Literature Database on Gender in Subsahara Africa

Literature regarding Africa Overview

agriculture ecology rural development climate changearts and cultureeconomy - formal and informal employment
economy - Householdseconomy - markets and traderseconomy - pastoralism
education schooling and tertiary educationhealth - fgc fgmhealth - HIV AIDS and gender
health - reproduction and fertilityhealth history colonialism and pre-colonial history
Literature media politics - wars violent conflicts
politics Religion - Christianity Religion - Islam
Religion - traditional rituals and spirit mediumshipRights - human rights violations gender based violence Rights - Women Human Rights and legal system
society - families marriagessociety - homosexuality / sexual minorities society - masculinities
society - migration and urbanisationsociety - women's organisations

agriculture ecology rural development climate change

Adeokunnu, Tomilayo (1984): Women and rural development in Africa, in: UNESCO (ed.): Women on the move, UNESCO Publications, Paris, pp.45-55.[1]

Agarwal, Bina (1985): Women and technological change in agriculture: The African and Asian experience, in: Ahmed, Iftikhar (ed.): Technology and rural women: Conceptual and empirical issues, George Allen and Unwin, London, pp.67-112.[2]

Aidoo, Agnes A. (1988): Women and food security: The opportunity for Africa, in: Development, vol. 2/3, pp.56-62.[3]

Akeroyd, Anne V. (1989): Gender, food production and property rights: Constraints on women farmers in Southern Africa, in: Afshar, Haleh (ed.): Women, development and survival in the Third World, Routledge Publications, London, pp.139-171. [4]

Baylies, Carolyn (2002): The impact of AIDS on rural households in Africa, A shock like any other? in: Development and Change, vol. 33, no. 4, pp.611-632.[5]

Behrman, Julia / Meinzen-Dick, Ruth / Quisumbing, Agnes (2011): The gender implications of large-scale land deals, IFPRI Discussion Paper 1056, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI), Washington D.C.[6]

Berkenstein, Alex / Murungi, Grace (2020): Skill transfer and women in Africa’s green transition, South African Institute of International Affairs, Johannesburg.[7]

Biruk, Crystal / Trapence, Gift (2018): Community engagement in an economy of harms, Reflections from an LGBTI-rights NGO in Malawi, in: Critical Public Health, vol. 28, no. 3, pp. 340-351.[11771]

Boserup, Ester (1970): Women's role in economic development, Earthscan Publications, London.[8]

Bradley, Candice (1990): Women weeding the plough, A comparative test of Boserup’s hypothesis, in: African Urban Quarterly, vol. 5, no. 3/4, pp.188-196.[9]

Bruchhaus, Eva-Maria (1988): Frauenselbsthilfegruppen: Schlüssel zur Entwicklung aus eigener Kraft oder Mobilisierung der letzten Reserve? in: Peripherie, Nr. 30/31, pp.49-61.[10]

Bruchhaus, Eva-Maria (1992): Der Mühlenmythos: durch Arbeitserleichterung zu Wohlstand und Freiheit, in: Rott, Renate (Hg.): Entwicklungsprozesse und Geschlechterverhältnisse, Über die Lebens- und Arbeitsräume von Frauen in Ländern der Dritten Welt, Breitenbach Verlag, Saarbrücken, pp.174-199.[11]

Bryceson, Deborah Fahy (1994): Easing rural women’s working day in Sub-Saharan Africa, in: Development Policy Review, vol. 12, pp.59-68.[13]

Bryceson, Deborah Fahy (1995): African women hoe cultivation: Speculative origins and current enigmas, in: Bryceson, Deborah Fahy (ed.): Women wielding the hoe, Lessons from rural Africa for feminist theory and development practice, Berg Publishers, Oxford, pp.3-21.[14]

Bryceson, Deborah Fahy (1995): Wishful thinking, Theory and practice of Western donors efforts to raise women’s status in Africa, in: Bryceson, Deborah Fahy (ed.): Women wielding the hoe: Lessons from rural Africa for feminist theory and development practice, Berg Publishers, Oxford, pp.201-219.[15]

Bryceson, Deborah Fahy (1995): Burying the hoe, in: Bryceson, Deborah Faye (ed.): Women wielding the hoe, Lessons from rural Africa for feminist theory and development practice, Berg Publishers, Oxford, pp.257-271.[16]

Bryceson, Deborah Fahy / Howe, John (1993): Rural transport in Africa, Reducing the burden on women? in: World Development, vol. 21, no. 11, pp.1715-1728.[17]

Bryceson, Debroah Fahy / McCall, Michael (1994): Lightening the load: Women’s labour and appropriate rural technology in Sub-Saharan Africa, African Studies Centre, Working Paper, No. 21, University of Leiden, Leiden. [18]

Brydon, Lynne / Chant, Sylvia (1985): Sub-Saharan Africa, in: Brydon, Lynne / Chant, Sylvia (eds.): Women in the third world, Aldershot Publications, Hants, pp.82-86.[12]

Bryson, Judy C. (1981): Women and agriculture in Sub-Saharan Africa: Implications for development, in: Journal of Development Studies, vol. 17, no. 1, pp.29-46. (and published in: Nelson, Nici (ed.): African women in the development process, Frank Class Publishers, London, 1988, pp.28-46.)[19]

Budlender, Debbie / Alma, Eileen (2011): Women and land, Securing rights for better lives, IDRC Publication, Ottawa.[20]

Butegwa, Florence (2002): Mediating culture and human rights in favour of land rights for women in Africa, A framework for community-level action, in: An-Na’im, Abdullahi (ed.): Cultural transformation and human rights in Africa, Zed Books, London, pp.108-125.[21]

Calvo, Malmberg Christina (1994): Case study on the role of women in rural transport, Access of women to domestic facilities, Sub-Saharan Africa Transport Policy Program, The Africa Division, The World Bank, SSATP Working Paper no. 11, Washington D.C.[22]

Charman, A.J.E. (2008): Empowering women through livelihoods oriented agricultural service provision, A consideration of evidence from Southern Africa, Research Paper no. 1, UN University, Helsiniki.[23]

Chu, Jessica (2011): Gender and land grabbing in Sub-Saharan Africa, Women’s land rights and customary land tenure, in: Development, vol. 51, no. 1, pp.35-39.[24]

Clark, Gracia (1985): Fighting the African food crisis: Women food farmers and food workers, An overview of women’s position in African food systems, with emphasis on agriculture, and recommended policies and interventions to stimulate women’s food production, UNIFEM Occasional Paper no. 1, UNIFEM Publications, New York.[25]

