gardner, J. / El-Bushra, J. (2016): The impact of war on Somali men and its effects on the family, women and children, PSRP Briefing Paper No. 12, The Rift Valley Institute, Nairobi. [11920]

Hagi Elmi, Asha / Ibrahim, Dekha / Jenner, Janice (2000): Women’s role in peacemaking in Somali society, in: Hodgson, Dorothy (ed.): Rethinking pastoralism in Africa, Gender, culture and the myth of the patriarchal pastoralist, James Currey, Oxford, pp. 121-141. [6922]

Hasci, Naima (1999): Somali refugee women’s rights in Kenya, The gap between policy and practice, in: Fox, Diana / Hasci, Naima (eds.): The challenges of women’s activism and human rights in Africa, Edwin Mellen Press, Lewiston, pp. 115-141. [6923]

Israelite, Neita Kay / Herman, Arlena / Alim, Faduma Ahmed (2000): Waiting for ‘sharciga’, Resettlement and the role of Somali refugee women, in: Candian Journal of Women`s Studies, vol. 19, no. 3, pp. 80-86. [6924]

Mabuwa, Rumbi (2000): Seeking protection, Addressing sexual and domestic violence in Tanzania’s refugee camps, based on research 1998-1999, Human Rights Watch, New York. [6925]

Miller, Laura / Moskos, Charles (1995): Humanitarians or warriors? Race, gender, and combat status in operation ‘Restore Hope’, in: Armed Forces and Society, vol. 21, no. 4, pp. 615-637. [6926]

Schäfer, Rita (2008): Frauen und Kriege in Afrika, ein Beitrag zur Gender-Forschung, Brandes und Apsel Verlag, Frankfurt a.M. [11886]


South Africa

Annecke, Wendy (1990): Women and the war in Natal, in: Agenda, no. 7, pp. 12-37. Bridger, Emily [6876]

Annecke, Wendy (2021): Young women against Apartheid, Gender, youth and South Africa’s liberation struggle, James Currey, Oxford. [6877]

Budlender, Debbie / Meintjes, Sheila / Schreiner, Jenny (1983): Women and resistance in South Africa, A review article, in: Journal of Southern African Studies, vol. 10, pp. 131-135. [6878]

Cock, Jacklyn (2005): ‘Guards and guns’, Towards privatised militarism in post-apartheid South Africa, in: Journal of Southern African Studies, vol. 31, no. 4, pp. 791-803. [6879]

Curnow, Robyn (2000): Thandi Modise, A woman at war, in: Agenda, no. 43, pp. 36-40. [6880]

Gaitskell, Deborah / Unterhalter, Elaine (1989): Mothers of the nation: A comparative analysis of nation, race and motherhood in Afrikaner nationalism and the African National Congress, in: Yuval-Davis, Nira / Anthias, Floya (eds.): Women - Nation - State, London, pp. 58-76. [6881]

Goldblatt, Beth / Meintjes, Sheila (1998): South African women demand the truth, in: Turshen, Meredeth / Twagiramariya, Clothilde (eds.): What women do in wartimes, Zed Books, London, pp. 27-61. [6882]

Goldblatt, Beth / Meintjes, Sheila (1989): A community is a liberated as its women, A critical look at women in South African poetry, Institute for a Democratic Alternative in South Africa, IDASA, Occasional Papers, 18, Cape Town. [6883]

Hassim, Shireen / Stiebel, Lindy (1993): The semiotics of the struggle, Gender representations in the Natal violence, PRIF Reports, no. 30, Veröffentlichungen der Hessische Stiftung für Friedens- und Konfliktforschung, Frankfurt a.M. [6884]

Israel, Mark / Lyons, Tanya / Mason, C. (2002): Women, resistance and Africa: Armed struggles in Zimbabwe, South Africa and Eritrea, in: Humanity and Society, vol. 26, no. 3, pp. 196-213. [6885]

Krog, Antje (2001): Locked into loss and silence, Testimonies of gender and violence at the South African Truth Commission, in: Moser, Caroline / Clark, Fiona (eds.): Victims, perpetrators or actors? Gender, armed conflict and political violence, Zed Books, London, pp. 203-216. [6886]

