Literature Database on Gender in Subsahara Africa

Literature on history colonialism and pre-colonial history

Africa OverviewAngolaBenin
BotswanaBurkina FasoBurundi
CameroonCentral African RepublicChad
D.R. Congo / ZaireDjiboutiEquatorial Guinea
EritreaEthiopiaGabon
GambiaGhanaGuinea
Guinea BisseauIvory CoastKenya
LesothoLiberiaMadagascar
MalawiMaliMauritius
MozambiqueNamibiaNiger
NigeriaRwandaSenegal
Sierra LeoneSomaliaSouth Africa
South SudanSudanSwaziland / Eswatini
TanzaniaThe CongoTogo
UgandaZambiaZimbabwe

Africa Overview

Achebe, Nwando / Robertson, Claire (2019): Holding the world together, African women in changing perspective, University of Wisconsin Press, Madison. [11593]

Agorsah, Kofi (1990): Women in African traditional politics, in: Journal of Legal Pluralism and Unofficial Law, no. 30, pp. 30-86. [5100]

Allman, Jean / Geiger, Susan / Musisi, Nakanyike (eds.) (2002): Women in colonial African histories, Indiana University Press, Bloomington. [5102]

Andrade, Susan (2007): Rioting women and writing women, Gender, class and the public sphere in Africa, in: Cole, Catherine / Manuh, Takyiwaa / Miescher, Stephan (eds.): Africa after gender? Indiana Unviersity Press, Bloomington, pp. 85-107. [5101]

Barnes, Sandra (1997): Gender and the politics of support and protection in precolonial West Africa, in: Kaplan, Flora Edouwaye (ed.): Queens, Queen Mothers, Priestresses, and power, Case studies in African gender, Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, New York, pp. 1-18. [5103]

Berger, Iris / White, Frances / Skidmore-Hess, C. (eds.) (1999): Women in Sub-Saharan Africa, Restoring women to history, Indiana University Press, Bloomington. [5104]

Campbell, Gwyn / Miller, Joseph C. / Miers, Suzanne (Eds.) (2007): Women and slavery, vol. I - Africa, the Indian Ocean World, and the Medieval North Atlantic, Ohio University Press, Ohio. [5105]

Campbell, Gwyn / Miller, Joseph C. / Miers, Suzanne (Eds.) (2007): Women and slavery, vol. II - Africa, the Indian Ocean World, and the Medieval North Atlantic, Ohio University Press, Ohio. [5106]

Cohen, Ronald (1977): Oedipus Rex and Regina, The Queen Mother in Africa, in: Africa, vol. 47, no. 1, pp. 14-30. [5107]

Coquery-Vidrovitch, Catherine (1997): African women, A modern history, Westview Press, Boulder. [5108]

Cromwell, Adelaide (1986): An African victorian feminist, The life and times of Adelaide Smith Saely Hayford 1868-1960, Frank Class Publishers, London. [5109]

Dennis, Carolyn (1988): Women in African labour history, in: Journal of Asian and African Studies, vol. 23, no. 1-2, pp. 125-140. [5111]

Denzer, La Ray (1976): Towards a study of the history of West African women’s participation in nationalist politics, the early phase, 1935-1950, in: Africana Research Bulletin, vol. VI, no. 4, pp. 65-85.. [5110]

Donaldson, Laura (1992): Decolonizing feminisms - Race, Gender and empire-building, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill. [5112]

Everett, J. / Charlton, S.E. / Staudt, Kathleen (eds.) (1991): Women, development and the state, Suny Publishers, Albany. [5113]

Gawanas, Bience (1987): Women’s struggle within the national liberation struggle, in: Journal of African Marxists, vol. 10, pp. 50-64. [5114]

Geschiere, Peter (2017): A vortex of identities, Freemansory, witchcraft and postcolonial homophobia, in: African Studies Review, vol. 60, no 2, pp. 7-35. [5115]

Geschiere, Peter / Orock, Rogers (2020): Anusocratie? Freemanonry, sexual transgression and illicit enrichment in postcolonial Africa, in: Africa, vol. 90, no. 5, pp. 831-851. [5116]

Grosz-Ngaté, Maria / Kokole, Omari (eds.) (1997): Gendered encounters, Challenging cultural boundaries and social hierarchies in Africa, Routledge Publishers, London. [5117]

Günther, Ursula (2003): Postcolonialism – gender – Africa, Herausforderungen für Afrikaforschende, in: Böll, Verena et al. (Hrsg.): Umbruch – Bewältigung – Geschlecht, Waxmann Verlag, Münster, pp. 15-41. [5118]

Hay, Margaret (1988): Queens, prostitutes and peasants, Historical perspectives on African women, 1971-1986, in: Canadian Journal of African Studies, vol. 22, no.3, pp. 431-447. [5119]

Hendrickson, Hildi (ed.) (1996): Clothing and difference, Embodied identities in colonial and post-colonial Africa, Duke University Press, Durham. [5120]

Hunt, Rose Nancy (ed.) (1989): Placing African woman’s history and locating gender, in: Social History, vol. 14, no. 3, pp. 359-379. [5121]

Hunt, Rose Nancy (ed.) (1997): Gendered colonialism in African history, Blackwell, Oxford. [5122]

Imam, Mei-Tje Ayeha (1988): The presentation of Afrian women in historical writing, in: Keinberg, S. J. (ed.): Retrieving women’s history, Changing perceptions of the role of women in politics and society, Berg Publishers, Oxford, pp. 30-40. [5123]

Johnson-Odim, Cheryl / Strobel, Margaret (eds.) (1992): Expanding the boundaries of women’s history, Indiana University Press, Bloomington. [5124]

Jones, Adam (1990): Prostitution, Polyandrie oder Vergewaltigung? Zur Mehrdeutigkeit europäischer Quellen über die Küste Westafrikas zwischen 1660 und 1860, in: Jones, Adam (Hg.): Außereuropäische Frauengeschichte, Centaurus Verlag, Pfaffenweiler, pp. 123-156. [5125]

Kaplan, Flora (ed.) (1997): Queens, queen mothers, priestress, and power, Case studies in African gender, New York Academy of Sciences, New York. [5126]

Kent, Susan (ed.) (1998): Gender in African pre-history, Alta Mira, London. [5127]

Leis, Nancy (1976): West African women and the colonial experience, in: Western Canadian Journal of Anthropology, vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 123-132. [5128]

Nnaemeka, Obioma et al. (eds.) (1996): African women and imperialism, Africa University Press, Trenton. [5129]

Ogbomo, Onaiwu (2005): Women, power and society in pre-colonial Africa, Lagos Historical Review, vol. 5, pp. 49-74. [5130]

Parpart, Jane (ed.) (1989): Women and development in Africa, Comparative perspectives, University of America Press, Lanham [5132]

Parpart, Jane / Staudt, Kathleen (eds.) (1989): Women and the state in Africa, Lynne Rienner, Boulder. [5131]

Pederson, Susan (1991): National bodies, unspeakable acts, The sexual politics of colonial policy-making, in: Journal of Modern History, vol. 63, pp. 647-680. [5133]

Reinwald, Brigitte (1989): Weiblichkeitsbilder – Geschlechtergeschichte? Historische Perspektiven afrikabezogener Frauenforschung, in. Zeitschrift für Sozialgeschichte des 20. und 21. Jh., 3, pp. 76-96. [5134]

Robertson, Claire (1987): Developing economic awareness, Changing perspectives in Studies of African women, 1976-1985, in: Signs, no. 13, pp. 97-135. [5135]

Robertson, Claire (1988): Invisible workers: African women and the problem of the self-employed in labour history, in: Journal of African and Asian Studies, vol. 23, pp. 180-188. [5136]

Robertson, Claire (1988): Newer underestimate the power of women, the transforming visions of African women’s history, in: Women’s Studies International Forum, vol. 11, no. 5, pp. 439-454. [5137]

Robertson, Claire / Klein, Martin (eds.) (1983): Women and slavery in Africa, University of Wisconsin Press, Madison. [5138]

Romero, Patricia (1987): Life histories of African women, Ashfield Press, London. [5139]

Rosen, David (1974): The peasant context of feminist revolt in West Africa, in: Anthropology Quarterly, vol. 47, no. 3, pp. 35-43. [5140]

Rybalkina, I.G. (1990): Women in African history, in: African Quarterly, vol. 29, no. 3-4, pp. 83-91. [5141]

Saidi, Christine (2010): Women’s autority and society in early East-Central Africa, University of Rochester Press / James Currey, Oxford. [5142]

Schler, Lynn (2004): Writing African women’s history with male sources, Possibilities and limitations, in: History in Africa, vol. 31, pp. 319-333. [5146]

Schmidt, Heike (1998): Geschlechterverhältnisse, Gegenstand und Methode, in: Deutsch, Jan-Georg / Wirz, Albert (Hrsg.): Geschichte Afrikas, Einführung in Probleme und Debatten, Verlag Das Arabische Buch, Berlin, pp. 175-200. [5143]

Sheldon, Kathleen (2005): A historical dictionary of women in Sub-Saharan Africa, Scarecrow, New York. [5144]

Sheldon, Kathleen (2017): African women, Early history to the 21st century, Indiana University Press, Bloomington. [5145]

Stavropoulos, Pam (1997): Women in colonial Africa: Agency, theory and literature, in: Darby, Phillip (ed.): At the edge of international relations: Postcolonialism, gender and dependency, Pinter Publishers, New York/London, pp. 197-213. [5148]

Stoler, Ann (1989): Making the empire respectable, The politics of race and sexual morality in the 20th century colonial cultures, in: American Ethnologist, vol. 16 [5147]

Tadese, Zenebeworke (1988): Breaking the silence and broadening the frontiers of history, Recent studies on African women, in: Keinberg, S. J. (ed.): Retrieving women’s history, Changing perceptions of the role of women in politics and society, Berg Publishers, Oxford, pp. 356-364. [5149]

Tamale, Sylvia (2020): Decolonization and Afro-Feminism, Daraja Press, Cantley, Quebec, Canada. [5150]

Thomas, Greg (2007): The sexual demon of colonial power, Pan-African embodiement and erotic schemes of Empire, Indiana University Press, Bloomington. [5151]

Wadley, Lyn (ed.) (1997): Our gendered past, Archeological studies of gender in Southern Africa, Witwatersrand University Press, Johannesburg. [5152]

White, Francis E. / Berger, Iris et. al (eds.) (1999): Women in Sub-Saharan Africa, Restoring women’s history, Indiana University Press, Bloomington. [5153]

Wipper, Audrey (1985): Riot and rebellion among African women: Three examples of political clout, Working Paper 108, Michigan State University. (and in: O’Barr, Jean F. (eds.): Perspectives on power: Women in Africa, Asia and Latin America, Durham, pp. 50-72.) [5154]

Wright, Marcia (1975): Women in peril, A commentary on the life stories of captives in nineteenth-century East-Central Africa, in: African Social Research, vol. 20, pp. 800-819. [5155]

Wright, Marcia (1993): Strategies of slaves and women, Life-stories from East Central Africa, James Currey, London. [5156]

Zeleze, Tiyambe (1993): Gendering African history, in: Africa Development, vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 99-117. [5157]


Angola

Broadhead, Herlin Susan (1983): Slave wives, free sisters, Bakongo women and slavery c. 1700-1850, in: Robertson, Claire / Klein, Martin (eds.): Women and slavery in Africa, University of Wisconsin Press, Madison, pp. 160-181. [5158]

Miller, Joseph (1975): Nzinga of Matamba in a new perspective, in: Journal of African History, vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 201-216. [5159]

Oliveira, Vanessa (2015): Gender, foodstuff production and trade in late-eighteenth century Luanda, in: Afrian Economic History, vol. 43, pp. 57-81. [5160]

Schwarz-Bart, Simone (2001): Ana de Sousa Nzinga: The Queen who resisted the Portuguese conquest, in: Schwarz-Bart, Simone (ed.): In praise of black women, Vol. 1: Ancient African Queens, University of Wisconsin Press, pp. 174-187. [5161]

Thornton, John K. (1991): Ideology and political power in Central Africa, The case of Queen Njinga (1624-1663), in: Journal of African History, vol. 32, pp. 25-40. [5162]

Thornton, John K. (1991): Legitimacy and political power: Queen Njinga, 1624-1663, in: Journal of African History, 32, pp. 25-40. [5163]

Thornton, John K. (1998): The Kongolese Saint Antony, Dona Beatriz Kimpa Vita and the Anthonian Movment, 1684-1706, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. [5164]

Thornton, John K. (2006): Elite women in the Kingdom of Kongo, Historical perspectives on women’s political power, in: Journal of African History, vol. 47, pp. 437-460. [5165]


Benin

Alpern, Stanley (1998): Amazons of Black Sparta, The women warriors of Dahomey, Hurst and Co. Publishers, London. [5166]

Alpern, Stanley (1998): On the origins of the Amazons* of Dahomey (*Ahosi), in: History in Africa, vol. 25, pp. 9-25. [5167]

Bay, Edna (1983): Sevitude and worldly success in the palace of Dahomey, in: Robertson, Claire / Klein, Martin (eds.): Women and slavery in Africa, University of Wisconsin Press, Madison, pp. 340-368. [5168]

Bay, Edna (1995): Belief, legitimacy and the Kpojito: An institutional history of the „Queen mother“ in precolonial Dahomey, in: Journal of African History, vol. 36, no. 1, pp. 1-28. [5169]

Bay, Edna (1998): Wives of the leopard, Gender, politics and culture in the kingdom of Dahomey, University of Virginia Press, Charlottesville. [5170]

Blier, Susan Preston (1995): The paths of the leopard, Motherhood and majesty in early Dahomè, in: Journal of African History, vol. 36, no. 3, pp. 391-418. [5171]

Blier, Susan Preston (2000): The woman, the snake, and the ocean: Masterpiece of vodun sculpture from southern Benin, in: Arts and Cultures, vol. 1, pp. 75-90. [5172]

D’Almeida-Topor, Helene (1984): Les Amazones, Une armée de femmes dans d’Afrique pre-coloniale, Rochevignes, Paris. [5173]

Edgerton, Robert (2000): Warrior women: The Amazons of Dahomey and the nature of war, Westview Press, Boulder. [5174]

Filippello, Marcus (2017): Settling Ohori, Reassessing rebellion, Gender, and foundation ‘myth’ in colonial Dahomey, in: Journal of West African History, vol. 3, no 1, pp. 55-76. [5175]

Hansen, Joyce (2004): The Amazon: Tata Ajache of Dahomey (c.1848- ), in: Hansen, Joyce: African Princess: The amazing lives of Africa's royal women, Madison Press, New York, pp. 24-29. [5176]

Kaplan, Flora E.S (1993): Iyoba, the Queen Mother of Benin: Images and ambiguity in gender and sex roles in Court Art, in: Art History, vol. 16, pp. 386-407. [5177]

Kaplan, Flora E.S (1993): Images of the Queen Mother in Benin Court Art, in: African Arts, vol. 26, no. 3 pp. 54-63. [5178]

Law, Robin (1993): The Amazons of Dahomey, in: Paideuma, vol. 39, pp. 245-260. [5179]

Morton-Williams, Peter (1993): A Yoruba woman remembers servitude in a Palace of Dahomey in the reigns of kings Glele and Behanzin, in: Africa, vol. 63, no. 1, pp. 102-117. [5180]


Botswana

Matemba, Yonah (2005): A chief called 'woman': Historical perspectives on the changing face of Bogosi (Chieftainship) in Botswana, 1834-2004, in: Jenda, 4, pp. 1-10. [5181]

Sobott, Gaele (1999): Experiences of Batswana women during the second world war, in: Pula: Botswana Journal of African Studies, vol. 13, no. 1-2, pp. 93-107. [5182]