Cloud, Kathleen (1986): Sex roles in food production and distribution systems in the Sahel, in: Creevey, Lucy (ed.): Women farmers in Africa, Rural development in Mali and the Sahel, Syracuse University Press, Syracuse, pp.19-48.[26]

Coquery-Vidrovitch, Catherine (1994): Peasant women, in: Coquery-Vidrovitch, Catherine: African women, A modern history, Westview Press, Boulder, pp.9-20.[27]

Currey, John / Wiegers, Esther et al. (2006): Gender, HIV/AIDS and rural livelihoods, Micro-level investigations in three African countries, WIDER Research Paper no. 110, World Institute for Development Economics, Helsinki.[28]

Daddieh, Kofie C. (1989): Production and reproduction: Women and agricultural resurgence in Sub-Saharan Africa, in: Parpart, Jane (ed.): Women and development in Africa, Praeger Publications, New York, pp.165-193.[29]

David, Rosalind (ed. (1995): Changing places? Women, resource management and migration in the Sahel, SOS Sahel Publications, London.[30]

Davison, Jean (1988): Land and women’s agricultural production: The context, in: Davison, Jean (ed.): Agriculture, women, and land, The African experience, Westview Press, Boulder, pp.1-17.[31]

Dey, Jennie (1984): Women in food production and food security in Africa, FAO Publications, Rome.[32]

Dixon, Ruth (1985): A moving issue: Seeing the invisible farmers in Africa, in: Monson, Jamie / Kalb, Marion (ed.): Women as food producers in developing countries, UCLA Crossroads Press, Los Angeles, pp.19-36.[33]

Doran, Joanna (1990): Is low cost transport an appropriate intervention to alleviate women’s burden in Southern Africa? Gender analysis in development, Sub-Series, No. 1, School of Development Studies, University of East Anglia, Norwich.[34]

Doss, Cheryl (2001): Engendering agricultural technology for Africa’s farmers, Promises and pitfalls, in: Kuiper, Edith / Barker, Drucilla (eds.): Feminist economics and the World Bank, History, theory, policy, Routledge, London, pp.79-93.[35]

Doss, Cheryl (2006): Designing agricultural technology for African women farmers, Lessons from 25 years of experiences, in: World Development, vol. 29, no. 12, pp.2075-2092.[36]

Doss, Cheryl (2008): Reclaiming our lives, HIV and AIDS, women’s land and property rights and livelihoods in Southern and East Africa, Narratives and responses, in: Feminist Economics, vol. 14, no. 4, pp.213-216.[37]

Drimie, Scott (2002): The impact of HIV/AIDS on rural households and land issues in Southern and Eastern Africa, in: World Development, vol. 29, no. 12, pp.2075-2092.[38]

Due, Jean (1991): Policies to overcome the negative effects of structural adjustment programs on African female-headed households, in: Gladwin, Christina (ed.): Structural adjustment and African women farmers, University of Florida Press, Gainesville, pp.103-127.[39]

Due, Jean / Gladwin, Christina (1991): Impacts of structural adjustment programs on African women farmers and female-headed households, in: American Journal of Agricultural Economics, vol. 73, no. 5, pp.1441-1439.[40]

Due, Jean / Magayane, F. (1990): Changes needed in agricultural policy for female-headed farm families in tropical Africa, in: Agricultural Economics, vol. 4, pp.239-253.[41]

Ekejiuba, Felicia (1995): Down to fundamentals: Women centred hearth-holds in rural West Africa, in: Bryceson, Deborah Fahy (ed.): Women wielding the hoe, Lessons from rural Africa for feminist theory and development practice, Berg Publishers, Oxford, pp.47-60.[42]

Endely, Joyce B. (1991): Strategies and programmes for women in Africa's agricultural sector, in: Suliman, Mohamed (ed.): Alternative development strategies for Africa, Institute for African Alternatives Publications, London, pp.132-139.[43]

Englert, Birgit / Daley, Elizabeth (eds.) (2008): Women’s land rights and privatisation in Eastern Africa, James Currey, Oxford.[44]

Englert, Birgit / Mansberger, Reinfried (2008): Vergleichsstudie zu Gender und Landrechten in den Schwerpunkt- und Kooperationsländern der Österreichischen Entwicklungszusammenarbeit, Wiener Institut für Internationalen Dialog und Entwicklungszusammenarbeit, Wien.[45]

European Consortium for Agricultural Research in the Tropics (ECART (1994): Women and food processing in Sub-Saharan Africa, ECART Publications, Accra.[46]

Evers, Barbara / Walters, Bernhard (2000): Extra-household factors and women farmers supply response in Sub-Saharan Africa, in: World Development, vol. 28, no. 7, pp.1341-1345.[47]

Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO (1995): Women, agriculture and development, A synthesis report of the Africa region, FAO Publications, Rome.[48]

Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO (1995): The effects of HIV/AIDS on farming systems in Eastern Africa, FAO Publications, Rome.[49]

Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO (1998): Agricultural implements used by women farmers in Africa, FAO Publications, Rome.[50]

Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO (2010): Gender dimensions of agriculture and rural employment, Differentiated pathways out of poverty, Status, trends and gaps, FAO/ILO Publications, Rome.[51]

Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO (2011): Women and agriculture, Closing the gender gap, FAO Publications, Rome.[52]

Fortman, Louise (1981): The plight of the invisible farmer: The effect of national agricultural policy on women in Africa, in: Dauber, Roslyn / Cain, Melinda (eds.): Women and technological change in developing countries, Westview Press, Boulder, pp.205-214.[53]

Francis, Elizabeth (2002): Gender, migration and multiple livelihoods, Cases from Eastern and Southern Africa, in: Journal of Development Studies, vol. 38, no. 5, pp.167-190.[54]

Gbetnkom, Daniel (2007): Forest management, gender and food security of the rural poor in Africa, WIDER Research Paper no. 87, WIDER, Helsinki.[55]

Gengenbach, Heidi (2015): Living Ethnicity, Gender, Livelihood, and Ethnic Identity in Mozambique, in: Shetler, Jan Bender (ed.): Gendering Ethnicity in African Women´s Lives, University of Wisconsin Press, Madison, pp. 57-83.[11860]

Gladwin, Christina / McMillan, Della (1989): Is a turnaround in Africa possible without helping African women to farm, in: Economic Development and Cultural Change, vol. 37, no. 2, pp.345-369.[56]