Maitse, Teboho (1996): The past is the present, in: Bell, Diane / Klein, Renate (ed.): Radically speaking - Feminism reclaimed, Zed Books, London, pp. 436-440. [6887]

Maitse, Teboho (2000): Revealing silence, Voices from South Africa, in: Jacobs, Susie / Jacobson, Ruth / Marchbank, Jen (eds.): States in conflict, Gender violence and resistance, Zed Books, London, pp. 199-214. [6888]

Manicom, Linzi (1992): Ruling relations: Rethinking state and gender in Southern African history, in: Journal of African History, vol. 33, pp. 441-465. [6889]

Oboe, Annlisa (2007): The TRC women’s hearing as performance and protest in the new South Africa, in: Research in African Literatures, vol. 38, no. 3, pp. 60-76. [6890]

Ross, Fiona (2001): Speech and silence, Women’s testimony in the first five weeks of public hearings of the South African Truth and Reconciliation Commission, in: Das, Veena / Kleinman, Arthur / Lock, Margaret / Ramphele, Mamphela / Reynolds, Pamela (eds.): Remaking a world, Violence, social suffering, and recovery, University of California Press, Berkeley, pp. 250-279. [6891]

Ross, Fiona (2003): Bearing witness, Women and the Truth and Reconciliation Commission, Pluto Press, London. [6892]

Russell, Diana (1988): Detention in South Africa, A woman’s experience, in: Feminist Issues, vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 3-24. [6893]

Russell, Diana (1989): Life in a police state: Black South African women speak out, in: Women’s Studies International Forum, vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 157-166. [6894]

Russell, Diana (1989): Lives of courage - Women for a new South Africa, New York. [6895]

Schäfer, Rita (2008): Frauen und Kriege in Afrika, ein Beitrag zur Gender-Forschung, Brandes und Apsel Verlag, Frankfurt a.M. [11887]

Walker, Cherryl (1982): Women and resistance in South Africa, Johannesburg. [6898]

Wells, Julia (1983): Why women rebel: A comparative study of South African women’s resistance movements in Bloemfontein (1913) and Johannesburg (1958), in: Journal of Southern African Studies, vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 55-70. [6896]

Wells, Julia (1993): We now demand! The history of women’s resistance to pass laws in South Africa, Johannesburg. [6897]


South Sudan

Affi, Ladan / Tonnessen, Liv / Tripp, Aili Mari (2021): Women and peacebuilding in Africa, Boydell and Brewer, Rochester. [11615]

Bantebya, Grace (2007): Women’s experiences during armed conflict in Southern Sudan, 1983-2005, The case of Juba county, Central Equatorial state, Isis-WICCE, Kampala. [6899]

Beswick, Stephanie (2000): Women, war and leadership in South Sudan (1700-1994), in: Spaulding, Jay / Beswick, Stephanie (eds.): White Nile, black blood, War, leadership and ethnicity from Khartoum to Kampala, Red Sea Press, Lawrenceville, pp. 93-112. [6956]

Beswick, Stephanie (2001): ‘We are bought like clothes’, The war over polygyny and levirate marriage in South Sudan, in: Northeast African Studies, vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 35-61. [6900]

Bubenzer, Friederike / Stern, Orly (eds.) (2011): Hope, pain and patience, The lives of women in South Sudan, Jacana Media, Auckland Park. [6901]

Declich, Fancesca (1997): Groups of mutual assistance, Feminine and masculine work among agriculturalists along the Juba River, in: Northeast African Studies, vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 77-89. [6902]

Edward, Jane Kani (2001): Southern Sudan refugee women, Questioning the past and imagining a future, in: Grimshaw, Patricia / Holmes, Katie / Lake, Marilyn (eds.): Women’s rights and human rights, International historical perspectives, Palgrave,New York, pp. 273-289. [6957]

Elia, Lona (2007): Fighting gender-based violence in South Sudan, in: Forced Migration Review, vol. 27, pp. 27-30. [6958]