Burkina Faso

no entries to this combination of country and topic


Burundi

Berger, Iris (1995): Fertility as power: Spirit mediums, priestesses and the pre-colonial state in Interlacustrine East Africa, in: Anderson, D.M. / Johnson, D.H. (eds.): Revealing prophets, Prophecy in Eastern African History, London, pp. 65-82. [5183]

Hunt, Nancy (1990): Domesticity and colonialism in Belgian Africa, Usumburu’s Foyer Social, 1946-1960, in: Signs, Journal of Women and Society, vol. 15, no. 3, pp. 447-474. [5184]

Schoenbrun, D.L. (1996): Gendered histories between the Great Lakes: Varieties and Limits, in: International Journal of African Historical Studies, 29, 3, pp. 461-492. [5185]


Cameroon

Adams, Melinda (2006): Colonial politics and women’s participation in public life, The case of British Southern Cameroons, in: African Studies Quarterly, vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 1-15. [5186]

Ardener, Shirley (1973): Sexual insult and female militancy, in: Man, vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 422-440. and in: Ardener, Shirley (ed.): Perceiving women, Routledge Publishers, London, 1975. [5187]

Goodridge, Richard (1995): Women and plantations in West Cameroon since 1900, in: Shepherd, V. / Brereton, B. / Bailey, B. (eds.): Engendering history: Current directions in the study of women and gender in Caribbean History, St. Martins Press, New York, pp. 384-402. [5188]

Goodridge, Richard (2002): Restrictions and freedoms for women in Northern Cameroons to 1961: An examination of the liberating influences, in: Shepherd, Verene (ed.): Working slavery, pricing freedom: Perspectives from the Caribbean, Africa and the African Diaspora, Palgrave, New York. [5189]

Guyer, Jane (1978): The food economy and French colonial rule in central Cameroon, in: Journal of African History, vol. 29, no. 4, pp. 577-597. [5190]

Ifeka, Caroline (1992): The mystical and political powers of Queen mothers, kings, and commoners in Nso, Cameroon, in: Ardener, Shirley (ed.): Persons and powers of diverse cultures, Berg Publishers, Oxford, pp. 135-157. [5191]

Kaberry, Philis (1952): Women of the Grassfields, A study of the socio-economic position of women in Bamenda, Publications of Her Majesty’s Office, London. [5192]

Kah, Henry Kam (2011): Women’s resistance in the Cameroon’s Western Grassfields, The power of symbols, organization, and leadership, 1957-1961, in: African Studies Quarterly, vol. 12, issue 3, pp. 1-10. [5193]

Kingsley, Mary (1982): Travels in West Africa, Congo francais, Corisco and the Cameroons, Virago Publishers, London. [5194]

Konde, Emmanuel (1990): The use of women for the empowerment of men in African nationalist politics, The 1928 “Anlu” in Cameroon, Working Paper, no. 147, African Studies Centre, Boston. [5195]

Mope Simo, John A. (1991): Royal wives in the Ndop plains, in: Canadian Journal of Development Studies, vol. 25, no. 3, pp. 418-431. [5196]

Ritzenthaler, R.E. (1960): Anlu: A women’s uprising in the British Cameroons, in: African Studies, vol. 19, no. 3, pp.151-156. [5197]

Schestokat, Karin (2003): German women in Cameroon: Travelogues from colonial times, Peter Lang, New York, Frankfurt. [5198]

Schmidt, A. (1955): Die rote Lendenschnur, Als Frau im Grasland Kameruns, Reimer Verlag, Berlin. [5199]

Shanklin, Eustance (1990): Anlu remembered, The Kom women’s rebellion of 1958-1961, in: Dialectical Anthropology, vol. 15, no. 2-3, pp. 159-182. [5200]

Westermann, Verena (1992): Women’s disturbances - Der Anlu-Aufstand bei den Kom (Kamerun), 1958-1960, Lit-Verlag, Münster. [5201]


Central African Republic

no entries to this combination of country and topic


Chad

no entries to this combination of country and topic


D.R. Congo / Zaire

Berger, Iris (1995): Fertility as power: Spirit mediums, priestesses and the pre-colonial state in Interlacustrine East Africa, in: Anderson, D.M. / Johnson, D.H. (ed.): Revealing prophets, Prophecy in Eastern African History, London, pp. 65-82. [5202]

Bouwer, Karen (2010): Gender and decolonization in the Congo, Lumumba’s legacy in literature and film, Palgrave, London. [5203]

Broadhead, Herlin Susan (1983): Slave wives, free sisters, Bakongo women and slavery c. 1700-1850, in: Robertson, Claire / Klein, Martin (eds.): Women and slavery in Africa, University of Wisconsin Press, Madison, pp. 160-181. [5204]

Gondola, Didier (1997): Popular music, urban society, and changing gender relations in Kinshasa, Zaire (1950-1990), in: Grosz-Ngate, Maria and Kokole, Omari H. (eds.): Gendered Encounters: Challenging cultural boundaries and social hierarchies in Africa, Routledge, London, pp. 65-84. [5205]

Harms, Robert (1983): Sustaining the system, Trading towns along the Middle Zaire, Robertson, Claire / Klein, Martin (eds.): Women and slavery in Africa, University of Wisconsin Press, Madison, pp. 95-110. [5206]

Hunt, Nancy Rose (1988): Le bébé on brouse: European women, African birth spacing and colonial interventions in breast feeding in the Belgian Congo, in: International Journal of African Historical Studies, vol. 21, no 3, pp. 401-423, (und in: Cooper, Frederick / Stoler, Ann Laura (eds.): Tensions of empire, Colonial cultures in a bourgeoise world, University of California Press, Berkeley, pp. 287-321.) [5207]

Hunt, Nancy Rose (1990): Single ladies on the Congo, Protestant missionary tensions and voices, in: Women’s Studies International Forum, vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 395-405. [5208]

Hunt, Nancy Rose (1990): Domesticity and colonialism in Belgian Africa, Usambura’s Foyer Social, 1946-1960, in: Signs, vol. 15, no. 3, pp. 447-474. [5209]

Hunt, Nancy Rose (1991): Noise over camouflaged polygamy, colonial morality taxation, and a woman-naming crisis in Belgian Africa, in: Journal of African History, vol. 32, pp. 471-494. [5210]

Jeronimo, Miguel, Bandeira (2018): Restoring order, including change, Imagining a ‘new’ (wo)man in the Belgian colonial empire in the 1950s, in: Comparativ, vol. 28, no. 5, pp. 77-96. [5211]

Keim, Curtis (1983): Women and slavery among the Mangbetu, ca. 1800-1910, in: Robertson, Claire / Klein, Martin (eds.): Women and slavery in Africa, University of Wisconsin Press, Madison, pp. 144-159. [5212]

Schoenbrun, D.L. (1996): Gendered histories between the Great Lakes: Varieties and Limits, in: International Journal of African Historical Studies, 29, 3, pp. 461-492. [5213]

Thornton, John (1991): Legitimacy and political power: Queen Njinga, 1624-1663, in: Journal of African History, 32, pp. 25-40. [5214]

Wright, Marcia (1983): Bwanikwa, Consciousness and protest among slave women in Central Africa, 1886-1911, in: Robertson, Claire / Klein, Martin (eds.): Women and slavery in Africa, University of Wisconsin Press, Madison, pp. 246-267. [5215]

Yates, Barbara (1981): Colonialism, education and work, Sex differentiation in Colonial Zaire, in: Bay, Edna (ed.): Women and work, Boulder, Westview Press, pp.127-152. [5216]

Yates, Barbara (1982): Church, state and education in Belgian Africa, Implications for contemporary third world women, in: Kelly, Gail / Ellion, Carolyn (eds.): Women’s education in the third world, Comparative perspectives, State University of New York Press, Albany, pp. 127-151. [5217]


Djibouti

no entries to this combination of country and topic


Equatorial Guinea

no entries to this combination of country and topic


Eritrea

Lombardi-Diop, Cristina (2005): Pioneering female modernity: Fascist women in colonial Africa, in: Ben-Ghiat, Ruth / Fuller, Mia (eds.): Italian Colonialism, Palgrave Macmillan, New York. [5218]

Tseggai, Araia (1990): Eritrean women and Italian soldiers, Status of Eritrean women under Italian rule, in: Journal of Eritrean Studies, vol. vi, no. 1-2, pp. 7-12. [5219]


Ethiopia

Andersen, Knud (2000): The queen of the Habasha in Ethiopian history, tradition and chronology, in: Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, vol. 63, pp. 31-63. [5220]

Böll, Verena (2003): Geschlechtergeschichte, Umbruch und Bewältigung im 17. Jahrhundert in Äthiopien, in: Böll, Verena / Günther, Ursula et al. (Hg.): Umbruch – Bewältigung – Geschlecht, Genderstudien zu afrikanischen Gesellschaften in Afrika und Deutschland, Waxmann Verlag, Münster, pp. 207-222. [5221]

Ferryhough, Timothy / Ferryhough, Anna (2002): Women, gender history, and imperial Ethiopia, in: Hunt, Tamara L. / Lessard, Micheline R. (eds.): Women and the colonial gaze, New York Univeristy Press, New York, pp. 188-201. [5222]

Parkhurst, Helen (1979): Mahbuka, the beyond: The life and romance of an Ethiopian slave girl in early nineteenth-century, in: Journal of African Studies, 1, pp. 47-55. [5223]

Sereke-Brhan, Heran (2005): ‘Like adding water to milk’, Marriage politics in Nineteenth Century Ethiopia, in: International Journal of African Historical Studies, vol. 38, pp. 49-77. [5224]


Gabon

Jean-Baptiste, Rachel (2008): ‘I took my husband for my father’, Child marriage, sexuality, girls, and the law in colonial Gabon, 1939-1960, in: Roberts, Richard (ed.): Law, colonialism and children in Africa, Stanford University Press, Stanford. [5225]


Gambia

Brooks, George (1976): The Seneignares of Senegambia, in: Hafkin, Nancy / Bay, Edna (eds.): Women in Africa, studies in social and economic change, Palo Alto. [5226]


Ghana

Agorsah, Kofi E. (1990): Women in African traditional politics, in: Journal of Legal Pluralism and Unofficial Law, vol. 30/31, pp. 77-86. [5227]

Aidoo, Agnes Akosua (1981): Asante queen mothers in government and politics in the 19th century, in: Steady, Filomina Chioma (ed.): The black women cross-culturally, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 65-78. [5228]

Aidoo, Agnes Akosua (1985): Women in the history and culture of Ghana, in: Institute of African Studies Research Review, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 14-51. und in: Bedu-Addo, Jerry (ed.): Women’s studies with a focus on Ghana, Selected readings, Books on African Studies, Schriesheim, 1995, pp. 206-226. [5229]

Akurang-Parry, Kwabena (2002): `The loads are heavier than usual': Forced labor by women and children in the Central Province, Gold Coast (Colonial Ghana), ca. 1900-1940, in: African Economic History, vol. 30, pp. 31-51. [5230]

Akurang-Parry, Kwabena (2004): Aspects of elite women`s activism in the Gold Coast, 1874-1890, in: International Journal of African Historical Studies, vol. 37, no. 3, pp. 463-482. [5231]

Akurang-Parry, Kwabena (2004): Steering prepubescent females from slavery to bondage: Custodial care and apprenticeship policies in Colonial Ghana, ca. 1874-ca.1930, in: Roberts, Richard (ed.): Law, colonialism and children in Africa, Stanford University, Stanford. [5232]

Akyeampong, Emmanuel (1997): Sexuality and prostitution among the Akan of the Gold Coast, c.1650-1950, in: Past and Present, no.156, pp. 144-173. [5233]

Akyeampong, Emmanuel (2000): ‘Wo pe tam wo pe ba’ (‘You like cloth, but you don’t want children’), Urbanization, individualism and gender relations in colonial Ghana, ca. 1900-1939, in: Andersen, D. M. / Rathbone, R. (eds.): African urban past, James Currey, Oxford, pp. 222-234. [5234]

Akyeampong, Emmanuel / Obeng, Pashington (1995): Spirituality, gender and power in Asante history, Working Paper no. 198, African Studies Centre, Boston University, Boston. (published in: International Journal of African Historical Studies, vol. 28, no. 3, pp. 481-508.) [5235]

Allman, Jean (1991): Of „spinsters“, „concubines“ and „wicked women“: Reflections on gender and social change in colonial Asante, in: Gender and History, vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 176-189. [5236]

Allman, Jean (1994): Making mothers: Missionaries, medical officers and women's work in Colonial Asante, 1925-1945, in: History Workshop Journal, vol. 38, pp. 23-47. [5237]

Allman, Jean (1996): Rounding up spinsters: Gender chaos and unmarried women in colonial Asante, in: Journal of African History, vol. 37, no. 2, pp. 62-82. und in: Hodgson, Dorothy / McCurdy, Sheryl (eds.): „Wicked“ women and the reconfiguration of gender, James Currey, Oxford, pp. 130-148. [5238]

Allman, Jean (1996): Adultery and the state in Asante, Reflections on gender, class and power from 1800 to 1950, in: Hunwick, J.O./ Lawler, N. (eds.): The cloth of many coloured silks, Papers on history and society, Northwestern University Press, Evanston, pp. 27-66. [5239]

Allman, Jean (1997): Fathering, mothering, and making sense of ntamoba: Reflections on the economy of child-rearing in colonial Asante, in: Africa, vol. 67, no. 2, pp. 296-312. [5240]

Allman, Jean (2000): Be(com)ing Asante, be(com)ing Akan, Thoughts on gender, identity and the colonial encounter, in: Lentz, Carola / Nugent, Paul (eds.): Ethnicity in Ghana, The limits of invention, MacMillan, Houndsmills/Basingstoke, pp. 97-118. [5241]

Allmann, Jean / Tashjian, Victoria (2000): ‚I will not eat stones’ A women’s history of colonial Asante, James Currey Publications, Oxford. [5242]

Austin, G. (1994): Human pawning in Asante, 1800-1950, Markets and coercion, Gender and cocoa, in: Falola, T. / Lovejoy, P.e. (eds.): Pawnship in Africa, Debt boundage in historical perspective, Westview Press, Boulder, pp. 119-160. [5243]

Baaba Folson, Rose (1994): Zur Geschichte Ghanas und zum Leben der Frauen aus unterschiedlichen Schichten: ihre Macht und Ohnmacht, in: Afrikanisch-Asiatische Studentenförderung (ed.): Jahrbuch 1994, Frankfurt a.M., pp. 99-123. [5244]

Brydon, Lynne (1996): Women chiefs and power in the Volta Region of Ghana, in: Journal of Legal Pluralism, no. 37/38, pp. 227-239. [5245]

Cohen, Ronald (1977): Oedipus rex and regina: The Queen mother in Africa, in: Africa, vol. 47, pp. 14-33. [5246]

Day, Lynda (2001): Long live the queen! The Yaa Asantewaa Centenary and the politics of a history village, in: Jenda: A Journal of Culture and African Women Studies, Volume 1, no. 2. [5247]

Farrar, Tarikhu (1997): The Queenmother, matriarchy, and the question of female political authority in pre-colonial West African Monarchy, in: Journal of Black Studies, vol. 27, pp. 579-588. [5248]

Greene, Sandra (1995): Women, the family and the commercialisation of agriculture in 19th century and 20th century Anlo, in: Bedu-Addo, Jerry (ed.): Women’s studies with a focus on Ghana, Selected readings, Books on African Studies, Schriesheim, pp. 227-248. [5249]

Greene, Sandra (1996): Gender, ethnicity and social change on the Upper Slave Coast, A history of the Anglo-Ewe, James Currey Publishers, London. [5250]