Gladwin, Christina / Thomson, Anne / Peterson, Jennifer / Anderson, Andrea (2001): Addressing food security in Africa via multiple livelihood strategies of women farmers, in: Food Policy, vol. 26, pp. 177-207.[57]

Gladwin, Christina H. / Peterson, Jennifer S. / Uttaro, Robert (2002): Agroforestry innovations in Africa: Can they improve soil fertility on women farmers’ fields? in: African Studies Quarterly, vol. 6, no. 1-2. S.1-5.[58]

Goody, Jack / Buckley, Joan (1973): Inheritance and women’s labour in Africa, in: Africa, vol. 43, pp.108-121.[59]

Gordon, Gill (1984): Important issues for feminist nutrition research, A case study from the savanna from West Africa, in: Bulletin of the Institute of Development Studies (IDS Bulletin), vol. 15, no. 1, pp.38-44.[60]

Gray, Leslie / Kevane, Michael (1996): Land tenure status of African women, World Bank Background Paper on Gender and Property Rights in Africa, unpublished paper, World Bank, Washington D.C. [61]

Guèye, El Hadji Fallou (2000): Women and family poultry production in rural Africa, in: Development in Practice, vol. 10, no. 1, pp.98-102.[62]

Gugler, Josef (1989): Women stay on the farm no more, Changing patterns of rural-urban migration in Sub-Saharan Africa, in: Journal of Modern African Studies, vol. 27, no. 2, pp.347-352.[63]

Guyer, Jane I. (1984): Naturalism in models of African production, in: Man, vol. 19, no. 3, pp.371-388.[64]

Guyer, Jane I. (1984): Women in the rural economy, contemporary variations, in: Hay, Jean / Stichter, Sharon (eds.): African women south of the Sahara, Longman Publishers, London, pp.19-32.[65]

Guyer, Jane I. (1986): Intra-household processes and farming systems research: Perspectives from anthropology, in: Moock, J.L. (ed.): Understanding Africa’s rural household and farming systems, Westview Press, Boulder, pp.92-104.[66]

Guyer, Jane I. (1988): The multiplication of labour, Historical methods in the study of gender and agricultural change in Africa, in: Current Anthropology, vol. 29, no. 2, pp.247-259. [67]

Guyer, Jane I. (1988): Dynamic approaches to domestic budgeting: Cases and methods from Africa, in: Dwyer, Daisy / Bruce, Judith (eds.): A home divided, Women and income in the third world, Stanford University Press, Stanford, pp.155-172.[68]

Guyer, Jane I. (1991): Female farming in anthropology and African history, in: Di Leonardo, Michaella (eds.): Gender at the crossroads of knowledge, Feminist anthropology in the post modern era, California University Press, Berkeley, pp.257-277.[69]

Harriss-White, Barbara (1998): Female and male grain marketing systems, Analytical and policy issues from West Africa and India, in: Jackson, Cecile / Pearson, Ruth (eds.): Feminist visions of development, Gender analysis and policy, Routledge Publications, London, pp.189-213.[70]

Henn, Jeanne (1983): Women in rural economy: Past, present, and future, in: Hay, Jean / Stichter, Sharon (ed.): African women south of the Sahara, Longman Publishers, London, pp.1-18.[71]

Henn, Jeanne (1983): Feeding the cities and feeding the peasants: What role for Africa's women farmers? in: World Development, vol. 11, no. 12, pp.1034-1055.[72]

Hesseling, Gerti (1997): Sahelian women as partners in contracts on the management of natural resources, in: Bruijn, Miriam de / Halsema, Ineke van / Hombergh, Heleen van (ed.): Gender and land use, Thela Publishers, Amsterdam, pp.147-159.[73]

Hillhorst, Thea (2000): Women’s land rights, Current developments in Sub-Saharan Africa, in: Toulmin, Camilla / Quan, Julian (eds.): Evolving land rights, Policy and tenure in Africa, DFID/IIED/NRI Publication, London, pp.181-196.[74]

Holmes, Rebecca / Slater, Rachel (2008): Measuring progess on gender and agriculture in the 1982 and 2008 World Development Reports, in: Gender and Development, vol. 16, no. 1, pp.27-40.[75]

Hänke, Hendrik et al. (2017): Social-ecological traps hinder rural development in southwestern Madagascar, in: Ecology and Society, Vol. 22, No. 1, 42.[11777]

IFAD/FAO/FARMESA (1998): The potential for improving production tools and implements used by women farmers in Africa, IFAD/FAO Publications, Rome.[76]

Ikdahl, I. / Kameri-Mbote, Patricia et al. (2005): Human rights, formalisation of women’s land rights in Southern and Eastern Africa, IELRC Working Paper, no. 7, Nairobi.[77]

International Labour Organization (ILO (1988): Women’s access to land, The African experience, in: ILO (ed.): Women and land, ILO Publications, Geneva, pp.6-12.[78]

Izumi, Kaori (1999): Liberalisation, gender, and the land question in sub-Saharan Africa, in: Gender and Development, vol. 7, no. 3, pp.9-18.[79]

Izumi, Kaori (2007): Gender based violence and property grabbing in Africa, in: Gender and Development, vol. 15, no. 1, pp.11-23.[80]

Jackson, Cecile (1996): Learning from rural women, in: Commonwealth Secretariat (ed.): Women and natural resource management, A manual for the Africa region, Commonwealth Secretariat Publications, London, pp.24-37.[81]

Jackson, Cecile (1996): Women’s organisations for conservation, in: Commonwealth Secretariat (ed.): Women and natural resource management, A manual for the Africa region, Commonwealth Secretariat Publications, London, pp.102-125.[82]

James, Valentine Udoh (ed. (1995): Women and sustainable development in Africa, Praeger Publishers, Westport.[83]

Kasmann, Elke / Körner, Markus (1992): Autonom und Abhängig, Westafrikanische Landfrauen zwischen Tradition und gesellschaftlicher Modernisierung, Bielefelder Studien zur Entwicklungssoziologie, 52, Breitenbach Verlag, Saarbrücken.[84]

Kaul, R.N. / Ali, A. (1992): Gender issues in African farming, A case study for developing farm tools for women, in: Journal of Farming System Research Extension, 3, 1, pp.35-46.[85]

Kevane, Michael (2003): Women and development in Africa, How gender works, Lynne Rienner Publishers, Boulder.[86]

Kevane, Michael / Gray, L. (1999): A woman’s field is not made at night, in: Feminist Economics, vol. 5, no. 3, pp.1-27.[87]