Ensor, Marisa (2013): Drinking the bitter roots, Gendered youth, transitional justice and reconciliation across the South Sudan-Uganda border, in: African Conflict and Peacebuilding Review, vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 171-194. [6903]

Grabska, Katarzyna (2014): Gender, home and identity, Nuer repatriation to Southern Sudan, James Currey, Suffolk. [6904]

Hilhorst, Dorothea / van Leeuwen, Mathijs (2005): Global peace builders and local conflict, The feminization of peace in Southern Sudan, in: Davids, tine / van Driel, Francien (eds.): The gender question in globalization, Challenging perspectives and practices, Ashgate Publishing, Aldershot, pp. 93-120. [6959]

Hutchinson, Sharon Elaine / Jok, Madut Jok (2002): Gendered violence and the militarisation of ethnicity, A case study from South Sudan, in: Werbner, Richard (ed.): Postcolonial subjectivity in Africa, Zed Books, London, pp. 84-107. [6960]

Jok, Jok Madut (1998): Militarization, gender and reproductive health in South Sudan, Edwin Mellen Press, Lewiston. [6905]

Jok, Madut Jok (1998): Militarization, gender and reproductive health in South Sudan, Edwin Mellen Press, Lewiston. [6961]

Jok, Madut Jok (1999): Militarism, gender and reproductive suffering: The case of abortion in Western Dinka, in: Africa, vol. 69, no. 2, pp. 194-212. [6962]

Jok, Madut Jok (2000): Militarization and gender violence in South Sudan, in: Journal of African and Asian Studies, vol. 34, pp. 420-429. [6963]

Pinaud, Clémence (2013): Are ‘griefs of more value than triumphs’, Power relations, nation building, and the different histories of women’s wartime contributions in postwar South Sudan, in: Northeast African Studies, vol. 13, no. 2, pp. 151-175. [6906]

Pinaud, Clémence (2015): ‘We are trained to be married!’ Elite formation and ideology in the ‘girls’ battalion’ of the Sudan People’s Liberation Army, in: Journal of Eastern African Studies, vol. 9, no. 3, pp. 375-393. [6907]

Pol, Mirjam (1998): We have to sit down, Women, war and pace in southern Sudan, Pax Christi, Utrecht. [6908]

Sabala, Kizito (2017): South Sudan’s 2015 peace agreement and women’s participation, in: African Journal of Conflict and Peacebuilding Review, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 80-93. [6909]

Strategic Initiative for Women in the Horn of Africa (SIHA) (2012): Bread for the breadwinners, A guide for grassroots organisations working on women’s economic empowerment in the two Sudans, SIHA, Kampala. [6910]

Strategic Initiative for Women in the Horn of Africa (SIHA) (2013): Reinforcing community activism and intergenerational bridges for women’s rights and equality, A guide on community activism, South Sudan, SIHA, Kampala. [6911]

Weber, Annette (2011): Women without arms, Gendered fighters construcitons in Eritrea and Southern Sudan, in: International Journal of Conflict and Violence, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 357-370. [6912]


Sudan

Abusharaf, Mustafa Rogaia (2009): Transforming displaced women in Sudan, Politics and the body in a squatter settlement, University of Chicago Press, Chicago. [6927]

Affi, Ladan / Tonnessen, Liv / Tripp, Aili Mari (2021): Women and peacebuilding in Africa, Boydell and Brewer, Rochester. [11614]

Ali, Magda / Pett, Celia (2005): A sexual and reproductive health education initiative for young Sudanese refugees in urban Egypt, in: Community Development Journal, vol. 40, no. 2, pp. 192-200. [6928]

Ali, Mustafa Nada (2000): Meet Mary Apai, Nada Mustafa Ali talks to Mary Apai, a Southern Sudanese activist on conflict, gender and culture, in: Agenda, no. 43, pp. 67-71. [6929]

Amnesty International (2004): Sudan – Darfur, Rape as a weapon of war, Sexual violence and its consequences, AI Index, AFR 54/076/2004, London. [6930]