Greene, Sandra (1997): Crossing boundaries, changing identities: Female slaves, male strangers, and their descendants in nineteenth and twentieth-century Anlo, in: Grosz-Ngate, Maria / Kokole, Omari (eds.): Gendered encounters, Challenging cultural boundaries and social hierarchies in Africa, Routledge Publications, New York, pp. 23-42. [5251]

Hawkins, Sean (2002): “The women in question”, Marriage and identity in the colonial court of Northern Ghana, 1907-1954, in: Allman, Jean / Geiger, Susan / Musisi, Nakanyike (eds.): Women in colonial African histories, Indiana University Press, Bloomington, pp. 116-143. [5252]

Jones, Adam (1989): Schwarze Frauen, weiße Beobachter, Die Frauen der Goldküste in den Augen der europäischen Männer, 1600-1900, in: Der europäische Beobachter außereuropäischer Kulturen, Zeitschrift für historische Forschung, Beiheft 7, Berlin, pp. 153-168. [5253]

Jones, Adam (1993): “My arse of Okou”: A wartime ritual of women on the nineteenth-century Gold Coast, in: Cahiers d’Etudes Africaines, 132, 33-4, pp. 545-566. [5254]

Jones, Adam (1996): Female slave owners on the Gold Coast, Just a matter of money? in: Palmié, Stephan (ed.): Slave owners and the cultures of slavery, University of Tennesee Press, Knoxville, pp. 100-111. [5255]

Ranchod-Nilsson, Sita (2004): Colonialism and beyond: Gender and culture in recent histories of Tanzania, Ghana, and Lesotho, in: Journal of Women's History, vol. 16, no. 3, pp. 213-220. [5256]

Robertson, Claire (1984): Sharing the same bowl, A socio-economic history of women and class in Accra, Ghana, Indiana University Press, Bloomington. [5257]

Robertson, Claire (1983): Post-proclamation slavery in Accra, A female affair? In: Robertson, Claire / Klein, Martin (eds.): Women and slavery in Africa, University of Wisconsion Press, Madison, pp. 220-242. [5258]

Stoeltje, Beverly (1995): Ansante queenmothers: A study in identity and continuity, in: Reh, Mechthild / Ludwar-Ene, Gudrun (eds.): Gender and identity in Africa, Lit-Verlag, Hamburg, pp. 15-32. [5259]

Stoeltje, Beverly (1997): Asante Queen mothers, A study of female authority, in: Kaplan, Flora Edouwaye (ed.): Queens, Queen Mothers, Priestresses, and power, Case studies in African gender, Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, New York, pp. 41-72. [5260]


Guinea

Mouser, Bruce (1983): Women slavers of Guinea-Conakry, in: Robertson, Claire / Klein, Martin (eds.): Women and slavery in Africa, University of Wisconsin Press, Madison, pp. 320-339. [5267]

Schmidt, Elisabeth (2002): “Emancipate your husbands”, Women and nationalism in Guinea, 1953-1958, in: Allman, Jean / Geiger, Susan / Musisi, Nakanyike (eds.): Women in colonial African histories, Indiana University Press, Bloomington, pp. 282-304. [5261]

Schmidt, Elisabeth (2005): Mobilizing the masses, Gender, ethnicity, and class in the nationalist movement in Guinea, 1939-1958, Heinemann, London. [5262]


Guinea Bisseau

Brooks, George (1983): A Nhara of the Guinea Bissau region: Mae Aurélia Correia, in: Robertson, Claire / Klein, Martin (eds.): Women and slavery in Africa, Stanford University Press, Stanford, pp. 295-319. [5263]

Havik, Philip J. (2004): Silences and Soundbites, The gendered dynamics of trade and brokerage in pre-Colonial Guinea Bissau Region, Lit-Verlag, Münster, 2004. [5264]

Urdang, Stephanie (1979): Fighting two colonialisms, Women in Guinea Bisseau, Routledge Publications, New York. [5265]

Urdang, Stephanie (1981): The role of women in the revolution in Guinea-Bissau, in: Steady, Filomina Chioma (ed.): The black woman cross-culturally, Schenkman Publishers, Cambridge, pp. 119-40. [5266]


Ivory Coast

Dopkin, Marlene (1968): Colonialism and the legal status of women in francophonic Africa, in: Cahiers d’Etudes Africaines, vol. 8, pp. 390-405. [5268]

Etienne, Mona (1980): Women and men, cloth and colonization, the transformation of production-distribution relations among the Baule (Ivory Coast), in: Etienne, Mona/ Leacock, Eleanor (eds.): Women and colonization, Anthropological perspectives, Praeger Publishers, New York, pp. 214-239. [5269]

Toungara, Jeanne Maddox (1994): Inventing the African family: Gender and family law reform in Cote d'Ivoire, in: Journal of Social History, vol. 28, pp. 37-61. [5270]

Toungara, Jeanne Maddox (2001): Changing the meaning of marriage, Women and family law in Cote d’Ivoire, in: Crummings, Sarah / van Dam, Henk et al. (Hg.): Gender perspectives on property and inheritance, A global source book, KIT-Publishers, Amsterdam, pp. 33-49. [5271]


Kenya

Anderson, D. M. (2010): ‘Sexual threat and settler society, “black perils” in Kenya, c.1907–30’, in: Journal of Imperial and Commonwealth History vol. 38, no. 1, pp. 47–74. [11675]

Blacker, John (2007): The demography of Mau Mau, Fertility and mortality in Kenya in the 1950s, A demographer’s viewpoint, in: African Affairs, 106, pp. 205-227. [5272]

Bujra, Janet (1975): Women entrepreneurs in early Nairobi, in: Canadian Journal of African Studies, 9, 2, pp. 213-234. (and published in: Sumner, Colin (ed.): Crime, justice and underdevelopment, Heinemann, London 1982). [5273]

Davison, Jean (1996): Voices from Mutira, Changes in lives of Rural Gikuyu Women, 1900-1995, Westview Press, Boulder. [5274]

Eastman, Carol (1988): Women, slaves, and foreigners, African cultural influences and group processes and the formation of the Northern Swahili Coast, in: International Journal of African Historical Studies, vol. 21, no. 1, pp. 1-20. [5275]

Hay, Margaret J (1982): Women as owners, occupants and managers of property in colonial Western Kenya, in: Hay, Margaret / Wright, Marcia (eds.): African women and the law, Historical perspectives, Boston University Publications, Boston, pp. 110-124. [5277]

Hay, Margaret J. (1976): Luo women and economic change during the colonial period, in: Hafkin, Nancy J. / Bay, Edna G. (ed.): Women in Africa, Studies in social and economic change, Stanford University Press, Stanford, pp. 87-109. [5276]

Hetherington, Penelope (1998): The politics of female circumcision in the Province of Colonial Kenya, 1920-1930, in: Journal of Imperial and Commonwealth History, vol. 26, no. 1, pp. 93-126. [5278]

Hetherington, Penelope (2001): Generational changes in marriage pattern in the Central Province of Kenya, 1930-1990, in: Journal of African and Asian Studies, vol. 36, no. 2, pp. 163-179. [5279]

Kameri-Mbote, Patricia (2002): Gender dimensions of law, colonialism and inheritance in East Africa, Kenyan women’s experiences, in: Verfassung und Recht in Übersee, 35, 3, pp. 373-387. [5280]

Kanogo, Tabitha (2004): African womanhood in colonial Kenya, 1900-1950, James Currey, Oxford. [5281]

Mackenzie, Fiona (1991): Political economy of the environment, gender and resistance under colonialism: Murang’a District, Kenya, in: Canadian Journal of African Studies, vol. 25, no. 2, pp. 226-256. [5282]

Martin, Carolyn (1995): Colonial inscriptions, Race, sex and class in Kenya, University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis. [5283]

McClintock, Anne (1991): The scandal of the whorearchy: Prostitution in colonial Nairobi, in: Transition, vol. 52, pp. 92-99. [5284]

Mutongi, Kenda (1999): Worries of the heart: Widowed mothers, daughters and masculinities in Maragoli, Western Kenya, 1950-1960, in: Journal of African History, vol. 40, no. 1, pp. 67-86. [5285]

Nasimiyu, Ruth (1985): Women in the colonial economy of Bungoma: The role of women in agriculture, 1902-1960, in: Journal of African Research and Development, vol. 15, pp. 56-73. [5286]

Nasimiyu, Ruth (1997): Changing women’s rights over property in Western Kenya, in: Weisner, Thomas / Bradley, Candice / Kilbride, Philip (eds.): African families and the crisis of social change, Bergin and Garvey Publishers, Westport, pp. 283-298. [5287]

Natsoulas, Theodore (1998): The politization of the ban of female circumcision and the rise of the independent school movement in Kenya, the KCA, the missions and the government, 1929-1932, in: Journal of Asian and African Studies, vol. 33, no. 2, pp. 137-158. [5288]

Ochwada, Hannington (1995): Gender analysis: The stunted discourse in Kenya’s historiography, in: Africa Development, vol. 20, no. 4, pp. 11-28. [5289]

Ochwada, Hannington (1997): Politics and gender relations in Kenya, A historical perspective, in: Africa Development, vol. 22, no. 1, pp. 123-139. [5290]

Ogutu, M.A. (1985): The changing role of women in the commercial history of Busa District in Kenya, 1900-1983, in: Journal of Eastern African Research and Development, vol. 15, pp. 74-90. [5291]

Okeyo, Pala Achola (1980): Daughters of the lakes and rivers: Colonization and land rights of Luo women, in: Etienne, Mona / Leacock, Eleanor (eds.): Women and colonization, Praeger Publishers, New York, pp. 186-213. [5292]

Otieno, Wamuio Waiyaki (1998): Mau Mau’s daughter: The life history of Wambui Waiyaki Otieno, Lynne Rienner Publications, Boulder. [5293]

Pedersen, Susan (1991): National bodies, unspeakable acts, The sexual politics of colonial policy making, in: Journal of Modern History, vol. 63, pp. 647-680. [5294]

Presley, Cora Ann (1986): Kikuyu women in Mau-Mau rebellion, in: Okihiro, Gary (ed.): In resistance, Studies in African, Afro-American, and Carribean resistance, University of Massachusetts Press, Amherst. [5295]

Presley, Cora Ann (1986): Labour unrest among Kikuyu women in colonial Kenya, in: Robertson, Claire / Berger, Iris (eds.): Women and class in Africa, New York, Africana Publishing, pp. 216-236. [5296]

Presley, Cora Ann (1988): Mau Mau rebellion, Kikuyu women and social change, in: Canadian Journal of African Studies, 22, pp. 503-527. [5297]

Presley, Cora Ann (1990): Kikuyu women, the Mau Mau rebellion, and social change in Kenya, Westview Press, Boulder. [5298]

Presley, Cora Ann (1994): The Mau Mau rebellion, Kikuyu women, and social change, in: Crenshaw, Martha (ed.): Terrorism in Africa, G.K. Hall Publishers, New York, pp. 205-230. [5299]

Presley, Cora Ann (2002): Gender and political struggle in Kenya, 1948-1998, in: Higgs, Catherine / Moss, Barbara / Ferguson, Earline (eds.): Stepping forward, Black women in Africa and the Americas, Ohio University Press, Athens, pp. 173-188. [5300]

Robertson, Claire (1993): Traders and urban struggle, Ideology and the creation of a female underclass in Nairobi, 1960-1990, in: Journal of Women’s History, vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 9-42. [5301]

Robertson, Claire (1996): Grassroots in Kenya: Women, genital mutilation and collective action, 1920-1990, in: Signs, Journal of Culture and Society, vol. 21, no. 3, pp. 615-642. [5302]

Robertson, Claire (1997): Gender and trade relations in Central Kenya in the late nineteenth century, in: International Journal of African Historical Studies, vol. 30, no. 1, pp. 23-47. [5303]

Robertson, Claire (1997): Trouble showed the way, Women, men and trade in the Nairobi area, 1890-1990, Indiana University Press, Bloomington. [5304]

Shadle, Brett (1999): Changing traditions to meet current alterning conditions: Customary law, African courts, and the rejection of codification in Kenya, 1930-1960, in: Journal of African History, vol. 40, pp. 411-431. [5305]

Shadle, Brett (2006): Girls cases, Marriage and colonialism in Kenya, 1890-1970, Heinemann,Oxford. [5306]

Shaw, Carolyn Martin (1995): Colonial Insriptions, Race, Sex and class in Kenya, University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis. [5307]

Staudt, Kathleen A. (1978): Rural women leaders, Late colonial and contemporary contexts, in: Rural Africana, no. 2, pp. 5-21. [5308]

Stichter, Sharon (1975): Women and the labour force in Kenya, 1895-1964, in: Rural Africana, 21, pp. 45-65. [5309]

Strobel, Margaret (1983): Slavery and reproductive labour in Mombasa, in: Robertson, Claire / Klein, Martin (eds.): Women and slavery in Africa, University of Wisconsin Press, Madison, pp. 111-129. [5310]

Thomas, Lynn (1997): Ngaitana (I will circumcise myself): The gender and generational politics of the1956 ban on clitoridectomy in Meru, Kenya, in: Hunt, Nancy Rose / Lui, Tessie / Quataert, Jean (eds.): Gendered colonialisms in African history, pp. 16-41. (und in: Gender and History, 8, 1996, pp. 338-363). [5311]

Thomas, Lynn (1998): Imperial concers and „women’s affairs“: State efforts to regulate clitorydectomy and eradicate abortion in Meru, Kenya, c.1910-1950, in: Journal of African History, vol. 39, pp. 121-145. [5312]

Thomas, Lynn (2003): Politics of the womb - Women, reproduction and the state in Kenya, University of California Press, Berkeley. [5313]

Tibbetts, Alexandra (1994): Mamas fighting for freedom in Kenya, in: Africa Today, no. 4, pp. 27-48. [5314]

White, Luise (1983): A colonial state and an African petty bourgeoise: Population, property and class struggle in Nairobi, 1936-1940, in: Cooper, Fred (ed.): Struggle for the city, ULA Press, Beverly Hills, pp. 167-194. [5315]

White, Luise (1986): Prostitution, identity and class consciousness in Nairobi during World War II, in: Signs, Journal of Women in Culture and Society, vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 255-273. [5316]

White, Luise (1987): Vice and vagrants, Prostitution, housing and casual labour in Nairobi in the mid 1930s, in: Snyder, Francis / Hay, Douglas (eds.): Struggle for the city, Migrant labour, capital and the state in urban Africa, Sage Publications, London, pp. 165-191. [5317]

White, Luise (1988): Domestic labour in a colonial city: Prostition in Nairobi, in: Stichter, Sharon / Parpart, Jane (eds.): Patriarchy and class, African women in the home and the work force, Boulder, pp. 139-160. [5318]

White, Luise (1990): The comforts of home, Prostition in colonial Nairobi, University of Chicago Press, Chicago. [5319]

White, Luise (1990): Body fluids and usufruct, Controlling property in Nairobi, 1917-1939, in: Canadian Journal of African Studies, vol. 24, pp. 418-438. [5320]

White, Luise (1992): Separating the men from the boys, Construction of gender, sexuality and territorism in Central Kenya, 1939-1959, in: International Journal of Afrian Historical Research, vol. 23, no. 1, pp. 1-25 [5321]

Wipper, Audrey (1985): Riot and rebellion among African women: Three examples of political clout, Working Paper 108, Michigan State University. (and in: O’Barr, Jean F. (eds.): Perspectives on power: Women in Africa, Asia and Latin America, Durham, pp. 50-72.) [5322]

Wipper, Audrey (1989): Kikuyu women and the Harry Thuku disturbances, Some uniformities of female militancy, in: Africa, 59, 3, pp. 300-337. [5323]


Lesotho

Burman, Sandra (1990): Fighting a two-pronged attack: The changing legal status of women in Cape-ruled Basutholand, 1872-1884, in: Walker, Cherryl (ed.): Women and gender in South Africa to 1945, London, pp. 48-75. [5328]