Ki-Zerbo, Jacqueline (1980): Women and the energy crisis in the Sahel, FAO Publications, Rome.[88]

Koopman, Jeanne (1997): The hidden roots of the African food problem: Looking within the rural household, in: Visvanathan, Nalini et al. (eds.): The women, gender and development reader, Zed Books, London, pp.132-141.[89]

Kordylas, Maud (1991): The role of women in the adoption of food processing technology in Africa, Lessons from experience, in: Prah, Kwesi (ed.): Culture, Gender, Science and Technology in Africa, Harp Publications, Windhoek, pp.32-47.[90]

Lachenmann, Gudrun (1992): Entwicklungspolitische Konzeptionen in Afrika, in: Rott, Renate (ed.): Entwicklungsprozesse und Geschlechterverhältnisse, Über die Lebens- und Arbeitsräume von Frauen in Ländern der Dritten Welt, Breitenbach Verlag, Saarbrücken, pp.127-148.[91]

Lado, Cleophas (1992): Female labour participation in agricultural production and the implications for nutrition and health in rural Africa, in: Social Science and Medicine, vol. 34, pp. 789-807.[92]

Lastarria-Cornhiel, Susana (1997): Impact of privatization on gender and property rights in Africa, in: World Development, vol. 25, no. 8, pp.1317-1333.[93]

Lele, Uma (1989): The gendered impacts of structural adjustment programs in Africa: Discussion, in: American Journal of Agricultural Economics, vol. 73, no. 5, pp.1452-1455.[94]

Lele, Uma (1991): Women structural adjustment, and transformation: Some lessons and questions from the African experiences, in: Gladwin, Christina (ed.): Structural adjustment and African women farmers, University of Florida Press, Gainesville, pp.46-80.[95]

Made, Pat (1995): Women and desertification, Tillers of the land – keepers of knowledge, in: Southern African Feminist Review, vol. 1, no. 1, pp.32-38.[96]

Malena, C. (1994): Gender issues in integrated pest management in African agriculture, NRI Socio-economic series, 5, Natural Resource Institute, Chatham.[97]

Manji, Ambreena (2003): Remortaging women’s lives, The World Bank’s land agenda in Africa, in: Feminist Legal Studies, vol. 11, pp.139-162.[98]

Manji, Ambreena (2003): Capital, labour and land relations in Africa, A gender analysis of the World Bank’s Policy Research Report on land institutions and land policy, in: Third World Quarterly, vol. 24, no. 1, pp.97-114.[99]

Mayoux, Linda (ed. (1988): All are not equal, African women in cooperatives, Institute of African Alternatives Publications, London.[100]

Meinzen-Dick, Ruth / van Koppen, Barbara / Behrman, Julia et al. (2012): Putting gender on the map, Methods of mapping gender farm management systems in Sub-Saharan Africa, IFPRI Disussion Paper, Washington D.C.[101]

Monimart, Marie (1989): Women in the fight against desertification, IIED Dryland Programme, Issue Paper No. 12, London.[102]

Mueller, Tanja (2005): HIV/AIDS, gender and rural livelihoods in Sub-Saharan Africa, Wageningen Academic Press, Wageningen.[103]

Mulinge, Munyae / Melese, Getu (2013): Impacts of climate change and variability on pastoralist women in Sub-Saharan Africa, Fountain Publishers, Kampala.[104]

Mutangadura, Gladys (2005): Gender, health and rural livelihoods in Southern Africa, Addressing the challenges, in: Jenda, Journal of Culture and African Women Studies, 7, pp.1-10.[105]

Muylwijk, Joke / Smetsers, Maria (1996): Gender and agricultural engineering in Sub-Saharan Africa, Issues from the literature, in: Muylwijk, Joke / Smetsers, Maria: Gender and agricultural engineering, Department of Gender Studies in Agriculture and The Agricultural Engineering Branch of the FAO, AGSE Occasional Paper, Wageningen, pp.4-18.[106]

Mwagiru, Makumi (2001): Women’s land and property rights in three Eastern African countries, in: Buregeya, Alfred / Garling, Marguerite et al. (eds.): Women’s land and property rights in situations of conflict and reconstruction, UNIFEM Publications, New York, pp.18-23.[107]

Nelson, Nici (ed. (1988): African women in the development process, Frank Class Publishers, London.[108]

Nelson, Valerie (2011): Climate change and gender, What role for agricultural research among smallholder farmers in Africa? Natural Resources Institute, Greewich University, International Centre for Tropical Agriculture (CIAT), CIAT Working Document no. 222, Greenwich/Kampala.[109]

Newman, Katherine (1981): Women and law, land tenure in Africa, in: Black, Naomi / Baker Cottrell, Ann (eds.): Women and world change, Equity issues in development, Sage Publications, Beverly Hills, pp.120-138.[110]

Nwomonoh, Jonathan (1995): African women in production: The economic role of rural women, in: James, Valentine Udoh (ed.): Women and sustainable development in Africa, Praeger Publishers, Westport, pp.171-182.[111]

Nyanteng, V.K. (1990): Women in West African rice production systems, Issues for research and development, in: Prasad, C. / Ram, pp. (eds.): Women in agriculture, Technological perspective, International Federation for Women in Agriculture, Krishi Anuasandhan Bhawan, Pusa, New Dehli, pp.25-36.[112]

Oglethorpe, Judy / Gleman, Nancy (2008): AIDS, women, land and natural resources in Africa, Current challenges, in: Gender and Development, vol. 16, no. 1, pp.85-100.[115]

Okelo, Mary (1992): The women’s view point, in: Obasanjo, Olusegun / D’Orville, Hans (eds.): The challenge of agricultural production and food security in Africa, Crane Russak Publications, Washington, pp.83-86.[116]

Osborn, Liz (1990): Women and trees: Indigenous relations and agroforestry development, in: Mc Dougall, Ann (eds.): Sustainable agriculture in Africa, Africa World Press, Trenton, pp.135-144.[117]

Osuala, Judith (1985): Extending appropriate technology to rural African women, in: Women’s Studies International Forum, vol. 10, no. 3, pp.481-487.[118]

O’Laughlin, Bridget (2007): A bigger piece of a very small pie, Interhousehold resource allocation and poverty reduction in Africa, in: Development and Change, vol. 38, no. 1, pp.21-44.[113]