Amnesty International (2004): Stop violence against women, Sudan – Mass rape, abduction and murder, AI Index, AFR 54/125/2004, London. [6931]

Amnesty International (2006): ‘No one to help them’, Rape extends from Darfur into Eastern Chad, AI Indesx AFR 54/087/2006, London. [6932]

Azzain, Adam Mohamed (2004): From instigating violence to building peace, The changing role of women in Dafur Region, in: African Journal of Conflict Research, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 11-26. [6933]

Colijn, Inge (1990): Eritrean refugee women in eastern Sudan: Changes in roles and responsibilities, and the consequences, in: VENA Newsletter vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 23-27. [6934]

Duany, Julia Aker / Duany, Wal (2001): War and women in the Sudan, Role change and adjustment to new responsibilities, in: Northeastern African Studies, vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 63-82. [6935]

Edward, Jane Kani (2001): Southern Sudan refugee women, Questioning the past and imagining a future, in: Grimshaw, Patricia / Holmes, Katie / Lake, Marilyn (eds.): Women’s rights and human rights, International historical perspectives, Palgrave,New York, pp. 273-289. [6936]

Edward, Jane Kani (2007): Sudanese women refugees, Transformations and future imaginings, Palgrave, London. [6937]

El Sanousi, Magda (1991): Displaced women in Omdurman, in: Ahfad Journal vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 20-33. [6941]

El Sanousi, Magda / El Amin, Afisa (1994): Displaced women, and rural women in Sudan, in: Nelson, Barbara / Chowdhury, Najma (eds.): Women in politics worldwide, Yale University Press, New Haven / London,pp.675-689. [6942]

El-Bushra, Judy (2003): Fused in combat, Gender relations and armed conflict, in: Development in Practice, vol. 13, no. 2-3, pp. 252-265. [6938]

El-Bushra, Judy / El-Karib, Asha / Hadjipateras, Angela (2002): Gender sensitive programme design and planning in conflict affected situations, Research Report, Annex 3: Sudan written by Norma Fodul, Acord, London. [6939]

El-Bushra, Judy / Sahl, Ibrahim (2005): Cycles of violence, Gender relations and armed conflict, ACORD Publications, London. [6940]

Fodul, Norma (2002): Gender-sensitive programme design and planning in conflict-affected situations, Annex 3: Sudan case study, ACORD, London. [6943]

Girma, Kebbede (1991): The agonies of displacement, Ethiopian women refugees in Khartoum, Sudan, in: Geo Journal, vol. 23, no. 2, pp. 99-106. [6944]

Hashim, Fahima (2007): Sudanese women acting to end sexual violence, in: Forced Migration Review, vol. 27, no. 44. [6945]

Human Rights Watch (2005): Sexual violence and its consequences among displaced persons in Darfur and Chad, Human Rights Watch Briefing Paper, April 2005, New York. [6946]

Ibrahim, Fatima Ahmed (2002): War in empty rooms and the Sudanese Women’s Union, in: Braig, Marianne / Wölte, Sonja (eds.): Common grounds or mutual exclusion? Women`s movements and international relations, Zed Books, London, pp. 1136-144. [6947]

Lazarus, Alison (2000): Feminist epistemology and conflict resolution, Some critical thoughts on training interventions for Sudanese women, in: Agenda, no. 43, pp. 62-66. [6948]

Macklin, Audrey (2004): Like oil and water, with a match, Militarized commerce, armed conflict, and human security in Sudan, in: Giles, Wenona / Hyndman, Jennifer (eds.): Sites of violence, Gender and conflict zones, University of California Press, Berkeley, pp. 75-107. [6949]

Mohammed, Adam Azzain (2003): Sudan, Women and conflict in Dafur, in: Review of African Political Economy, vol. 97, pp. 479-510. [6950]

Mohammed, Adam Azzain (2004): From instigating violence to building peace, The changing role of women in Dafur region of Western Sudan, in: African Journal of Conflict Resolution, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 11-26. [6951]

Musa, Suad (2018): Hawks and doves in Sudan’s armed conflict, Al-Hakkamat Baggara women of Darfur, Boydell and Brewer, Rochester. [11612]