Eldredge, Elizabeth (1991): Women in production: The economic role of women in the nineteenth century Lesotho, in: Signs, Journal of Women in Culture and Society, vol. 16, no. 4, pp. 707-731. [5329]

Eldredge, Elizabeth (1993): A South African kingdom - The pursuit of security in nineteenth-century Lesotho, Cambridge. [5330]

Epprecht, Marc (1993): Domesticy and piety in colonial Lesotho: The private politics of Basotho women’s pious association, in: Journal of Southern African Studies, vol. 19, no. 2, pp. 202-224. [5331]

Epprecht, Marc (1995): Women’s ‘conservatism’ and the politics of gender in late colonial Lesotho, in: Journal of African History, vol. 36, no. 1, pp. 29-57. [5332]

Epprecht, Marc (1996): Gender and history in Southern Africa: A Lesotho „metanarrative“ in: Canadian Journal of African Studies, vol. 30, no. 2, pp. 183-213. [5333]

Epprecht, Marc (1998): Uncovering masculinity in Southern African history, in: Review of Southern African Studies, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 118-134. [5334]

Epprecht, Marc (2000): ‘This matter of women is getting very bad’, Gender, development and politics in Colonial Lesotho, University of Natal Press, Durban. [5335]

Kimble, Judy (1982): Labour migration in Basutholand c.1870-1885, in: Marks, Shula / Rathbone, Richard (eds.): Industrialization and social change in South Africa - African class formation, culture, and consciousness, 1870-1930, New York, pp. 119-141. [5336]

Machobane, L.B.B.J. (2000): Gender, succession and dynastic politics, The saga of Senate and her son Motsoene Molapo Moshoeshoe, 1858-1930, in: Journal of Southern African Studies, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 19-41. [5337]

Maloko, Tshidiso (1997): Khomo Lia Oela: Canteens, brothels and labour migrancy in colonial Lesotho, 1900-1940, in: Journal of African History, vol. 38, pp. 101-122. [5338]

Ntabeni, Mary Nombulelo (2000): The impact of the second world war on Basotho women, Agricultural subsistence and the war effort, in: Review of Southern African Studies, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 1-18. [5339]

Olenja, Joyce (1991): Women in production: The economic role of women in nineteenth century Lesotho, in: Journal of Asian and African Studies, vol. 26, pp. 266-275. [5340]

Ranchod-Nilsson, Sita (2004): Colonialism and beyond: Gender and culture in recent histories of Tanzania, Ghana, and Lesotho, in: Journal of Women's History, vol. 16, no. 3, pp. 213-220. [5341]


Liberia

Blyden, Nemata (2002): The search for Anna Erskine, African American women in the nineteenth-century Liberia, in: Higgs, Catherine / Moss, Barbara / Ferguson, Earline Rae (eds.): Stepping forward, Black women in Africa and the Americans, Ohio University Press, Athens, pp. 31-43. [5324]

Burrowes, Carl (2004): Political emergence of women, in: Burrowes, Carl: Power and Press Freedom in Liberia, 1830-1970: The Impact of Globalization and Civil Society on Media-Government Relations, Africa World Press, Trenton. [5325]

DeLombard, J. (1991): Sisters, servants, or saviors? National Baptist women missionaries in Liberia in the 1920s, in: International Journal of African Historical Studies, vol. 24, no. 2, pp. 323-47. [5326]

Newman, Debra (1988): Laborers into the harvest: Liberian working women in the nineteenth century, in: Liberia-Forum, vol. 4, no. 7, pp. 36-50. [5327]


Madagascar

Graeber, David (1996): Love magic and political morality in central Madagascar, 1875-1990, in: Gender and History, vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 416-439. [5342]

Predelli Nyhagen, Line (2003): Issues of gender, race, and class in the Norwegian Missionary Society in nineteenth-century Norway and Madagascar, Edwin Mellen Press New York. [5343]


Malawi

Chanock, Martin (1982): Making customary law - Men, women, and courts in colonial Northern Rhodesia, in: Hay, Margaret / Wright, Marcia (eds.): African women and the law - Historical perspectives, Boston, pp. 53-67. [5355]

Chanock, Martin (1987): Law, custom and social order - The colonial experience in Malawi and Zambia, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. [5356]

Gregory, Joel W. / Mandala, Elias (1987): Dimensions of conflict: Emigrant labor from colonial Malawi and Zambia, 1900-1945, in: Cordell, Dennis D. / Gregory, Joel W. (eds.): African population and capitalism: Historical perspectives, Westview Press, Boulder, pp. 221-240. [5357]

Kachapila, Hendrina (2006): The revival of Nyau and changing gender relations in early colonial central Malawi, in: Journal of Religion in Africa, vol. 36, no. 3-4, pp. 319-345. [5358]

Kaler, Amy (2001): ‘Many divorces and many spinsters’: Marriage as an invented tradition in southern Malawi, 1946-1999, in: Journal of Family History, vol. 26, no. 4, pp. 529-556. [5344]

Lamba, Issac (1982): African women’s education in Malawi, 1875-1952, in: Journal of Education Administration and History, vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 46-55. [5345]

Lovett, M.E. (1997): From sisters to wives and slaves, Redefining matriliny and the lives of Lakeside Tonga women, 1885-1955, in: Critique of Anthropology, vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 171-187. [5346]

Phiri, Kings, M. (1983): Some changes in the matrilineal family system of Malawi since the 19th century, in: Journal of African History, vol. 24, no. 2, pp. 257-283. [5347]

Power, Joey (1995): Eating the property, Gender roles and economic change in urban Malawi, Blantyre-Limbe 1907-1953, in: Canadian Journal of African Studies, vol. 29, no. 1, pp. 79-109. [5348]

Vaughan, Megan (1987): The story of an African famine: Gender and famine in twentieth century Malawi, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. [5349]

Vaughan, Megan (1982): Food production and family labour in Southern Malawi: The Shire Highlands and Upper Shire Valley and the early colonial period, in: Journal of African History, vol. 23, no. 3, pp. 351-364. [5359]

Vaughan, Megan (1987): The story of an African famine: Gender and famine in twentieth century Malawi, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. (new edition: 2007). [5360]


Mali

Burrill, Emily (2007): Disputing wife abuse, Tribunal narratives of corporal punishment of wives in colonial Sikasso, 1930s, in: Cahiers d’Etudes Africaines, 47, no. 3-4, pp. 603-622. [5350]

Diawara, Mamadou (1989): Femmes, sevitude et histoire: Les traditions orales de femmes de condition servile dans le royaume de Jaara (Mali) du XIV au milieu du XIX siecle, in: History in Africa, vol. 16, pp. 71-96. [5351]

Diawara, Mamadou (1989): Women servitude and history: The oral historical traditions of women of servile condition in the Kingdom of Jaara, Mali, From the fifteenth to the mid nineteenth century, in: Barber, K. / Moraes Farias, P.F. de (eds.): Discourse and Its disguises: The interpretations of African oral texts, African Studies Series, Centre of West African Studies, Birmingham University, Birmingham, pp. 109-137. [5352]

Roberts, Richard (1999): Representation, structure and agency: Divorce in the French Soudan during the early twentieth century, in: Journal of African History, vol. 40, pp. 389-410. [5353]

Turittin, Jane (2002): Colonial midwives and modernizing childbirth in French West Africa, in: Allman, Jean / Geiger, Susan / Musisi, Nakanyike (eds.): Women in colonial African histories, Indiana University Press, Bloomington, pp. 71-91. [5354]


Mauritius

no entries to this combination of country and topic


Mozambique

Gengenbach, Heidi (2017): Provisions´ and Power on an Imperial Frontier, A Gendered History of Hunger in 16th c. Central Mozambique, in: International Journal of African Historical Studies, vol. 50, no. 3, pp.409-437. [11857]

Gengenbach, Heidi (2000): Naming the Past in a `Scattered´ Land, Memory and the Powers of Women´s Naming Practices in Southern Mozambique, in: International Journal of African Historical Studies, vol. 33, no. 3 pp. 523-542. [11858]

Gengenbach, Heidi (2002): `What My Heart Wanted´, Gendered Stories of Early Colonial Encounters in Southern Mozambique,” in: Geiger, Susan / Allman, Jean / Musisi, Nakanyike (eds.): Women and African Colonial History, Indiana University Press, Bloomington, pp. 19-47. [11859]

Gengenbach, Heidi (2005): Binding Memories, Women as Tellers and Makers of History in Magude, Mozambique, Columbia University Press, New York. [11861]

Gengenbach, Heidi (2002): “What my heart wanted”, Gendered stories of early colonial encounters in Southern Mozambique, in: Allman, Jean / Geiger, Susan / Musisi, Nakanyike (eds.): Women in colonial African histories, Indiana University Press, Bloomington, pp. 19-47. [5361]

Gengenbach, Heidi (2003): Boundaries of beauty: Tattooed secrets of women's history in Magude District, Southern Mozambique, in: Journal of Women's History, vol. 14, pp. 105-140. [5362]

Penvenne, Jeanne Marie (2015): Women, Migration, and the Cashew Economy in Southern Mozambique 1945–1975, James Currey, Oxford. [11863]

Sheldon, Kathleen (1994): Women and revolution in Mozambique, A luta continua, in: Tétreault, Mary Ann (ed.): Women and the revolution in Africa, Asia and the New World, University of California Press, Columbia, pp. 33-59. [5363]

Sheldon, Kathleen (1998): ‘I studied with the nuns, learning to make blouses’, Gender ideology and colonial education in Mozambique, in: International Journal of African Historical Studies, vol. 31, no. 3, pp. 595-625. [5364]

Sheldon, Kathleen (2002): Pounders of grain, A history of women, work and politics in Mozambique, Heinemann Publishers, Portsmouth. [5365]

Sheldon, Kathleen (2003): Markets and gardens, Placing women in the history of urban Mozambique, in: Canadian Journal of African Studies, vol. 37, no. 2-3, pp. 358-395. [5366]

Soares, da Costa Rosário Carmeliza (2015): Another time, another place, Memory of female power and authority from the Zambezi Valley, Mozambique, in: African Economic History, vol. 43, pp. 196-215. [5367]

Urdang, Stephanie (1982): Pre-conditions for victory, Women’s liberation in Mozambique and Guinea-Bisseau, in: Issue, A Journal of Opinion, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 25-31. [5368]

Urdang, Stephanie (1989): And still they dance, Women, war and the struggle for change in Mozambique, London. [5369]


Namibia

Becker, Heike (2005): ‘Let me come to tell you’, Loide Shikongo, the king and poetic license in colonial Ovamboland, in: History and Anthropology, vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 235-258. [5370]

Hayes, Patricia (1996): ‘Cocky’ Hahn and the ‘Black Venus’: The making of a Native Commissioner in South West Africa, 1915-1946, in: Gender and History, vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 364-392. [5371]

Hayes, Patricia (1998): The ‘famine of the dams’: Gender, labour and politics in colonial Ovamboland, 1929-1930, in: Hayes, Patricia et al. (eds.): Namibia under South African rule: Mobility and containment 1915-1946, James Currey, Oxford, pp. 117-146. [5372]

Lindsay, Jenny (1991): The politics of population control in Namibia, in: Meredeth, Trushen (ed.): Women and health in Africa, Africa World Press, Trenton, pp. 143-168. [5373]

Rizzo, Lorena (2012): Gender and colonialism, A history of Kaoko in north-western Namibia 1870-1950, Basler Afrika Bibliographien, Basel. [5374]


Niger

Cooper, Barbara (1995): Reflections on slavery, seclusion and female labour in the Maradi region of Niger in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, in: Journal of African History, vol. 35, no. 1, pp. 61-78. (and published in: Cornwall, Andrea (ed.). Readings in Gender in Africa. Bloomington, Indiana/Oxford: Indiana University Press/James Currey. 2005. pp. 156-164.) [5376]

Cooper, Barbara (1995): Women’s worth and wedding gift exchange in Maradi, Niger, 1907-1989, in: Journal of African History, vol. 36, no. 1, pp. 121-140. [5377]

Cooper, Barbara (1997): Marriage in Maradi: Gender and culture in a Hausa society in Niger, 1900-1989, James Currey Publications, Oxford. [5378]

Cooper, Barbara (1993): Cloth, commodity production and social capital: Women in Maradi, Niger, 1890-1989, in: African Economic History, vol. 21, pp. 51-71. [5375]

Olivier de Sardan, Jean-Pierre (1983): The Songay-Zarma female slave, Relations of production and ideological status, in: Robertson, Claire / Klein, Martin (eds.): Women and slavery in Africa, University of Wisconsion Press, Madison, pp. 130-143. [5379]


Nigeria

Achebe, Nwando (2005): Farmers, traders, warriors, and kings: Female power and authority in Northern Igboland, 1900-1960, Heinemann, Portsmouth. [5380]

Afonja, Simi (1986): Women, power and authority in traditional Yoruba society, in: Dube, Leela / Leacock, Eleanor /Ardener, Shirley (eds.): Visibility and power, Essays on women in society and development, Oxford University Press, NewYork, Oxford, pp. 136-157. [5381]

Afonja, Simi (1988): Historical evolution in the sexual division of labor in Nigeria, in: Kleinberg, S. Jay (ed.): Retrieving women's history: Changing perceptions of the role of women in politics and society. Berg Publications, Oxford, pp. 133-147. [5382]

Awe, Bolanle (1977): The Iyaloda in the traditional Yoruba political system, in: Schlegel, Alice (ed.), Sexual Stratification, A cross-cultural view, Columbia University Press, New York, pp. 144-160. [5383]

Bastian, Misty (2001): Dancing women and colonial men: The Nwaobiala of 1925, in: Hodgson, Dorothy / McCurdy, Sheryl (eds.): „Wicked“ women and the reconfiguration of gender, James Currey, Oxford, pp. 109-129. [5384]

Bastian, Misty (2002): “Vultures of the market place”, South Eastern Nigerian women and discourses of the Ogu Umunwaanyi (Women’s War) of 1929, in: Allman, Jean / Geiger, Susan / Musisi, Nakanyike (eds.): Women in colonial African histories, Indiana University Press, Bloomington, pp. 260-281. [5385]

Bivins, Mary (2007): Telling stories, making histories, Women, words, and Islam in nineteenth century Hausaland and Sokoto Caliphate, Heinemann Publishers, London. [5386]

Byfield, Judith (1996): Women, marriage, divorce and the emerging colonial state in Abeokuta (Nigeria) 1892-1914, in: Canadian Journal of African Studies, vol. 30, no. 1, pp. 32-51. und in: Hodgson, Dorothy / McCurdy, Sheryl (eds.): „Wicked“ women and the reconfiguration of gender, James Currey, Oxford, 2001, pp. 27-46. [5387]

Byfield, Judith (1997): Innovating and conflict: Cloth dyers and the interwar depression in Abeokuta, Nigeria, in: Journal of African History, vol. 38, no. 1, pp. 77-99. [5388]

Byfield, Judith (2002): The bluest hands, A social and economic history of women dryers in Abeokuta (Nigeria), 1890-1940, James Currey, London. [5389]

Callaway, Helen (1987): Gender, culture and empire: European women in colonial Nigeria, London. [5390]

Callaway, Helen (1993): Purity and exotica in legitimating the empire: Cultural constructions of gender, sexuality and race, in: Ranger, Terence O. / Vaughan, O. (eds.): Legitimacy and the state in the twentieth century Africa, Basingstoke - London, pp. 31-61. [5391]

Chuku, Gloria (1995): Women in the economy of Igboland, 1900-1970: A survey, in: African Economic History, 23, pp. 37-50. [5392]

Chuku, Gloria (1999): From petty traders to international merchants, A historical account of three Igbo women of Nigeria in trade and commerce, 1886-1970, in: African Economic History, 27, pp. 1-22. [5393]