O’Laughlin, Bridget (2009): Gender justice, land and the agrarian question in Southern Africa, in: Akram-Lodhi, Haroon / Kay, Christobal (eds.): Peasants and globalization, Political economy, rural transformation and the agrarian question, Routledge, London, pp.190-213.[114]

Palmer, Ingrid (1991): Gender and population in the adjustment of African economics: Planning for change, ILO Publications, Geneva.[119]

Peters, Pauline (1995): Uses and abuses of the concept of „female headed households“ in research and agricultural transformation and policy, in: Bryceson, Deborah Fahy (ed.): Women wielding the hoe, Lessons from rural Africa for feminist theory and development practice, Berg Publishers, Oxford, pp.93-108.[120]

Picard, Mary Theresa (1993): Listening and learning from African women farmers, in: James, Valentine Udoh (ed.): Women and sustainable development in Africa, Praeger Publishers, Westport, pp.35-64.[121]

Purvis, Barbara (1985): Family nutrition and women’s activities in rural Africa, in: Food and Nutrition, vol. 11, no. 2, pp.28-36.[122]

Rathgeber, Eva (1995): Integrating gender into environmental education in Africa, in: Canadian Journal of Development Studies, special issue, pp.89-103.[123]

Roberts, Penelope A. (1988): Rural women's access to labour in West Africa, in: Stichter, Sharon / Parpart, Jane (eds.): Patriarchy and class, African Women in the home and the workforce, Lynne Rienner Publishers, Boulder, pp.97-114.[124]

Safilios-Rothschild, Constantina (1991): Women as a motor in agricultural development: Lessons learnt from Eastern and Southern Sub-Saharan Africa, in: Safilios-Rothschild, Constancia: Gender methodology in agricultural projects, Wageningen, pp.83-95.[125]

Safilios-Rothschild, Constantina (1994): Agricultural policies and women producers, in: Adejoju, Aderanti (ed.): Gender, work and population in Sub-Saharan Africa, James Currey Publishers, London, pp.54-63.[126]

Sahn, David / Haddad, Lawrence (1989): The gendered impact of structural adjustment programs in Africa: Discussion, in: American Journal of Agricultural Economics, vol. 73, no. 5, pp.1448-1451.[127]

Sahn, David / Stifel, David (2002): Parental preferences for nutrition of boys and girls, Evidence from Africa, in: Development Studies, vol. 39, no. 1, pp.18-34.[128]

Saito, Katrine / Mekonnen, Hailu / Spurling, Daphne (1994): Raising the productivity of women farmers in Sub-Saharan Africa, World Bank Discussion Papers, No. 230, Africa Technical Department Series, Washington D.C.[129]

Savané, Marie Angélique (1986): The effects of social and economic changes on the role and status of women in Sub-Saharan Africa, in: Moock, Joyce Lewinger (ed.): Understanding Africa’s rural household and farming systems, Westview Press, Boulder, pp.124-132.[130]

Schmidt, Ellen (2010): Promising responses to HIV and AIDS in agriculture, rural development, self-help and social protection, Misereor, Aachen.[133]

Schäfer, Rita (1995): Frauenorganisationen und Entwicklungszusammenarbeit – Traditionelle und moderne afrikanische Frauenzusammenschlüsse im interethnischen Vergleich, Centaurus-Verlag, Pfaffenweiler.[131]

Schäfer, Rita (2002): Gender und ländliche Entwicklung in Afrika, in: Aus Politik und Zeitgeschichte, Beilage der Wochenzeitung „das Parlament“, B 13 / 14, pp.31-38.[132]

Sharma, Anjali (1998): Contribution of rural women to environmentally sustainable development, An African experience, in: Journal of Rural Studies, vol. 17, no. 4, pp.681-701.[134]

Silberschmidt, Margarethe (2001): Disempowerment of men in rural and urban East Africa, Implications of male identity and sexual behaviour, in: World Development, vol. 29, no. 4, pp.657-671.[135]

Simard, Paul (1998): Assessing autonomy among Sahelian women: An analytical framework for women’s production work, in: Development in Practice, vol. 8, no. 2, pp.186-202.[136]

Spring, Anita (1986): Women farmers and food in Africa: Some considerations and suggested solutions, in: Hansen, Art / McMillan, Della (eds.): Food in Sub-Saharan Africa, Lynne Rienner Publishers, Boulder, pp.332-348.[137]

Spring, Anita (2001): Positive effects of agricultural commercialisation on women farmers, A new paradigm, Webb. Patrick / Weinberger, Katinka (eds.): Women’s farmers, Enhancing rights, recognition and productivity, Peter Lang Verlag, Frankfurt a.M., pp.13-36.[138]

Spring, Anita (ed. (2000): Women farmers and commercial ventures, Increasing food security in developing countries, Lynne Rienner Publishers, Boulder.[140]

Spring, Anita / Wilde, Vicki (1991): Women farmers, structural adjustment, and FAO’s plan of action for integration of women in development, in: Gladwin, Christina (ed.): Structural adjustment and African women farmers, University of Florida Press, Gainesville, pp.387-408.[139]

Spurling, Daphne / Nebie, Ibrahim (1995): Rural women in the Sahel and their access to agricultural extension, Sector Study, Report no. 13532, West Africa Division, World Bank, Washington D.C.[141]

Stamp, Patricia (1990): Technology, gender and power in Africa, International Development Research Centre, Technical Study, 63, Ottawa.[142]

Staudt, Kathleen (1987): Uncaptured or unmotivated? Women and the food crisis in Africa, in: Rural Sociology, vol. 52, no. 1, pp.37-55.[143]

Staudt, Kathleen (1988): Women farmers in Africa: Research and institutional action, 1972-1987, in: Canadian Journal of African Studies, vol. 22, no. 3, pp.567-582.[144]

Strickland, Richard (2004): To have and to hold, Women’s property rights in the context of HIV/AIDS in Sub-Saharan Africa, Working Paper, International Centre for Research on Women (ICRW), Washington D.C.[145]

Svedberg, Peter (1990): Undernutrition in Sub-Saharan Africa: Is there a gender bias? in: Journal of Development Studies, vol. 26, no. 3, pp.469-486. [146]

Tadesse, Zenebeworke (1984): Studies on rural women in Africa, An overview, in: ILO (ed.): Rural development and women, ILO Publications, Geneva, pp.65-95.[147]

Tempelman, D.E. (1998): Africa, in: FAO (eds.): Rural women and food security: Current situation and perspectives, FAO Publications, Rome, pp.14-33.[148]