Patrick, Erin (2007): Sexual violence and firewood collection in Darfur, in: Forced Migration Review, vol. 27, pp. 40-41. [6953]

Payne, Lina (1998): Food shortages and gender relations in Ikafe settlement, Uganda, in: Gender and Development, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 30-36. [6952]

Quénivet, Noelle (2004): Vergewaltigung in Darfur, ein Verbrechen gegen die Menschlichkeit? Institut für Friedenssicherungsrecht und humanitäres Völkerrecht, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, BOFAXE Nr. 280D, Bochum. [6954]

Schäfer, Rita (2008): Frauen und Kriege in Afrika, ein Beitrag zur Gender-Forschung, Brandes und Apsel Verlag, Frankfurt a.M. [11888]

Sharland, Roger (2001): Introducing new crops in a conflict situation, Gender roles and innovations, in: LEISA Magazine, April 2001, pp. 26-27. [6955]

Tonnessen, Liv / al Nagar, Samia (2020): Patriarchy, politics and women’s activism in post-revolution Sudan, CMI, Bergen. [11618]


Swaziland / Eswatini

Maphalala, Tizie / Mamphala, Nothando (2021): Is the women, peace and security (WPS) agenda useful in non-war contexts? The case of Eswatini, ACCORD, Durban. [11916]


Tanzania

UNESCO (1997): Women and a culture of peace, a case study on women´s peace building and conflict resolution skills, women of Morogoro Region, Tanzania, a research report, UNESCO, Paris. [11917]


The Congo

Cuvelier, J. / Bashwira, M.-R. (2016): Women, conflict and public authority in the Congo, PSRP Briefing Paper No. 13. Rift Valley Institute, Nairobi. [11919]


Togo

no entries to this combination of country and topic


Uganda

Angulo, Joy Edith (2001): Gender abduction and reintegration in Northern Uganda, Occasional Paper, no. 6, Department of Women and Gender Studies, Makerere University, Kampala. [6965]

Annan, Jeannie / Blattman, Christopher / Mazurana, Dyan / Carlson, Kristopher (2011): Civil war, reintegration and gender in Northern Uganda, in: Journal of Conflict Resolution, vol. 55, no. 1, pp. 875-906. [6964]

Behrend, Heike (1992): Alice Lakwena und die Holy-Spirit-Bewegung im Norden Ugandas - Einige Bemerkungen zu Prophetinnen in Afrika, in: Peripherie, Nr. 47/48, pp. 129-136. [6967]

Behrend, Heike (1993): Alice und die Geister, Trickster Verlag, München. [6968]

Behrend, Heike (1998): The Holy Spirit Movement’s new world, Discourse and development in North of Uganda, in: Hansen, Holger Bernt / Twaddle, Michael (eds.): Developing Uganda, James Currey, London, pp. 245-253. [6969]

Bennett, Olivia / Bexley, Jo / Warnock, Kitty (eds.) (1995): Arms to fight, arms to protect, women speak out about conflict, Panos, London. [6966]

Cheldelin, Sandra / Mutisi, Martha (eds.) (2015): Deconstructing women, peace and security, A critical review of approaches to gender and empowerment, HSRC Press, Pretoria. [11605]

Dolan, Chris (2002): Collapsing masculinities and weak states, A case study of Northern Uganda, in: Cleaver, Frances (ed.): Masculinities matter! Men, gender and development, Zed Books, London, pp. 57-83. [6970]

El-Bushra, Judy (2003): Fused in combat, Gender relations and armed conflict, in: Development in Practice, vol. 13, no. 2-3, pp. 252-265. [6971]

El-Bushra, Judy / El-Karib, Asha / Hadjipateras, Angela (2002): Gender sensitive programme design and planning in conflict affected situations, Research Report, Annex Uganda, Acord, London. [6972]

El-Bushra, Judy / Sahl, Ibrahim (2005): Cycles of violence, Gender relations and armed conflict, ACORD Publications, London. [6973]