Chuku, Gloria (2005): Ibo women and economic transformation in Southeastern Nigeria, 1900-1960, Routledge, London. [5394]

Denzer, La Ray (1989): Women in government service in colonial Nigeria, 1862-1945, Working Papers, no. 136, African Studies Centre, Boston. [5395]

Denzer, La Ray (1992): Domestic science training in colonial Yorubaland, Nigeria, in: Hansen, Karen T. (ed.): African encounters with domesticity, Rutgers University Press, New Brunswick, pp. 116-139. [5396]

Denzer, La Ray (1994): Yoruba women, A historical study, in: International Journal of African Historical Studies, vol. 27, pp. 1-39. [5397]

Edgerton, Robert (2000): Warrior women, The Amazon of Dahomey and the nature of war, Westview Press, Boulder. [5398]

Ejituwu, Nkparom C. / Amakievi, Gabriel O.I. (eds.) (2004): Women in Nigerian history, Rivers and Bayelsa States Experience, Onyoma Research Publications, Lagos. [5399]

Emezi, C.E. (1981): Protest and political disobedience in colonial South-Eastern Nigeria, in: Journal of African Studies, vol. 8, pp. 138-141. [5400]

Fisher, Humphrey (1991): Slavery and seclusion in Northern Nigeria, A further note, in: Journal of African History, vol. 23, no. 1, pp. 123-135. [5401]

Gailey, Harry (1970): The road to Aba, New York University Press, New York. [5402]

Grau, Ingeborg (1989): Frauen in Geschichte und Geschichtsschreibung Afrikas, zur historischen Aufarbeitung früher anti-kolonialer Bewegungen nigerianischer Frauen als Beitrag zur Frauenforschung, in: ZAST, vol. 4, pp. 8-23. [5403]

Grau, Ingeborg (1998): Kolonialismus, Arbeit und Gender in Südnigeria, in: Bockhorn, Olaf (ed.): Wie aus Bauern Arbeiter wurden, Brandes u. Apsel Verlag, Frankfurt a.M., pp. 101-126. [5404]

Green, M.M. (1964): Igbo willage affairs, New York. [5405]

Haggis, Jane (1990): Gendering colonialism or colonizing gender? Recent women’s studies approaches to white women and their history in British Colonialism, in: Women’s Studies International Forum, vol. 13, no. 1-2, pp. 105-115. [5406]

Hill, Polly (1977): Population, prosperity and poverty: Rural Kano 1900-1977, Cambridge. [5407]

Ifeka-Moller, Caroline (1975): Female militancy and colonial revolt - The ‘Women’s War’ of 1929, Eastern Nigeria, om_ Ardener, Shirley (ed.): Perceiving women, Routledge Publishers, London, pp. 127-157. [5408]

Johnson, Cheryl (1979): Towards a conceptual framework for the study of African women, A case of pre-colonial and colonial Yoruba women, in: Red River Historical Journal of World History, vol. 55, pp. 52-63. [5409]

Johnson, Cheryl (1981): Madame Alimotu Pelewura and the Lagos Market Women, in: Tarikh: Grass Roots Leadership in Colonial West Africa, vol. 7, pp. 1-10. [5410]

Johnson, Cheryl (1982): Grass roots organizing, Women in anticolonial activity in Southwestern Nigeria, in: African Studies Review, vol. XXV, no. 2-3, pp. 137157. [5411]

Johnson, Cheryl (1992): On behalf of women and the nation, Funmilayo Ransome-Kuti and the struggle for Nigerian independence, in: Johnson-Odim, Cheryl / Strobel, Margaret (eds.): Expanding the boundaries of women’s history, Essays on women in the Third World, Bloomington, Indianapolis, pp. 144-158. [5412]

Johnson-Odim, Cheryl / Mba, Nina Emma (1997): For women and the nation, Funmilayo Ransome-Kuti, University of Illinois Press, Chicago. [5413]

Kaplan, Flora Edouwaye (1990): Männerdienst und Geheimnis am Königshof von Benin, in: Völger, Gisela / von Welck, Karin (eds.): Ethnologica, vol. 15, no. 1, Cologne, pp. 25-32. [5414]

Kaplan, Flora Edouwaye (1997): Iyoba, The Queen Mother of Benin, Images and ambiguity in gender and sex roles in court art, in: Kaplan, Flora Edouwaye (ed.): Queens, Queen Mothers, Priestresses, and power, Case studies in African gender, Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, New York, pp. 73-102. [5415]

Kaplan, Flora Edouwaye (1997): “Runaway wives”, Native law and custom in Benin, and early colonial courts, Nigeria, in: Kaplan, Flora Edouwaye (ed.): Queens, Queen Mothers, Priestresses, and power, Case studies in African gender, Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, New York, pp. 245- [5416]

Kaplan, Flora Edouwaye (1997): In splendor and seclusion, Art and royal women at the court of Benin, Nigeria, Thames and Hudson, London. [5417]

Kirk, Ilse (1986): „Women’s war or „Aba riots“? A new perspective on the events in Southeastern Nigeria, 1929, in: Folk, vol. 28, pp. 61-86. [5418]

Korieh, Chima J. (2001): The invisible farmer? Women, gender, and colonial agricultural policy in the Igbo region of Nigeria, c. 1913-1954, in: African Economic History, no. 29, pp. 117-162. [5419]

Korieh, Chima J. (2010): The land has changed, History, society and gender and in colonial Eastern Nigeria, University of Calgary Press, Calgary. [5420]

Leith-Ross, Sylvia (1983): Stepping stones, Memoirs of colonial Nigeria, 1907-1960, Peter Owen, London. [5421]

Lindsay, Lisa (1998): ‘No need ... to think of home’? Masculinity and domestic life on the Nigerian railway, c.1940-1961, in: Journal of African History, vol. 39, pp. 439-466. [5422]

Lindsay, Lisa (1999): Domesticity and difference, Male breadwinners, working women and colonial citizenship in the 1945 Nigerian strike, in: American Historical Review, vol.104, no. 3, pp. 783-812. [5423]

Lindsay, Lisa (2003): Money, marriage and masculinity on the colonial Nigerian railway, in: Lindsey, Lisa / Miescher, Stephan (eds.): Men and masculinities in modern Africa, Heinemann Publishers, London. [5424]

Lindsay, Lisa (2003): Working with gender, Wage labour and social change in Southwestern Nigeria, Heinemann, Porthmouth. [5425]

Lindsay, Lisa (2007): Working with gender, The emergence of the ‘male breadwinner’ in colonial Southwestern Nigeria, in: Cole, Catherine / Manuh, Takyiwaa / Miescher, Stephan (eds.): Africa after gender? Indiana Unviersity Press, Bloomington, pp. 241-252. [5426]

Lovejoy, Paul (1988): Concubinage and the status of women slaves in early colonial Northern Nigeria, in: Journal of African History, vol. 29, no. 2, pp. 245-266. [5427]

Mack, Beverly (1988): Hahjiya Ma’daki: A royal Hausa woman, in: Romero, P. / Mack, B. (eds.): Life histories of African women, Ashfield Press, London, pp. 47-77. [5428]

Mack, Beverly (1990): Services and status, Slaves and concubines in Kano, Nigeria, in: Sanjek, Roger / Colen, Shellee (eds.): At work in homes, Household workers in world perspective, Publications of the American Anthropological Association, Washington, pp. 14-34. [5429]

Mack, Beverly (1991): Royal wives of Kano, in: Coles, C. / Mack, B. (eds.): Hausa women in the twentieth century, University of Wisconsin Press, Madison, pp. 109-129. [5430]

Mack, Beverly (1997): Authority and influence in Kano Harem, in: Kaplan, Flora Edouwaye (ed.): Queens, Queen Mothers, Priestresses, and power, Case studies in African gender, Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, New York, pp. 159-172. [5431]

Mann, Kristin (1981): Marriage choices among the educated African elite in Lagos colony, 1880-1915, in: Journal of African Historical Studies, 14, 2. [5432]

Mann, Kristin (1982): Women’s land rights in law and practice, Marriage dispute settlement in colonial Lagos, in: Hay, Margaret / Wright, Marcia (eds.): African women and the law, Historical perspectives, Boston University Papers, Boston, pp. 151-171. [5433]

Mann, Kristin (1983): The daughters of dependence, Christian marriage among elite women in Lagos colony, 1880-1915, in: Journal of African History, vol. 24, no. 1, pp. 37-56. [5434]

Mann, Kristin (1985): Marrying well: Marriage, status and social change among the educated elite in colonial Lagos, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. [5435]

Mann, Kristin (1991): Women, landed property and accumulation of wealth in early colonial Lagos, in: Signs, vol. 16, no. 4, pp. 682-706. [5436]

Mann, Kristin (1994): The historical roots and cultural consequences of outside marriage in colonial Lagos, in: Bledsoe, Caroline / Pison, Giles (eds.): Nuptiality in Sub-Saharan Africa, Oxford University Press, New York, pp. 167-193. [5437]

Martin, Susan (1984): Gender and innovation, Farming, cooking and palm processing in the Ngwa Region, South Eastern Nigeria, 1900-1930, in: Journal of African History, vol. 25, no. 4, pp. 411-427. [5438]

Martin, Susan (1988): Palm oil and protest, An economic history of Nqwa, Eastern Nigeria, 1880-1980, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. [5439]

Martin, Susan (1995): Slaves, Igbo women and palm oil in the nineteenth century, I: Law, Robin (ed.): From slave trade to ‘legitimate’ commerce, The commercial transition in nineteenth-century West Africa, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 172-194. [5440]

McIntosh, Marjorie (2009): Yoruba women, work and social change, Indiana University Press, Bloomington. [5441]

Mendy, Marion / Sarr, Assan (2017): The ambiguity of gender, Ifi Amadiume and the writing of gender history in Igboland, in: Journal of West African History, vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 109-116. [5442]

Naanen, B. (1991): Itinerant goldmines’: Prostitution in the Cross River Basin in Nigeria, 1930-1950, in: African Studies Review, vol. 34, no. 2, pp. 33-47. [5443]

Nast, Heidi (1994): The impact of British imperialism on the landscape of female slavery in the Kano Palace, Northern Nigeria, in: Africa, vol. 64, no. 1, pp. 34-73. [5444]

Nast, Heidi (2004): Concubines and power: Five hundred years in a Northern Nigerian palace, University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis. [5445]

Newell, Stephanie (2003): J.M. Stuart-Young in Onitsha, colonial Nigeria, the Englishman who married a mermaid, in: Africa, vol. 73, no. 4, pp. 505-530. [5446]

Olupona, Jacob (1997): Women’s rituals, kingship and power among the Ondo-Yoruba of Nigeria, in: Kaplan, Flora Edouwaye (ed.): Queens, Queen Mothers, Priestresses, and power, Case studies in African gender, Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, New York, pp. 315-336. [5447]

Osagie, Joseph (2000): Esan women, agriculture and colonial rule, in: Nigerian Journal of Economic History, no. 3, pp. 16-32. [5448]

Oyewumi, Oyerone (1993): Inventing gender, Questioning gender in precolonial Yorubaland, in: Collins, Robert (ed.): Problems in African history, The precolonial centuries, Markus Wiener Publishers, New York, pp. 244-252. [5449]

Pereira, Charmaine (2005): Domesticating women? Gender, religion and the state in Nigeria under colonial and military rule, in: African Identities, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 69-94. [5450]

Perham, Margery (1983): West African passage, A journey through Nigeria, Chad and the Cameroons, Peter Owen, London. [5451]

Semley, Lorelle (2010): Mother is gold, Father is glass, Gender and colonialism in a Yorub town, Indiana University Press, Bloomington. [5452]

Sutton, Constance (1995): From city-states to post-colonial nation-state, Yoruba women’s changing military roles, in: Sutton, Constance (ed.): Feminism, nationalism and militarism, Publications of the Association for Feminist Anthropology, Washington D.C., pp. 89-102. [5453]

Tibenderana, P.K. (1985): The beginnings of girls’ education in the native administration schools in Northern Nigeria, 1930-1945, in: Journal of African History, vol. 26, no. 1, pp. 101-119. [5454]

Van Allen, Judith (1972): Sitting on a man: Colonialism and the lost political institutions of Igbo women, in: Canadian Journal of African Studies, vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 165-181. [5455]

Van Allen, Judith (1976): Aba riots or "Igbo women’s war": Ideology, stratification and the invisibility of women, in: Hafkin, Nancy / Bay, Edna (eds.): Women in Africa - Sstudies in social and economic change, Stanford University Press, Stanford, pp. 59-85. [5456]

Wariboko, Waibinte (1995): The status, role and influence of women in the Eastern Delta States of Nigeria, 1850-1990, in: Shepherd, Verene / Breretopn, Bridget / Bailey, Barbara (eds.): Engendering history, Carribean women in historical perspectives, St. Martin`s Press, New York, pp. 369-383. [5457]


Rwanda

Schoenbrun, D.L. (1996): Gendered histories between the Great Lakes: Varieties and Limits, in: International Journal of African Historical Studies, 29, 3, pp. 461-492. [5458]


Senegal

Baum, Robert (2004): Crimes of the dream world, French trials of Diola witches in colonial Sengal, in: International Journal of African Historical Studies, vol. 37, no. 2, pp. 201-228. [5459]

Baye´M , Babacar (2013): The origins of Senegalese homophobia, Discourses on homosexuals and transgender people in colonial and postcolonial Senegal, in: African Studies Review, vol. 56, no. 2, pp. 109-128. [11768]

Fall, Babacar (2001): Senegalese women in politics: A portrait of two female leaders, Arame Diène and Thioumbé Samb, 1945-1996, in: White, Luise / Miescher, Stephan F. / Cohen, David William (eds.): African words, African voices: Critical practices in oral history, Indiana University Press, Bloomington, pp. 214-223. [5460]

Jones, Hilary (2005): From `mariage a la mode' to weddings at town hall, Marriage, colonialism and mixed-race society in nineteenth-century Senegal, in: International Journal of African Historical Studies, vol. 38, no.1, pp. 27-48. [5461]

Reinwald, Brigitte (1995): Der Reichtum der Frauen, Leben und Arbeit der weiblichen Bevölkerung der Siin/Senegal unter dem Einfluß der französischen Kolonialisation, Lit-Verlag, Hamburg. [5462]

Reinwald, Brigitte (1997): Changing family strategies as a response to colonial challenge, Microanalytic observations on Siin/Senegal, 1890-1960, in: History of the Family, vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 183-195. [5463]

Wick, Christelle (2000): Die Kleidung als zweite Haut – Mode, Status und Identität von Mischlingsfrauen im kolonialen Senegal, in: de Jong, Willemijn / Möwe, Illona / Roth, Claudia (Hg.): Bilder und Realitäten der Geschlechter, Argonaut Verlag, Zürich, pp. 43-66. [5464]


Sierra Leone

Abraham, A. (1974): Women chiefs in southern Sierra Leone, A rejoinder, in: Africana Research Bulletin, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 75-81. [5465]

Day, Linda (1994): The evolution of female chiefship during the late 19th century wars of the Mende, in: International Journal of African Historical Studies, vol. 27, no. 3, pp. 481-503. [5466]

Denzer, La Ray (1987): Women in Freetown politics, 1914-1961, A preliminary study, in: Africa, 57, pp. 438-456. [5467]

Hoffer, Carol (1972): Mende and Sherbro women in high office, in: Canadian Journal of African Studies, vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 151-164. [5468]

Hoffer, Carol (1974): Madame Yoko, Ruler of the Kpa Mende confederacy, in: Rosaldo, M.Z. / Lamphere, Louise (eds.): Women in culture and society, Stanford University Press, Stanford, pp. 173-188. [5469]

Lucan, Talabi Aisie (2004): The life and times of paramount Mende chief Madame Ella Koblo Glulma, Pen Point Publishers, Freetown. [5470]