Thomas-Slayter, Barbara / Sodikoff, Genese (2001): Sustainable investments, Women’s contribution to natural resource management projects in Africa, in: Development in Practice, vol. 11, no. 1, pp.45-61.[149]

Trenchard, Esther (1987): Rural women’s work in Sub-Saharan Africa and the implications for nutrition, in: Momsen, Janet Henshall / Townsend, Janet (eds.): Geography of gender and the third world, State University of New York Press, Hutchingson, pp.153-172.[150]

Tsikati, Dzodzi (2009): Gender, land and labour relations and livelihoods in Sub-Saharan Africa in the era of economic liberalisation, Towards a research agenda, in: Feminist Africa, vol. 12, pp.11-30.[151]

Walker, Cheryl (2002): Land reform in Southern and Eastern Africa, Key issues for strengthening women’s access to and rights in land, FAO Report, Rome/Harare. [152]

Wanyeki, Muthoni (ed. (2003): Women and land rights in Africa, Culture, religion and realizing women’s rights, Zed Books, London.[153]

Warner, M.W. / Al-Hassan, M. / Kydd, J.G. (1997): Beyond gender roles? in: Conceptualizing the social and economic lives of rural peoples in Sub-Saharan Africa, in: Development and Change, vol. 28, pp.143-168.[154]

Weekes-Vagliani, Winifred (1985): Women, food and rural development, in: Rose, Tore (ed.): Crisis and recovery in Sub-Saharan Africa, OECED Publications, Paris, pp.104-110.[155]

Whitehead, Ann (1990): Food crisis and gender conflict in the African countryside, in: Bernstein, Henry / Crow, Ben et al. (eds.): The food question: Profits versus people, Earthscan Publications, London, pp.54-68.[156]

Whitehead, Ann (1990): Rural women and food production in Sub-Saharan Africa, in: Drèze, Jean / Sen, Amarthya (eds.): The political economy of hunger, Claredon Press, Oxford, pp.425-473.[157]

Whitehead, Ann (1991): Food production and the food crisis in Africa, in: Wallace, Tina / March, Candida (eds.): Changing perceptions, Writings on gender and development, Berg Publishers, Oxford, pp.68-78.[158]

Whitehead, Ann (1994): Wives and mothers: Female farmers in Africa, in: Adejoju, Aderanti (ed.): Gender, work and population in Sub-Saharan Africa, James Currey Publishers, London, pp.35-53.[159]

Whitehead, Ann / Tsikata Dzodzi (2003): Policy discourses on women's land rights in sub-Saharan Africa, The implications of the re-turn to the customary, in: Journal of Agrarian Change, vol. 3, no. 1, pp.67-, 2003.[160]

Yngstrom, Ingrid (2002): Women, wives and land rights in Africa, Situating gender beyond the household in the debate over land policy and changing land tenure systems, in: Oxford Development Studies, vol. 30, no. 1, pp.21-40.[161]

Young, Kate (1993): Women in agriculture: The case of Sub-Saharan Africa, in: Young, Kate (ed.): Planning development with women, Making a world of difference, MacMillan Publishers, London, pp.45-65.[162]

Zdunnek, Gabriele / Ay, Peter (1999): Food production, transformation processes and change of gender-specific division of labour in rural Africa, in: Kracht, Uwe / Schulz, Manfred (eds.): Food security and nutrition, Lit-Verlag, Münster, pp.219-236.[163]

arts and culture

Achebe, Nwando / Robertson, Claire (ed.) (2019): Holding the world together, African women in changing perspective, University of Wisconsin Press, Madison.[11592]

Arronson, Lisa (1984): Women in the arts, in: Hay, Jean Margaret / Stichter, S. (eds.): African women south of the Sahara, MacMillan, London, pp. 119-138.[1400]

Arronson, Lisa (1991): African women and the visual arts, in: Signs, Journal of Women in Culture and Society, vol. 16, no. 3, pp. 550-574.[1401]

Arson, Lisa (1991): African women in the visual arts, in: Signs, vol. 16, no. 3, pp. 19-43.[1402]

Bisschoff, Lizelle / van de Peer, Stefanie (2020): Women in African cinema, Beyond body politics, Routledge, London.[1403]

Dipio, Dominica (2019): Gender terrains in African cinema, African Books Collective, Oxford.[1404]

Ebron, Paulla (2007): Constructing subjects through performative acts, in: Cole, Catherine / Manuh, Takyiwaa / Miescher, Stephan (eds.): Africa after gender? Indiana Unviersity Press, Bloomington, pp. 171-190.[1405]

Ellerson, Beti (2018): African women of the screen as cultural producers, An overview by country, in: Black Camera, vol. 10, no 1, pp. 245-287. [11572]

Ellerson, Beti (2021): African women professionals in cinema, Manifestos, communiqués, declarations, statements, resolutions, in: Black Camera, vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 536-590.[11574]

Ellerson, Beti / Gbadamassi, Falila (2019): African women on the film festival landscape, Organizing, showcasing, promoting, networking, in: Black Camera, vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 424-456.[11573]

Green-Simms, Lindsey / Z´étoile Imma (2021): The possibilities and intimacies of Queer African screen cultures, in: Journal of African Cultural Studies Volume 33, pp. 1-19.[11760]

Hale, Thomas (2007): Griots and griottes, Indiana University Press, Bloomington.[1406]

Hale, Thomas et al. (eds.) (2013): Women’s songs in West Africa, Indiana University Press, Bloomington.[1407]

Harrow, Kenneth (ed.) (1997): With open eyes, Women and African cinema, Matatu, vol. 19, Rodipi Publishers, Amsterdam.[1409]

Hassan, Salah (ed.) (1997): Gendered visions, The art of contemporary African women artists, Africa World Press, New Jersey.[1410]

Herbert, Eugenia (1994): Iron, gender and power, Rituals of transformation in African societies, Indiana University Press, Bloomington.[1408]

Irobi, Esiaba (2007): Feminist aesthetics in Africn theatre of the colonial period, in: African Performance Review, vol. 1, pp. 56-74.[1411]

Jules-Rosette, Bennetta (1977): The potters and painters, Art by and about women in urban Africa, in: Studies in Anthropology and Visual Communication, vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 112-127.[1412]

Migraine-George, Therese (2008): African women and representation, From Performance to Politics, Africa World Press, Trenton.[1413]

Mistry, Jyoti / Schumann, Antje (eds.) (2015): Gaze regimes, Film and feminisms in Africa, University of Witwatersrand Press, Johannesburg.[1414]