Human Rights Watch (2003): Stolen children, Abduction and recruitment in Northern Uganda, vol. 15, no. 7, New York. [6974]

Human Rights Watch (2003): Just die quietly, Domestic violence and women’s vulernability to HIV in Uganda, Human Rights Watch, vol. 15, no. 15, New York. [6975]

ISIS (1998): Women’s experience of armed conflict in Uganda, Luwero District, 1980-1986, ISIS Kampala, ISIS Research Report, part one, ISIS Publications, Kampala. [6976]

ISIS (1999): The short term intervention of the psychological and gynaecological consequences of armed conflict in Luwero District (Uganda), part two, ISIS Publications, Kampala. [6977]

ISIS (1999): Breaking the silence, Women reveal realities of armed conflicts, Women’s World, no. 33, ISIS Publication, Kampala. [6978]

ISIS (2002): Documentation of Teso women’s experiences of armed conflict, 1987-2001, part one, ISIS Publication, Kampala. [6979]

ISIS (2002): Medical interventional study of war affected Teso region, Kampala, part two, ISIS Publication, Uganda. [6980]

Janmyr, Maja (2019): Military recruitment of Sudanese refugee men in Uganda, A tale of national patronage and international failure, in: Buckley-Zistel, Susanne / Krause, Ulrike (eds.): Gender, violence and refugees, Berghahn Books, London, pp. 219-238. [6981]

Krause, Ulrike (2015): Zwischen Schutz und Scham? Flüchtlingslager, Gewalt und Geschlechterverhältnisse, in: Peripherie, vol. 35, no. 138/139, pp. 235-259. [11562]

Krause, Ulrike (2015): A Continuum of Violence? Linking Sexual and Gender-based Violence during Conflict, Flight, and Encampment, in: Refugee Survey Quarterly,vol. 34, no.4, pp. 1-19 [11563]

Krause, Ulrike (2021): Difficult Life in a Refugee Camp. Violence, Gender, and Coping in Uganda, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. [11565]

Kwiringira, Japheth Nkiriyehe, et al. (2018): Experiences of gender-based violence among refugee populations in Uganda, Evidence from four Refugee Camps, in: Eastern Africa Social Science Research Review, vol. 34, no. 2, pp. 291–311. [11702]

McKay, Susan (2005): Girls as ‘weapons of terror’ in Northern Uganda and Sierra Leonean rebel fighting forces, in. Studies in Conflict and Terrorism, vol. 28, pp. 385-397. [6982]

McKay, Susan (2005): Reconstructing fragile lives, Girls’ social reintegration in Northern Uganda and Sierra Leone, in: Sweetman, Caroline (ed.): Gender, peace building and reconstruction, Oxfam Publications, Oxford, pp. 18-30. [6983]

Nakazibwe, Primrose / van Reisen, Mirjam (2019): Life after the Lord’s Resistance Army, Support for formerly abduced girls in Northern Uganda, in: van Reisen, Mirjam / Mawere, Munyaradzi / Stokmans, Mia / Gebre-Egziabher Abraha, Kinfe (eds.): Roaming Africa, Migration, resilience and social protection, Laanga, Bamenda, pp. 407-432. [6984]

Niavarani, Jacqueline (2006): Gender und bewaffnete Konflikte, Nord-Uganda, Internetrecherche/Desk Studie, Wiener Institut für Entwicklungsfragen und Zusammenarbeit, Wien. [6985]

Payne, Lina (1998): Food shortages and gender relations in Ikafe settlement, Uganda, in: Gender and Development, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 30-36. [6986]

Schäfer, Rita (2008): Frauen und Kriege in Afrika, ein Beitrag zur Gender-Forschung, Brandes und Apsel Verlag, Frankfurt a.M. [11889]

Veney, Cassandra (2006): Between the devil and the deep blue sea, Internally displaced women and girls in Liberia and Uganda and the role of the international community, in: Journal of International Women’s Studies, vol. 7, pp. 209-223. [6987]


Zambia

no entries to this combination of country and topic


Zimbabwe

Bond-Stewart, Kathy (1984): Young women in the liberation struggle, Stories and poems from Zimbabwe, Harare. [6988]