MacCormack, Carol (1972): Mende and Sherbro women in high office, in: Canadian Journal of African Studies, vol. 6, pp. 151-164. [5471]

MacCormack, Carol (1975): Sande women and political power in Sierra Leone, in: West African Journal of Sociology and Political Sciences, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 42-50. [5472]

MacCormack, Carol (1983): Slaves, slave owners, and slave dealers, The Sherbro Coast and hinterland, in: Robertson, Claire / Klein, Martin (eds.): Women and slavery in Africa, Stanford University Press, Stanford, pp. 271-294. [5473]

Ojukutu-Macauley, Sylvia (2002): British colonial policy toward education and the roots of gender inequality in Sierra Leone, 1896-1961, in: Higgs, Catherine / Moss, Barbara / Ferguson, Earline Rae (eds.): Stepping forward, Black women in Africa and the Americans, Ohio University Press, Athens, pp. 3-16. [5474]

Philipps, Richard (2005): Heterogynous imperialism and the regulation of sexuality in British West Africa, in: Journal of the History of Sexuality, vol. 14, no. 3, pp. 291-315. [5475]

White, Frances E. (1987): Sierra Leone’s settler women traders, Women onthe Afri-European Frontier, University of Michigan Press, Ann Arbor. [5476]


Somalia

Declich, Francesca (2003): Dynamics of intermingling gender and slavery in Somalia at the turn of the twentieth century, in: Northeast African Studies, vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 45-69. [5477]

Hassan, Dahabo Farah / Adan, Amina (1995): Somalia, Poetry as resistance against colonialism and patriarchy, in: Wieringa, Saskia (ed.): Subversive women, in: Wieringa, Saskia (ed.): Subversive women, Women’s movements in Africa, Asia, Latin America and the Carribean, Kali for Women, New Delhi, pp. 165-182. [5478]


South Africa

Abrahams, Yvette (1998): Images of Sarah Baartman, Sexuality, race, and gender in early-nineteenth-century Britain, in: Pierson, Ruth Roach / Chaudhuir, Nupur (eds.): Nation, empire, colony, Historicizing gender and racwe, Indiana University Press, Bloomington, pp. 220-236. [5479]

Bank, Leslie (2002): Beyond red and school: Gender, tradition and identity in the rural Eastern Cape, in: Journal of Southern African Studies, vol. 28, no. 3, pp. 631-650. [5480]

Berger, Iris (1986): Sources of class consciousness: South African women in recent labour struggles, in: Robertson, Claire / Berger, Iris (eds.): Class and gender in Africa, Westview Press, Boulder, pp.216-236. (und in International Journal of African Historical Studies, vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 49-66.) [5481]

Berger, Iris (1987): Solidarity fragmented: Garment workers of the Transvaal, 1930-1960, in: Marks, Shula / Trapido, Stanley (eds.): The politics of race, class and nationalism in 20th century South Africa, Longman Publishers, Burnt Mill, Harlow, pp. 124-155. [5482]

Berger, Iris (1989): Gender and working class history - South Africa in comparative perspective, in: Journal of Women’s History, vol.1, no. 2, pp. 205-222. [5483]

Berger, Iris (1990): Gender, race and political empowerment, South African canning workers, 1940-1960, in: Gender and Society, vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 398-420. [5484]

Berger, Iris (1991): Never far from home, Family, community and working women, unpublished conference paper, no. 27, Conference on Women and Gender in South Africa, University of Natal, Durban. [5485]

Berger, Iris (1992): Categories and contexts, Reflections on the politics of identity in South Africa, in: Feminist Studies, vol. 18, pp. 284-294. [5486]

Berger, Iris (1992): Threads of Solidarity - Women in South African industry, 1900-1980, James Currey, Oxford. [5487]

Berger, Iris (1994): “Beasts of burden” revisited: Interpretations of women and gender in Southern African societies, in: Harms, Robert (ed.): Paths towards the past, African historical essays in honour of Jan Vansina, African Studies Association Press, Atlanta, pp. 123-142. [5488]

Berger, Iris (2001): An African “mother of the nation”, Madie Hall Xuma in South Africa, 1940-1963, in: Journal of Southern African Studies, vol. 27, no. 3, pp. 547-566. [5489]

Berger, Iris (2006): From ethnography to social welfare, Ray Phillips and representations of urban women in South Africa, in: Le Fait missionnaire, no. 19, pp. 91-116. [5490]

Bernstein, Hilda (1976): The world that was ours, Heinemann Publications, London. [5491]

Bernstein, Hilda (1985): For their triumphs and for their tears - Women in Apartheid South Africa, International Defence and Aid Fund Publications, London. [5492]

Bonner, Philip (1988): Family, crime and political consciousness on the East Rand, 1939-1955, in: Journal of Southern African Studies, vol. 14, no. 3, pp. 393-420. [5493]

Bonner, Philip (1990): Desireable or undesirable Sotho women? Liquor, prostitution and the migration of Sotho women to the Rand, 1920-1945, in: Walker, Cheryll (ed.): Women and gender in Southern Africa to 1945, James Currey, Oxford, pp. 221-250. [5494]

Bozzoli, Belinda (1983): Marxism, feminism, and South African Studies, in: Journal of Southern African Studies, vol. 9, no.3, pp. 139-171. [5495]

Bozzoli, Belinda (1985): Migrant women and South African social change, Biographical approaches to social analysis, in: African Studies, vol. 44, no. 1, pp. 87-96. [5496]

Bozzoli, Belinda (1991): Women of Phokeng - Consciousness, life strategy, and migrancy in South Africa, 1900-1983, Heinemann Publishers, New York. [5497]

Bradford, Helen (1987): ‘We are now the men’: Women’s beer protests in the Natal countryside, 1929, in: Bozzoli, Belinda (ed.): Class, community and conflict - South African perspectives, Ravan Press, Johannesburg, pp. 292-323. [5499]

Bradford, Helen (1991): Herbs, knives and plastic: 150 years of abortion in South Africa, in: Meade, Teresa / Walker, Mark (eds.): Science, medicine and cultural imperialism, MacMillian Publishers, Houndsmills, pp. 120-147. [5500]

Bradford, Helen (1992): ‘We women will show them’: Beer protests in the Natal countryside, 1929, in: Crush, Jonathan / Ambler, Charles (eds.): Liquor and labour in Southern Africa, Ohio University Press, Athens, Ohio, pp. 208-234. [5501]

Bradford, Helen (1995): Olive Schreiner’s hidden agony, Facts, fiction and teenage abortion, in: Journal of Southern African Studies, vol. 21, no. 4, pp. 623-641. [5502]

Bradford, Helen (1996): Women, gender and colonialism: Rethinking the history of the British Cape Colony and its frontier zones, c.1806-1870, in: Journal of African History, vol. 37, pp. 351-370. [5503]

Bradford, Helen (2000): Regendering Afrikanerdom, The 1899-1902 Anglo-Boer war, in: Blom, Ida / Hagemann, Karen / Hall, Catherine (eds.): Gendered nations, Nationalism an gender order in the long nineteenth century, Berg Publishers, Oxford, pp. 207-225. [5504]

Bradford, Helen (2000): Peasants, historians and gender, A South African case study revisited, 1850-1886, in: History and Theory, vol. 39, pp. 86-110. [5505]

Bradford, Helen (2002): Gentlemen and Boers, Afrikaner nationalism, gender and colonial warfare in the South African War, in: Cuthbertson, Greg / Grundlingh, Albert / Suttie, Mary-Lynn (eds.): Writing a wider war, Rethinking gender, race, and identity in the South African War, 1899-1902, Ohio University Press, Athens, pp. 37-66. [5506]

Bradford, Helen / Qotole, Msokoli (2008): “Ingxoxo enkulu ngoNongqawuse”, A great debate about the Nonqawuse era, in: Kronos, vol. 34, pp. 66-105. [5507]

Bradlow, Edna (1993): Women and education in nineteenth century South Africa, The attitudes and experiences of middle-class English-speaking females at the Cape, in: South African Historical Journal, vol. 28, pp. 119-150. [5498]

Bradlow, Edna (1987): Women at the Cape in the mid 19th century, in: South African Historical Journal, no. 19, pp. 51-76. [5508]

Bradlow, Edna (1988): Children and childhood at the Cape in the 19th century, in: Klio, vol. 20, pp. 8-27. [5509]

Bradlow, Edna (1991): The oldest charitable society in South Africa, One hundred years and more of the Ladies Benevolent Society, in: South African Historical Journal, vol. 25, pp. 77-104. [5510]

Bradlow, Edna (1993): Women and education in nineteenth century South Africa, The attitudes and experiences of middle-class English-speaking females at the Cape, in: South African Historical Journal, vol. 28, pp. 119-150. [5511]

Bradlow, Edna (1998): The social role of Jewish women in the Grunderzeit of the Cape Jewish Community, 1896-1930, in: Historia, vol. 43, no. 2, pp. 67-85. [5512]

Breckenridge, Keith (1998): The allure of violence: Men, race and masculinity on the South African gold mines, 1900-1950, in: Journal of Southern African Studies, vol. 24, no. 4, pp. 669-695. [5513]

Breckenridge, Keith (2000): Love letters and amanuenses, Beginning of cultural history of the working class private sphere in Southern Africa, 1900-1933, in: Journal of Southern African Studies, vol. 26, no. 2, pp. 337-348. [5514]

Brink, Elsabé (1987): ‘Maar ‘n klomp ‘factory’ meide: Afrikaner family and community on the Witwatersrand during the 1920s, in: Bozzoli, Belinda (ed.): Class, community and conflict - South African perspectives, Ravan Press, Johannesburg, pp. 177-201. [5515]

Brink, Elsabé (1989): Purposeful plays, prose and poems: The writings of the garment workers, 1929-1945, in: Clayton, Cherry (ed.): Women and writing in South Africa, Heinemann Publishers, Marshalltown, pp. 107-128. [5516]

Brink, Elsabé (1990): Man-made women, Gender, class and the ideology of the volksmoeder, in: Walker, Cherryl (ed.): Women and gender in Southern Africa to 1945, James Currey, Oxford, pp. 273-292. [5517]

Brink, Yvonne (1997): Voices from the wilderness, Eighteenth-century women writers at the Cape, in: Wadley, Lyn (ed.): Our gendered past, Archeological studies of gender in Southern Africa, Witwatersrand University Press, Johannesburg, pp. 237-272. [5518]

Chennels, Anthony (2004): The mimic women: Early women novelists and white southern African nationalisms, in: Historia, vol. 49, no. 1, pp. 71-88. [5519]

Chisholm, Linda (1990): Gender and deviance in South African industrial schools and reformatories for girls, 1911-1934, in: Walker, Cherryl (ed.): Women and gender in Southern Africa to 1945, James Currey, Oxford, pp. 293-312. [5520]

Clark, Nancy (2001): Gendering production in wartime South Africa, in: American Historical Journal, vol. 106, no. 45, pp. 1181-1213. [5521]

Cloete, Elsie (1992): Afrikaner identity, culture, tradition and gender, in: Agenda, no. 13, pp. 42-56. [5523]

Clowes, Lindsay (2001): ‘Are you going to be Miss (or Mr) Africa? Contesting masculinity in Drum Magazine, 1951-1953, in: Gender and History, vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 1-20. [5524]

Crais, Clifton / Scully, Pamela (2009): Sarah Baartman and the Hottentot Venus, A ghost story and a biography, Princeton University Press, Princeton. [5522]

Dick, Archie L. (2004): Building a nation of readers? Women's organizations and the politics of reading in South Africa, 1900-1914, in: Historia, vol. 49, no. 2, pp. 23-44. [5531]

Dooling, Wayne (2005): The making of a colonial elite: Property, family and landed stability in the Cape Colony, c. 1750-1834, in: Journal of Southern African Studies, vol. 31, no. 1, pp. 147-162. [5532]

Du Toit, Marijke (1992): Dangerous motherhood, Maternity care and gendered construction of Afrikaner identity, 1904-1939, in: Filders, V. / Marks, L. / Marland, H. (eds.): Women and children first, International maternal and infant care, 1870-1945, Routledge Publishers, London, pp. 203-229. [5525]

Du Toit, Marijke (1992): `Die bewustheid van armoed', The ACVV (Afrikaans Christian Women Society) and the construction of Afrikaner identity, 1904-1928, in: Social Dynamics, vol. 18, no. 2, pp. 1-25. [5526]

Du Toit, Marijke (1997): ‘Moedermeesteres’: Dutch-Afrikaans women entry into the public sphere in the Cape Colony, 1860-1896, unpublished paper, University of the Western Cape, Bellville, veröffentlicht in: Woodward, Wendy / Minkley, Gary / Hayes, Patricia (eds.): Deep hiStories, Gender and colonialism in southern Africa, Rodopi Publishers, Amsterdam, 2002, pp. 165-176. [5527]

Du Toit, Marijke (2002): Framing volksmoeders, The politics of female Afrikaner nationalists, 1904-c.1930, in: Bacchetta, P. / Power, Margaret (eds.): Right-wing women, From conservatives to extremists around the world, Routledge, New York. [5528]

Du Toit, Marijke (2003): The domesticity of Afrikaner nationalism, Volksmoeders and the ACVV, 1904-1929, in: Journal of Southern African Studies, vol. 29, no. 1, pp. 155-176. [5529]

Du Toit, Marijke (2004): Church, gender and ethnic nationalism, in: Journal of African History, vol. 45, no. 3, pp. 501-514. [5530]

Erlank, Natasha (2000): ‘Raising up the degraded daughters of Africa’: The provision of education for Xhosa women in the mid-nineteenth century, in: South African Historical Journal, vol. 43, pp. 24-38. [5533]

Gaitskell, Deborah (1988): Race, gender and imperialism: A century of black girls’ education in South Africa, in: Mangan, J.A. (ed.): ‘Benefits bestowed’? Education and British imperialism, Manchester University Press, Manchester, 1988, pp. 150-173. [5534]

Gaitskell, Deborah (1994): At home with hegemony? Coercion and consent in African girls’ education for domesticity in South Africa before 1910, in: Engels, Dagmar / Marks, Shula (eds.): Contesting colonial hegemony, State and society in Africa and India, British Academic Press, London, pp. 110-128. [5535]

Gaitskell, Deborah (1979): ‘Christian compounds for girls’ - Church hostels for African women in Johannesburg, 1907-1970, in: Journal of Southern African Studies, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 44-69. [5536]

Gaitskell, Deborah (1982): „Wailing for purity“: Prayer unions, African mothers and adolescent daughters, 1912-1940, in: Marks, Shula / Rathbone, Richard (eds.): Industrialization and social change in South Africa - African class formation, culture, and consciousness, 1870-1930, Longman Publishers, New York, pp. 338-357. [5537]

Gaitskell, Deborah (1982): Women, religion and medicine in Johannesburg between the wars, African Studies Seminar Paper No. 123, University of the Witwatersrand, Institute for Advanced Social Research, Johannesburg. [5538]

Gaitskell, Deborah (1983): Introduction, in: Journal of Southern African Studies, vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 1-16. [5539]

Gaitskell, Deborah (1983): Housewives, maids and mothers: Some contradictions of domesticity for Christian women in Johannesburg, 1903-1939, in: Journal of African History, vol. 24, pp. 241-256. [5540]

Gaitskell, Deborah (1988): Race, gender and imperialism: A century of black girls’ education in South Africa, African Studies Seminar Paper Nr. 239, University of the Witwatersrand, Institute for Advanced Social Research, Johannesburg. (published in: Mangan, J.A. (ed.): ‘Benefits bestowed’? Education and British imperialism, Manchester University Press, Manchester, 1988, pp. 150-173.). [5541]