Mule, Katiwa (2007): Women’s spaces, women’s visions, Politics, poetics and resistance in African women’s drama, Africa World Press, Trenton.[1415]

Perani, Judith / Smith, Fred (1998): The visual arts of Africa: Gender, power, and life cycle rituals, Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River.[1416]

Perkins, Kathy (ed.) (2009): African women playwrights, University of Illinois Press.[1417]

Rizzo, Lorena / Newbury, Darren / Thomas, Kylie (eds.) (2020): Women and Photography in Africa, Creative Practices and Feminist Challenges, Routledge, London.[11656]

Salmons, Jill (1977): Mamy Water, in: African Arts, vol. 3, pp. 8-15.[1418]

Scamina, Lida / Eicher, Joanne (eds.) (1998): Beads and beadmakers, Berg Publishers, Oxford.[1419]

Smith, Fred (1986): Male and female artistry in Africa, in: African Arts, vol. 19, no. 3, pp. 28-29.[1420]

Smith, Fred (1986): Compound entry decoration, Male space and female creativity, in: African Arts, vol. 19, no. 3, pp. 52-58.[1421]

Uzoamaka Ada Azodo / Maureen Ngozi Eke (eds.) (2006): Gender and sexuality in African literature and film, Africa World Press, Trenton.[1422]

Veit-Wild, Flora (2005): Tsitsi Dangarembga’s film “Kare Kare Zvako”, The survival of the butchered women, Review, in: Research in African Literatures, vol. 36, no. 2, pp. 132-138.[11575]

White, Luise (1994): Anthologies about women in Africa, in: Canadian Journal of African Studies, vol. 28, no. 1, pp. 127-138.[1423]

economy - formal and informal employment

Abok, Alice Mwajuma (1999): The impact of structural adjustment programmes on African women, in: Langthaler, Herbert (ed.): Sura za Afrika, Voices from Africa, Peter Lang Verlag, Frankfurt.[1600]

Adepoju Aderanti, Christine (ed.) (1994): Gender, work and population in Sub-Saharan Africa, James Currey, London.[1602]

Anker, Richard (1994): Measuring women’s participation in the African labour force, in: Adepoju Aderanti, Christine (ed.): Gender, work and population in Sub-Saharan Africa, James Currey, London, pp. 64-75.[1601]

Appleton, Simon / Hoddinott, John / Krishnan, Pramila (1999): The gender wage gap in three African countries, in: Economic Development and Cultural Change, vol. 47, pp. 289-312.[1603]

Bay, Edna (ed.) (1982): Women and work in Africa, Westview Press, Boulder.[1604]

Braun, Lesley Nicole / Ostbo Haugen, Heidi (2021): The weight women carry, Research on the visible and invisible baggage in suitcase trade between China and Africa, in: The Professional Geographer, online, 13.9.2021[11657]

Buss, Doris / Katz-Lavigne, Sarah / Aluoka, Otieno / Alma, Eileen (2020): “Remembering the women of Osiri”, Women and gender in artisanal and small-scale mining in Migori County, Kenya, in: Canadian Journal of African Studies, vol. 54, no. 1, pp. 177-195. [11643]

Ekouevi, Koffi / Adepoju, Aderanti (1995): Adjustment, social sectors and demographic change in Sub-Saharan Africa, in: Journal of International Development, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 47-59.[1606]

El-Bakry, Zeinab (1995): Enhancing the capacity of African woman entrepreneur, in: Rasheed, Sadig / Luke, David Fashole (eds.): Development management in Africa, Toward dynamism, empowerment, and entrepreneurship, Westview Press, Boulder, pp. 138-147.[1607]

ELDIS (2008): Toolkit on participatory budgeting in Africa, vol. I and II, Brighton.[1605]

Gaidzanwa, Rudo Barbara (1993): Women entrepreneurs, donor promotion and domestic policies, in: Helmsing, A.H.J. (ed.): Small enterprises and changing policies, Structural adjustment, financial policy and assistance programmes in Africa, IT Publications, London, pp. 277-293.[1610]

Goebel, Allison / Epprecht, Marc (1995): Women and employment in Sub-Saharan Africa, Testing the World Bank and the WID Models with a case study, in: African Studies Review, vol. 38, no. 1, pp. 1-22.[1608]

Gordon, April (1991): Economic reform and African women, in: Transafrica Forum, vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 21-41.[1609]

Grundfest Schoepf, Broke (1991): Gender relations and development, Political economy and culture, in: Seidman, Ann / Anang, Frederick (eds.): Twenty-first-century Africa, Towards a new vision of self-sustained development, Trenton, pp. 203-241.[1611]

Hanley, Aoife / Görg, Holger / Hornok, Cecilia / Ackah, Charles (2021): Africa’s Female Entrepreneurs – Towards Funding Success, PEGNetPolicy Brief 24, PEGNet, Kiel Institute for the World Economy / Kiel Centre for Globalization, Kiel. [11642]

House-Midamba, B. / Ekechi, F.K. (eds.) (1995): African women and economic power, The role of women in African economic development, Greenwood Press, Westport.[1612]

Lachenmann, Gudrun (1992): Frauen als gesellschaftliche Kraft im sozialen Wandel in Afrika, in: Peripherie, Nr. 47/48, pp. 74-93.[1613]

Lachenmann, Gudrun (1997): Informal social security in Africa from a gender perspective, in: Baud, Isa / Symth, Ines (eds.): Searching for security, Routledge, London, pp. 45-67.[1614]

Lachenmann, Gudrun (2001): Geschlechtsspezifische Einbettung der Wirtschaft, in: dieselbe / Dannecker, Petra (eds.): Geschlechtsspezifische Einbettung der Ökonomie, Empirische Untersuchungen über Entwicklungs- und Transformationsprozesse, Lit-Verlag, Münster, pp. 15-35.[1615]

Lewis, Barbara (1982): Fertility and employment, An assessment of role incompartibility among African urban women, in: Bay, Edna (ed.): Women and work in Africa, Westview Press, Boulder, pp. 249-276.[1616]

Ougundipe, Omolara (1991): African women, culture and another development, in: Presence Africaine, no. 141, pp. 123-139.[1617]

Palmer, Ingrid (1991): Gender and population in the adjustment of African economies, Planning for Change, ILO Publications, Geneva.[1618]