Israel, Mark / Lyons, Tanya / Mason, C. (2002): Women, resistance and Africa: Armed struggles in Zimbabwe, South Africa and Eritrea, in: Humanity and Society, vol. 26, no. 3, pp. 196-213. [6989]

Jaji, Rose (2020): Gendered subjectivities, The nexus between femininity and peacebuilding in Zimbabwe, in: African Journal of Conflict and Peacebuilding Review, vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 1-27. [6990]

Kesby, Mike (1996): Arenas for control, terrains of gender contestation: Guerilla struggle and counter-insurgency warfare in Zimbabwe, in: Journal of Southern African Studies, vol. 22, no. 4, pp. 561-584. [6991]

Kriger, Norma (1992): Zimbabwe’s guerrilla war, Peasant voices, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. [6992]

Lyons, Tanya (2002): Guerrilla girls and women in the Zimbabwean national liberation struggle, in: Allman, Jean / Geiger, Susan / Musisi, Nakanyike (eds.): Women in colonial African histories, Indiana University Press, Bloomington, pp. 305-326. [6993]

Lyons, Tanya (2004): Guns and guerrilla girls, Women in the Zimbabwean national liberation struggle, Africa World Press, Trenton/Lawrenceville. [6994]

Müller, Barbara (2002): Der falsche Zeitpunkt, Frauen und der Kampf für Befreiung in Zimbabwe, in: Periplus, 12. Jahrgang, pp. 35-59. [6995]

Nhongo-Simbanegavi, Josephine (2000): For better or worse, Women and ZANLA in Zimbabwe’s liberation struggle, Weaver Press, Harare. [6996]

Pankhurst, Donna (1988): Women’s lives and women’s struggle in rural Zimbabwe, University of Leeds Southern Africa Research Series 6, Leeds. [6997]

Ranchod-Nilsson, Sita (1992): „Educating Eve“: The women’s club movement and political consciousness among rural African women in Southern Rhodesia, 1950-1980, in: Tranberg Hansen, Karen (ed.): African encounters with domesticity, New Brunswick, pp. 195-217. [6998]

Ranchod-Nilsson, Sita (1994): „This too, is a way of fighting“, Rural women’s participation in Zimbabwe’s liberation war, in: Tétreault, Mary Ann (Hg.): Women and the revolution in Africa, Asian and the New World, University of California Press, Columbia, pp. 62-88. [6999]

Schmidt, Heike (1996): Love and healing in forced communities: Borderlands in Zimbabwe’s war of liberation, in: Asiwaju, A.I. / Nugent, P. (eds.)African boundaries: Barriers, conduits and opportunities, London, pp. 183-204. [7000]

Schmidt, Heike (1997): Healing the wounds of war: Memories of violence and the making of history in Zimbabwe’s most recent past, in: Journal of Southern African Studies, vol. 23, no. 2, pp. 301-310. [7001]

Schäfer, Rita (2008): Kombattantinnen im anti-kolonialen Unabhängigkeitskrieg in Simbabwe, in: Maubach, Franka / Satjukow, Silke / Latzel, Klaus (eds.): Soldatinnen, Gewalt und Geschlecht im Krieg vom Mittelalter bis heute, Brill Publishers, Leiden, pp. 415–441. [11875]

Schäfer, Rita (2008): Frauen und Kriege in Afrika, ein Beitrag zur Gender-Forschung, Brandes und Apsel Verlag, Frankfurt a.M. [11890]

Staunton, Irene (1990): Mothers of the revolution, Baobab Books, Harare. [7002]

Stott, Leda (1989): Women and the armed struggle for independence in Zimbabwe (1964-1979), Edingburgh. [7003]

Sylvester, Christine (1990): Simultaneous revolutions, The Zimbabwean case, in: Journal of Southern Africa, vol. 16, no. 3, pp. 452-475. [7004]

Win, Everjoice (2004): ‘Are there any people here?’ Violence against women in the Zimbabwean conflict, in: Agenda, no. 59, pp. 17-21. [7005]

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