Gaitskell, Deborah (1990): Devout domesticity? A century of African women’s christianity in South Africa, in: Walker, Cheryll (ed.): Women and gender in Southern Africa to 1945, James Currey, Oxford, pp. 251-272. [5542]

Gaitskell, Deborah (1992): ‘Getting close to the hearts of mothers’, Medical missionaries among African women and children in Johannesburg between the wars, in: Filders, V. / Marks, L. / Marland, H. (eds.): Women and children first, International maternal and infant care, 1870-1945, Routledge Publishers, London, pp. 178-202. [5543]

Gaitskell, Deborah (1994): At home with hegemony? Coercion and consent in African girls’ education for domesticity in South Africa before 1910, in: Engels, Dagmar / Marks, Shula (eds.): Contesting colonial hegemony, State and society in Africa and India, British Academic Press, London, pp. 110-128. [5544]

Gaitskell, Deborah (1995): ‘Praying and preaching’, The distinctive spirituality of African women’s church organizations, in: Bredekamp, Henry / Ross, Robert (eds.): Missions and christianity in South African history, Witwatersrand University Press, Johannesburg, pp. 211-232. [5545]

Gaitskell, Deborah (1997): Power in prayer and service, Women’s Christian organisations, in: Elphick, Richard / Davenport, Rodney (eds.): Christianity in South Africa, A political, social and cultural history, University of California Press, Berkeley, pp. 253-267. [5546]

Gaitskell, Deborah (1998): From ‘women and imperialism’ to gendered colonialism? in: South African Historical Journal, vol. 39, pp. 176-193. [5547]

Gaitskell, Deborah (1999): Beyond ‘devout domesticity’, Five female mission strategies in South Africa, 1907-1960, in: Transformation, vol. 16, no. 4, pp. 127-135. [5548]

Gaitskell, Deborah (2000): Female faith and the politics of the personal, Five mission encounters in twentieth-century South Africa, in: Feminist Review, vol. 65, no. 1, pp. 68-91. [5549]

Gaitskell, Deborah (2000): Hot meetings and hard kraals, African biblewomen in Transvaal methodism, 1924-1960, in: Journal of African Religion, vol. 30, no. 3, pp. 277-309. [5550]

Gaitskell, Deborah (2002): The imperial tie, Obstacle or asset for South Africa’s women suffragists before 1930, in: South African Historical Journal, vol. 47, pp. 1-23. [5551]

Gaitskell, Deborah (2002): Whose heartland and which periphery? Christian women crossing South Africa’s racial divide in the twentieth century, in: Women’s History Review, vol. 11, no. 3, pp. 375-394. [5552]

Gaitskell, Deborah (2004): ‘Doing a missionary hard work ... in the black hole of Calcutta’, African women teachers pioneering a profession in the Cape and Natal, 1880-1950, in: Women's History Review, vol. 13, no. 3, pp. 407-426. [5553]

Gaitskell, Deborah / Kimble, Judy / Maconachie, Moira / Unterhalter, Elaine (1984): Class, race and gender: Domestic workers in South Africa, in: Review of African Political Economy, vol. 27/28, pp. 86-108. [5554]

Gaitskell, Deborah / Unterhalter, Elaine (1989): Mothers of the nation: A comparative analysis of nation, race and motherhood in Afrikaner nationalism and the African National Congress, in: Yuval-Davis, Nira / Anthias, Floya (eds.): Women - Nation - State, MacMillan Press, London, pp. 58-76. [5555]

Gasa, Nomboniso (ed.) (2006): Women in South African History, HSRC Press, Pretoria. [5556]

Giliomee, H. (2003): Allow such a state of freedom, Women and gender relations in the Afrikaner community before the enfranchisement in 1930, in: New Contree, vol. 59, pp. 29-60 [5557]

Glaser, Clive (2005): Managing the sexuality of urban youth, Johannesburg, 1920s-1960s, in: The International Journal of African Historical Studies, vol. 38, no. 2, pp. 301-327. [5558]

Groenewald, Gerald (2007): 'A mother makes no bastard', Family law, sexual relations and illegitimacy in Dutch colonial Cape Town, c. 1652-1795, in: African Historical Review, vol. 39, no. 2, pp. 58-90. [5559]

Hassim, Shireen (2019): Fatima Meer, selected writings, edited with an introductory essay by Shireen Hassim, Voices of Liberation, HSRC, Pretoria. [11811]

Hetherington, Penelope (1993): Women in South Africa: The historiography in English, in: The International Journal of African Historical Studies, vol. 26, no. 2, pp. 241-269. [5560]

Holmes, Rachel (2007): The Hottentot venus, The life and death of Saartjie Baartman, Born 1789-buried 2002, Bloomsbury Publishing, London. [5561]

Horrell, Georgina (2004): A whiter shade of pale: White femininity as guilty masquerade in 'new' (white) South African women's writing, in: Journal of Southern African Studies, vol. 30, no. 4, pp. 765-776. [5562]

Kenny, Bridget (2008): Servicing modernity: White women shop workers on the Rand and changing gendered respectabilities, 1940s-1970s, in: African Studies, vol. 67, no. 3, pp. 365-396. [5563]

Krikler, Jeremy (1996): Women, violence and the Rand revolt of 1922, in: Journal of Southern African Studies, vol. 22, no. 3, pp. 349-372. [5564]

Labode, Modupe (1993): From heathen kraal to Christian home: Anglican mission education and African Christian girls, 1850-1900, in: Bowie, Fiona / Kirkwood, Deborah / Ardener, Shirley (eds.): Women and missions: Past and present, Anthropological and historical perceptions, Berg Publishers, Oxford, pp. 126-144. [5565]

Lambert, John (2004): 'Munition factories... turning out a constant supply of living material', White South African elite boys' schools and the First World War, in: South African Historical Journal, no. 51, pp. 67-86. [5566]

Longmore, Laura (1959): The dispossessed, A study of the sex-life of Bantu women in urban areas in and around Johannesburg, Jonathan Cape Publishers, Cape Town. [5567]

MacKenzie, John / Dalziel, Nigel (2007): The Scots in South Africa, Ethnicity, identity, gender and race, 1772-1914, Manchester University Press, Manchester. [5574]

Mahoney, Michael / Mahoney R. et al. (2004): An ambiguous sexual revolution? Sexual change and intra-generational conflict in colonial Natal, in: South African Historical Journal, no. 50, pp. 134-151. [5579]

Martens, Jeremy (2001): ‘Almost a public calamity’: Prostitutes, ‘nurseboys’ and attempts to control veneral diseases in colonial Natal, 1886-1890, in: South African Historical Journal, vol. 45, pp. 27-53. [5575]

Martens, Jeremy (2002): Settler homes, manhood and ‘houseboys’: An analysis of Natal’s rape scare of 1886, in: Journal of Southern African Studies, vol. 28, no. 2, pp. 379-400. [5576]

Martens, Jeremy (2003): Polygamy, sexual danger, and the creation of vagrancy legislation in Colonial Natal, in: Journal of Imperial and Commonwealth History, vol. 31, no. 3, pp. 24-45. [5577]

Master, Sharad (2004): Sarah, Sarah, more on Sarah Baartman and her equality tragic namesake, in: Quarterly Bulletin of the National Library of South Africa, vol. 58, no. 2, pp. 76-86. [5578]

McClendon, Thomas (1995): Tradition and domestic struggle in the courtroom, Customary law and the control of women in segregation-era Natal, in: The International Journal of African Historical Studies, vol. 28, no. 3, pp. 527-561. [5568]

McClendon, Thomas (2002): Genders and generations apart, Labour tenants and customary law in segregation-era South Africa, 1920s to 1940s, James Currey, Oxford. [5569]

McClintock, Anne (1990): Maidens, maps and mines: King Solomon’s Mines and the reinvention of patriarchy in colonial South Africa, in: Walker, Cherryl (ed.): Women and gender in Southern Africa to 1945, James Currey, Oxford, pp. 97-124. [5570]

McClintock, Anne (1991): No longer in a future heaven: Women and nationalism in South Africa, in: Transition, vol. 51, pp. 104-123. (und in: McClintock, Anne (ed.): Dangerous liaisons, Gender, nation, and postcolonial perspectives, 1997, pp. 89-112.). [5571]

McClintock, Anne (1991): The very house of difference, Race, gender and the politics of South African women’s narrative in Poppie Nongena, in: La Capra, Dominick (ed.): The bounds of race, Perspectives on hegemony and resistance, Cornell University Press, Ithaca. [5572]

McClintock, Anne (1996): Imperial leather, Race, gender and sexuality in the colonial context, Routledge Publishers, London. [5573]

Pet, Stephen / Devenish Annie (2005): Flogging, fear and food, Punishment and race in colonial Natal, in: Journal of Southern African Studies, vol. 31, no. 1, pp. 3-21. [5580]

Ryan, Pamela (1998): Singing in prison, Women writers and the discourse of resistance, in: Nnaemeka, Obioma (ed.): Sisterhood, feminism, and power, Africa World Press, Trenton, pp. 198-212. [5581]

Scalon, Helen (2007): Representation and reality, Portraits of women’s lives in the Western Cape, 1948-1976, HSRC Press, Pretoria. [5582]

Strother, Z.S. (1999): Display of body hottentot, in: Lindsfors, Bernth (eds.): Africans on stage, Studies in ethnological show business, Indiana University Press, Bloomington, pp. 1-61. [5583]

Swart, Mia (2003): The carfinian curse, The attitudes of South African judges towards women between 1900 and 1920, in: South African Law Journal, vol.120, no.3, pp. 540-557. [5584]

Swart, Sandra (1998): A Boer an his gun and his wife are three things always together, Republican masculinity and the 1914 rebellion, in: Journal of Southern African Studies, vol. 24, no. 4, pp. 737-752. [5585]

Swart, Sandra (2001): ‘Man, gun and horse’, Hard right Afrikaner masculine identity in post-apartheid South Africa, in: Morrell, Robert (ed.): Changing men in Southern Africa, Zed Books, London, pp. 75-90. [5586]

Swart, Sandra (2007): ‘Motherhood and otherhood’, Gendered citizenship and and Afrikaner women in the South African 1914 rebellion, in: African Historical Review, vol. 39, no. 2, pp. 41-57. [5587]

Thomas, Lynn (2006): The modern girl and racial respectability in 1930s South Africa, in: The Journal of African History, vol. 47, no. 3, pp. 461-490. [5588]

Vahed, Goolam (2003): Muslim marriages in South Africa: the limitations and legacy of the Indian Relief Act of 1914, in: The Journal of Natal and Zulu History, vol. 21, pp. 1-40. [5589]

Van der Spuy, Patricia (1992): Slave women and the family in the nineteenth century Cape Town, in: South African Historical Journal, vol. 27, pp. 50-74. [5597]

Van der Spuy, Patricia (1996): “What, then, was the sexual outlet of black males?” A feminist critique of quantitative representations of women slaves at the Cape of Good Hope in the eighteenth century, in: Kronos, Journal of Cape History, no. 23, pp. 43-56. [5598]

Van der Spuy, Patricia (1997): Silencing race and gender? in: South African Historical Journal, no. 36, pp. 256-263. [5599]

Van der Watt, Liese (1998): The comradely ideal and the volksmoeder ideal, Uncovering gender ideology in the Voortrekker tapestry, in: South African Historical Journal, vol. 39, pp. 91-110. [5600]

Van Heiningen, Elizabeth / Merrett, Pat (2002): ‘The healing touch’, The guild of loyal women to South Africa, 1900-1912, in: South African Historical Journal, vol. 47, pp. 24-50. [5595]

Van Helten, Jean Jacques / Williams, Keith (1983): ‘The crying need of South Africa’, The emigration of single British women to the Transvaal, 1901-1910, in: Journal of Southern African Studies, vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 17-38. [5590]

Van Heyningen, Elizabeth (1984): The social evil in the Cape colony 1868-1902, Prostitution and Contagious Diseases Act, in: Journal of Southern African Studies, vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 170-197. [5591]

Van Heyningen, Elizabeth (1991): Women and the second Anglo-Boer war, Conference on women and gender in Southern Africa 30.1.-2.2.1991, paper no. 16, unpublished paper, University of Natal, Durban. [5592]

Van Heyningen, Elizabeth (1991): The voices of women in the South African War, in: South African Historical Journal, vol. 41, pp. 22-43. [5593]

Van Heyningen, Elizabeth (2002): Women and disease, The clash of medical cultures in the concentration camps of the South African War, in: Cuthbertson, Greg / Grundlingh, Albert / Suttie, Mary-Lynn (eds.): Writing a wider war, Rethinking gender, race, and identity in the South African War, 1899-1902, Ohio University Press, Athens, pp. 186-212. [5594]

Van Kotze, Astrid (1988): Women workers and the struggle for cultural transformations, in: Agenda, no. 3, pp. 49-61. [5596]

Vincent, Louise (1999): The power behind the scenes, The Afrikaner National Women’s Parties, 1915-1931, in: South African Historical Journal, vol. 40, pp. 51-73. [5601]

Vincent, Louise (1999): A cake of soap, The volksmoeder ideology and Afrikaner women’s campaign for the vote, in: International Journal of African Historical Studies, vol. 32, no. 1, pp. 1-12. [5602]

Vincent, Louise (2000): Bread and honour, White working class women and Afrikaner nationalism in the 1930s, in: Journal of Southern African Studies, vol. 26, no. 1, pp. 61-78. [5603]

Viney, Ron (1999): A history of masculinities in South Africa: Context and parametres, in: New Contree, no. 45, pp. 85-97. [5604]

Walker, Cherryl (1979): The women’s suffrage movement in South Africa, communication no. 2, Centre for African Studies, University of Cape Town, Cape Town. (auch veröffentlicht in: Walker, Cherryl (ed.): Women and gender in South Africa to 1945, James Currey, Oxford, 1990, pp. 313-345). [5605]

Walker, Cherryl (1982): Women and resistance in South Africa, Onyx Press, Johannesburg/London. [5606]

Walker, Cherryl (1987): Review article: Women’s studies on the move, in: Journal of Southern African Studies, vol. 13, no. 3, pp. 433-438. [5607]

Walker, Cherryl (1990): Women and gender in Southern Africa to 1945, An overview, in: Walker, Cherryl (ed.): Women and gender in South Africa to 1945, James Currey, Oxford, pp. 1-32. [5608]

Walker, Cherryl (1990): Gender and development of the migrant labour system c. 1850-1930, in: Walker, Cherryl (ed.): Women and gender in South Africa to 1945, James Currey, Oxford, pp. 168-196. [5609]

Walker, Cherryl (1991): Women and resistance in South Africa, Onyx Press, Johannesburg/London. [5610]

Walker, Cherryl (1995): Conceptualizing motherhood in twentieth century South Africa, in: Journal of Southern African Studies, vol. 21, no. 3, pp. 417-438. [5611]

Welz, Betty (1998): White women in Umkhonto we Sizwe, the ANC army of liberation, ‘Traitors' to race, class and gender, in: Nnaemeka, Obioma (ed.): Sisterhood, feminisms and power, From Africa to diaspora, Africa World Press, Trenton, pp. 285-296. [5612]


South Sudan

no entries to this combination of country and topic


Sudan

Boody, Janice (2007): Civilizing women, British cusades in colonial Sudan, Princeton University Press, Princeton. [5613]


Swaziland / Eswatini

Erlank, Natasha (2003): Gendering commonality, African men and the 1883 Commission on Native Law and Custom in Swaziland, In: Journal of Southern African Studies 29, 4, pp. 937-953. [5614]

Simelane, Hamilton Sipho (2004): The state, chiefs and the control of female migration in colonial Swaziland, c.1930-1950s, in: Journal of African History, vol. 45, pp. 103-124. [5615]


Tanzania

Alpers, Edward (1983): The story of Swema, Female vulnerability in nineteenth-century East Africa, in: Robertson, Claire / Klein, Martin (eds.): Women and slavery in Africa, University of Wisconsin Press, Madison, pp. 185-219. [5617]

Eastman, Carol (1988): Women, slaves, and foreigners, African cultural influences and group processes and the formation of the Northern Swahili Coast, in: International Journal of African Historical Studies, vol. 21, no. 1, pp. 1-20. [5616]

Fair, Laura (1998): Dressing up, Clothing, class and gender in post-abolition Zanzibar, in: Journal of African History, vol. 39, pp. 63-94. [5618]

Fair, Laura (2001): Identity, difference and dance, Female initiation in Zanzibar, 1890-1930, in: Frontiers, A Journal of Women’s Studies, vol. 17, no. 3, pp. 146-172. [5619]

Fair, Laura (2002): “It is just no fun anymore”, Women’s experience of Taraab before and after the 1964 Zanzibar revolution, in: International Journal of African Historical Studies, vol. 35, no. 1, pp. 61-81. [5620]

Geiger, Susan (1982): Umoja Wa Wanawake Wa Tanzania and the needs of the rural poor, in: African Studies Review, vol. 25, no. 2/3, pp. 45-56. [5621]

Geiger, Susan (1987): Women in nationalist struggle, TANU activists in Dar es Salaam, in: International Journal of African Historical Studies, vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 29-44. [5622]

Geiger, Susan (1996): Tanganyikan nationalism as ‘women’s work’, Life histories, collective biography and changing historiography, in: Journal of African History, vol. 37, no. 2, pp. 465-478. [5623]

Geiger, Susan (1998): TANU women: Gender, culture and the making of Tanganyika nationalism, Heinemann Publishers, Oxford. [5624]

Kinunda, Nives (2021): Farming in distant virgin land, Women farmers´techniques of evading colonial administration in Tanganyika, 1920-1960, in: Zeitschrift für Agrargeschichte und Agrarsoziologie, 69. Jg., Heft 2, S.65-81. [11828]

Ranchod-Nilsson, Sita (2004): Colonialism and beyond: Gender and culture in recent histories of Tanzania, Ghana, and Lesotho, in: Journal of Women's History, vol. 16, no. 3, pp. 213-220. [5625]

Shetler, Jan Bender (2019): Claiming Civic Virtue, Gendered Network Memory in the Mara Region, Tanzania, University of Wisconsin Press, Madison. [11854]

Shetler, Jan Bender (2003): The gendered spaces of historical knowledge: Women's knowledge and extraordinary women in the Serengeti District, Tanzania, in: International Journal of African Historical Studies, vol. 36, no. 2, pp. 283-307. [5626]


The Congo

no entries to this combination of country and topic


Togo

Lawrence, Benjamin (2003): La révolte des femmes, Economic upheaval and the gender of political autority in Lomé, Togo, 1931-1933, in: African Studies Review, vol. 46, no. 1, pp. 43-67. [5627]


Uganda

Hanson, Holly (2002): Queen mothers and good governance in Buganda, The loss of women’s political power in 19th century East Africa, in: Allman, Jean / Geiger, Susan / Musisi, Nakanyike (eds.): Women in colonial African histories, Indiana University Press, Bloomington, pp. 219-236. [5628]

Musisi, Nakanyike (1991): Women, elite polygyny and Buganda state formation, in: Signs, vol. 16, no. 4, pp. 757-785. [5629]

Musisi, Nakanyike (2001): Gender and the construction of “bad women” in the cultural construction of Kampala-Kibuga, 1900-1962, in: Hodgson, Dorothy / McCurdy, Sheryl (eds.): „Wicked“ women and the reconfiguration of gender, James Currey, Oxford, pp. 171-187. [5630]

Schiller, Laurence (1990): The royal women of Buganda, in: International Journal of African Historical Studies, vol. 23, no. 3, pp. 455-473. [5631]

Summers, Caroline (1991): Intimate colonialism, The imperial production of reproduction in Uganda, 1907-1925, in: Signs, Journal of Women in Culture and Society, vol. 16, no. 4, pp. 787-807. [5632]

Tripp, Aili Marie (2001): Women’s mobilization in Uganda, Nonracial ideologies in European-African-Asian encounters, 1945-1962, in: International Journal of African Historical Studies, vol. 34, no. 2, pp. 543-564. [5633]

Tripp, Aili Marie (2004): A new look at colonial women, British teachers and activists in Uganda, 1898-1962, in: Canadian Journal of African Studies, vol. 38, no. 1, pp. 123-156. [5634]


Zambia

Ault, James (1983): Making ‘modern’ marriages ‘traditional’, State power amdn the regulation of marriage in colonial Zambia, in: Theory and Society, vol. 12, pp.181-210. [5635]

Chanock, Martin (1982): Making customary law - Men, women, and courts in colonial Northern Rhodesia, in: Hay, Margaret / Wright, Marcia (eds.): African women and the law - Historical perspectives, Boston, pp. 53-67. [5636]

Chanock, Martin (1987): Law, custom and social order - The colonial experience in Malawi and Zambia, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. [5637]

Gadsden, Fay (1993): Patriarchal attitudes, male control over and politics towards female education in Northern Rhodesia, 1924-1963, in: Zambia Journal of History, vol. 6/7, pp. 25-45. [5638]

Moore, Henrietta / Vaughan, Mergan (1987): Cutting down trees: Women, nutrition and agricultural change in the Northern Province of Zambia, 1920-1986, in: African Affairs, 86, pp. 523-540. [5639]

Moore, Henrietta / Vaughan, Mergan (1994): Cutting down trees - Gender, nutrition and agricultural change in the Northern Province of Zambia, c.1890-1990, London. [5640]

Morrow, Sean (1986): „No girl leaves school unmarried“: Mabel Shaw and the education of girls at Mbereshi, Northern Rhodesia, 1915-1940, in: International Journal of African Historical Studies, vol. 19, no. 4, pp. 601-636. [5641]

Parpart, Jane (1985): Working class wives and collective labour action on the Northern Rhodesian Copperbelt, 1926-1964, Working Paper, no. 98, African Studies Centre, Boston University, Boston. [5642]

Parpart, Jane (1986): Class and gender on the copperbelt: Women in Northern Rhodesian copper mining communities, 1926-1964, in: Robertson, Claire / Berger, Iris (eds.): Women and class in Africa, Boulder, pp. 141-160. [5643]

Parpart, Jane (1986): The household and the mineshaft: Gender and class struggle on the Zambian Copperbelt, 1924-1966, in: Journal of Southern African Studies, vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 36-56. [5644]

Parpart, Jane (1988): Sexuality and power on the Zambian copperbelt, 1926-1964, in: Stichter, Sharon / Parpart, Jane (eds.): Patriarchy and class, African women in the home and the workforce, Westview Press, Boulder, pp. 115-138. [5645]

Parpart, Jane (1991): Gender, ideology and power: Marriage in the colonial Copperbelt towns of Zambia, African Studies Seminar Paper No. 284, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg. [5646]

Parpart, Jane (1994): Where is your mother? Gender, Urban marriage, and colonial discource on the Zamiban Copperbelt, 1924-1945, in: International Journal of African Historical Studies, vol. 27, no. 2, pp. 241-270. [5647]

Parpart, Jane (2001): “Wicked women” and “respectable ladies”: Reconfiguration of gender on the Zambian Copperbelt, 1936-1964, in: Hodgson, Dorothy / McCurdy, Sheryl (eds.): „Wicked“ women and the reconfiguration of gender, James Currey, Oxford, pp. 274-292. [5648]

Richards, Audrey (1995): Land, labour and diet in Northern Rhodesia, Lit-Verlag, Münster. [5649]

Tranberg Hansen, Karen (1992): White women in a changing world: employment, voluntary work, and sex in Post-World War II Northern Rhodesia, in: Western women and imperialism, Complicity and resistance, in: Chaudhuri, Nupur / Strobel, Margaret, Indiana University Press, Bloomington, pp. 247-268. [5650]


Zimbabwe

Barnes, Teresa (1992): The fight for control of African women’s mobility in colonial Zimbabwe, 1900-1939, in: Signs, Journal of Women in Culture and Society, vol. 17, pp. 586-608. [5651]

Barnes, Teresa (1997): „Am I a man?“: Gender and the pass laws in urban colonial Zimbabwe, 1930-1980, in: African Studies Review, vol. 40, no. 1, pp. 59-81. [5652]

Barnes, Teresa (1999): We women work so hard, Gender, urbanisation and social reproduction in colonial Harare, Zimbabwe, 1930-1956, James Currey Publishers, London / Oxford. [5653]

Barnes, Teresa (2002): Virgin territory? Travel and migration by African women in twentieth-century southern Africa, in: Allman, Jean / Geiger, Susan / Musisi, Nakanyike (eds.): Women in colonial African histories, Indiana University Press, Bloomington, pp. 164-190. [5654]

Benson, Koni / Chadya, Joyce (2005): Learning sexual violence in Bulawayo, Colonial Zimbabwe, 1946-1956, in: Journal of Southern African Studies, vol. 31, no. 3, pp. 587-610. [5655]

Burke, Timothy (1996): ‘Fork up and smile’: Marketing, colonial knowledge and the female subject in Zimbabwe, in: Gender and History, vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 440-456. [5656]

Jackson, Lynette (1993): Gendered disorder in colonial Zimbabwe, Case analyses of African female inmates at the Ingutsheni Mental Hospital, 1932-1957, Institute of Commonwealth Studies, collected seminar papers, 19, no. 45, The societies of Southern Africa in the 19th and 20th century, London. [5657]

Jackson, Lynette (1999): ‘Stray women’ and ‘girls on the move’, Gender, space, and disease control in colonial and post-colonial Zimbabwe, in: Zeleza, Paul Tiyambe / Kalipeni, Ezekiel (eds.):Sacred spaces and public quarrels, African cultural and economic landscapes, Africa World Press, Trenton, pp. 147-167. [5658]

Jackson, Lynette (2002): “When in the white men’s town”, Zimbabwean women remember chibeura, in: Allman, Jean / Geiger, Susan / Musisi, Nakanyike (eds.): Women in colonial African histories, Indiana University Press, Bloomington, pp. 191-215. [5659]

Jackson, Lynette (2002): Sex and the politics of space in colonial Zimbabwe, The story of Chibheura (open your legs) exams, in: Bond, George / Gibson, Nigel (ed.): Contested terrains and constructed categories, Contemporary Africa in focus, Westview Press, Bouder, pp. 299-320. [5660]

Jeater, Diana (1993): Marriage, perversion, and power, The construction of moral discourse in Southern Rhodesia, 1894-1930, Claredon Press, Oxford. [5661]

Jeater, Diana (2000): No place for women, Gwelo Town, Southern Rhodesia, 1894-1920, in: Journal of Southern African Studies, vol. 26, no. 1, pp. 29-42. [5662]

Kaler, Amy (1998): A threat to the nation and a threat to the men, The banning of Depo-Provera in Zimbabwe, in: Journal of Southern African Studies, vol. 24, no. 2, pp. 347-376. [5663]

Kaler, Amy (1999): Visions of domesticity in the African women’s homecraft movement in Rhodesia, in: Social Science History, vol. 23, no. 3, pp. 269-309. [5664]

Kaler, Amy (2000): Who has told you this thing? Toward a feminist interpretation of contraceptive diffusion in Rhodesia, 1970-1980, in: Signs, Journal of Women in Culture and Society, vol. 25, no. 3, pp. 677-708. [5665]

Kirkwood, Deborah (1984): Settler wives in Southern Rhodesia: A case study, in: Ardener, Shirley / Callan, Hilary (eds.): The incorporated wife, Berg Publishers, Oxford, London, pp. 143-164. [5666]

Lowry, Donal (1997): White women’s country’: Ethel Tawse Jollie and the making of white Rhodesia, in: Journal of Southern African Studies, vol. 23, no. 2, pp. 259-281. [5667]

Lowry, Donal (2000): “Making fresh Britains across the sea”, Imperial authority and anti-feminism in Rhodesia, in: Fletscher, Ian Christopher / Mayhall Nym, Laura / Levine, Phillipa (eds.): Women’s suffrage in the British empire, Citizenship, nation and race, Routledge, London, pp. 175-190. [5668]

Mudeka, Ireen (2016): Gendered exclusion and contestation, Malawian women’s migration and work in colonial Harare, Zimbabwe, 1930s to 1963, in: African Economic History, vol. 44, pp. 18-43. [5669]

Ndlovu-Gatsheni, Sabelo (2005): Can women’s voices be revoverd from the past? Grappling with the absence of women voices in pre-colonial history of Zimbabwe, in: Wagadu, vol. 2, no. 1, pp.1-15. [5670]

Pape, John (1990): Black and white: The ‘perils of sex’ in Colonial Zimbabwe, in: Journal of Southern African Studies, vol. 16, no. 4, pp. 699-722. [5671]

Pape, John (1993): Still serving tea: Domestic workers in Zimbabwe, 1980-1990, in: Journal of Southern African Studies, vol. 19, no. 3, pp. 405-421. [5672]

Raftopoulos, Brain (1995): Gender, nationalist politics and the fight for the city, Harare 1940-1950s, in: Southern African Feminist Review, vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 30-45. [5673]

Ranchod-Nilsson, Sita (1992): „Educating Eve“: The women’s club movement and political consciousness among rural African women in Southern Rhodesia, 1950-1980, in: Tranberg Hansen, Karen (ed.): African encounters with domesticity, New Brunswick, pp. 195-217. [5674]

Scarneccia, Timothy (1996): Poor women and nationalist politics, Alliances and fissures in the formation of a nationalist political movement in Salisbury, Rhodesia, 1950-1960, in: Journal of African History, vol. 37, pp. 283-310. [5675]

Schmidt, Elizabeth (1988): Farmers, hunters, and gold-washers: A reevaluation of women’s roles in precolonial and colonial Zimbabwe, in: African Economic History, 17, pp. 45-80. [5676]

Schmidt, Elizabeth (1990): Negotiated spaces and contexted terrain: Men, women and the law in colonial Zimbabwe, 1890-1939, in: Journal of Southern African Studies, vol. 16, no. 4, pp. 622-648. [5677]

Schmidt, Elizabeth (1991): Patriarchy, capitalism and the colonial state in Zimbabwe, in: Signs, Journal of Women in Culture and Society, vol. 16, no. 4, pp. 732-756. [5678]

Schmidt, Elizabeth (1992): Peasants, traders and wives - Shona women in the history of Zimbabwe, 1870-1939, London. [5679]

Schmidt, Elizabeth (1992): Race, sex, and domestic labour: The question of African female servants in Southern Rhodesia, 1900-1939, in: Hansen, Karen Tranberg (ed.): African encounters with domesticity, New Brunswick, pp. 221-241. [5680]

Shaw, Carolyn Martin (2008): Sticks and scones, Black and white women in the homecraft movement in colonial Zimbabwe, in: Race/Ethnicity, vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 253-278. [5681]

Summers, Carol (1996): ‘If you educate a native women’…, Debates over the schooling and education of girls and women in Southern Rhodesia, 1900-1934, in: History of Education Quarterly, vol. 36, no. 4, pp. 449-471. [5682]

Summers, Carol (1999): Mission boys, civilized men and marriage, Educated African men in the missions of Southern Rhodesia, 1920-1945, in: Journal of Religious History, vol. 23, no. 1, pp. 75-91. [5683]

Yoshikuni, Tsuneo (2008): Elisabeth Musodzi and the birth of African feminism in early colonial Zimbabwe, Weaver Press, Harare. [5684]

Zimudzi, Tapiwa (2004): African women, violent crime and criminal law in colonial Zimbabwe, 1900-1952, in: Journal of Southern African Studies, vol. 30, no. 3, pp. 499-518. [5685]

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