Randriamaro, Zo (2002): 'The NEPAD, gender and the poverty trap: The NEPAD and the challenges of financing for development in Africa from a gender perspective', paper presented at conference on Africa and the Development Challenges of the New Millennium, Accra.[1619]

Robertson, Claire (1988): Invisible workers, African women and the problem of self-employed in labour history, in: Journal of African and Asian Studies, vol. 23, no. 1-2, pp. 180-195.[1620]

Sahn, David / Haddad, Lawrence (1991): The gendered impact of structural adjustment programs in Africa, Discussion, in: American Journal of Agricultural Economics, vol. 73, no. 5, pp. 1448-1451.[1621]

Simone, Abdoumaliqalim (1995): From reproduction to reinvention, Women’s roles in African cities, in: Africa Insight, vol. 25, no. 1, pp. 4-14.[1622]

Steady, Filomina Cioma (1982): African women, industrialization and another development, in: Development Dialogue, 1/2, pp. 51-64.[1623]

Sudarkasa, Niara (1985): Female employment and family organization in West Africa, in: Steady, Filomina Chioma (ed.): The black woman cross-culturally, Schenkman Books, Rochester.[1624]

Tsikata, Dzodzi / Kerr, Joanna (ed.) (2000): Demanding dignity: Women confronting economic reforms in Africa, The North-South Institute and Accra: Third World Network-Africa, Ottawa.[1625]

UN INSTRAW (2008): Gender, remittances and development, Preliminary findings from selected SADC countries, UN INSTRAW/SAIIA/UNFPA, New York.[1627]

United Nations (2001): Women entrepreneurs in Africa, Experiences from selected countries, United Nations Publications, New York.[1626]

Weil, Gordon (1992): Caught in the crisis: Women in the economies of Africa, Kahne, Hilda / Giele, Janet (eds.): Women’s work and women’s lives, continuing struggle worldwide, Westview Press, Boulder, pp. 47-68.[1628]

Whitehead, Ann / Lockwood, Matthew (1999): Gendering poverty: A review of six Wold Bank African poverty assessments, in: Development and Change, vol. 30, pp. 525-555.[1629]

Win, Everjoice (2004): Not very poor, powerless or pregnant, The African women forgotten in development, in: IDS Bulletin, vol. 35, no. 4, pp. 61-64.[1630]

economy - Households

Ellis, Frank (1998): Household strategies and rural livelihood diversification, in: Journal of Development Studies, vol. 35, no. 1, pp. 1-38.[1900]

Engberg, Lila / Beckerson, Susan / Francois, Edith (1994): Women and household production, An ecosystem perspective with a comparison of two studies from Africa, in: Dagenais, Huguette / Piché, Denise (eds.): Women, feminism and development, McGill-Qweens University Press, Montreal, pp. 152-179.[1901]

Haddad, Lawrence / Hoddinou, John / Aldermann, Harald (1997): Intrahousehold resource allocation in developing countries, Models, methods and policy,John Hopkins University Press, Baltimore.[1902]

Martin, William / Beittel, Mark (1987): The hidden abode of reproduction: Conceptualizing the households in Southern Africa, in: Development and Change, vol. 18, pp. 215-234.[1903]

Mencher, Joan / Okongwu, Anne (eds.) (1993): Where did all the men go? Female headed/supported households in cross-cultural perspectives, Westview Press, Boulder.[1904]

O’Laughlin, Bridget (2007): A bigger peace of a very small pie, Intrahousehold resource allocation and poverty reduction in Africa, in: Development and Change, vol. 38, no. 1, pp. 21-44.[1905]

Quisumbing, Agnes / Maluccio, John (1999): Intrahousehold resouce allocation and gender relations, New empirical evidence, IFPRI, Washington D.C.[1906]

Yngstom, I. (2006): Women, wives and land rights in Africa, Situating gender beyond the household in the debate over land policy and changing tenure systems, in: Oxford Development Journal, vol. 30, no. 1, pp. 21-40.[1907]

economy - markets and traders

Robson, Elsbeth (1999): Gender, markets and fieldwork in developing countries, with special reference to West Africa, in: Harris-White, Barbara (ed.): Agricultural markets – from theory to practice, Field Experience in developing countries, St. Martin’s Press, New York, pp. 287-301.[2100]

Seligmann, Linda (ed.) (2001): Women traders in cross-cultural perspective, Mediating identities, marketing wares, Stanford University Press, Stanford.[2101]

Sheldon, Kathleen (ed.) (1996): Courtyards, markets, city streets, Urban women in Africa, Westview Press, Boulder,.[2102]

Simms, Ruth (1985): The African women as entrepreneur: Problems and perspectives on their roles, in Steady, F.Ch. (ed.): Black women cross-culturally, Cambridge (Mass.), pp. 141-168.[2103]

economy - pastoralism

Burton, John (1991): Representations of the feminine in Nilotic cosmologies, in: Jacobson-widding, Anita (ed.): Body and space, Almquist and Wiksell, Uppsala, pp. 81-98.[2300]

Curry, John (1996): Gender and livestock in African production systems: An introduction, in: Human Ecology, vol. 24, no. 2, pp. 149-160.[2301]

Dahl, Gudrun (1987): Women in pastoral production, some theoretical notes on roles and resources, in: Ethnos, vol. 52, pp. 246-279.[2302]

Dahl, Gudrun (1987): The realm of pastoral women, in: Ethnos, 1-2, pp. 5-7.[2303]

Dupire, Marguerite (1963): The role of women in a pastoral society, in: Paulme, Denise (ed.): Women of tropical Africa, University of California Press, Berkeley, pp. 47-92.[2304]

Ensminger, Jean (1984): Theoretical perspectives on pastoral women, Feminist Critique, in: Nomadic People, vol. 16, pp. 59-71.[2305]

Hodgson, Dorothy (ed.) (2000): Rethinking pastoralism in Africa, James Currey, Oxford.[2306]

Joekes, Susan / Pointing, Judy (1991): Women in pastoral societies in East and West Africa, International Institute for Environment and Development, IIED Publications, Dryland Programme Issue Paper, No. 28, London.[2307]

Kettel, Bonnie (1988): Gender distortions and development disasters, Women and milk in African herding systems, in: National Women’s Studies Association Journal, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 23-41.[2308]

Kipuri, Naomi / Ridgewell, Andrew (2008): A double bind, The exclusion of pastoralist women in the East and Horn of Africa, Minority Rights Group, London.[2309]

Little, M.A. / Leslie, P.W. (1988): Turkana herders of the dry savanna, Ecology and behavioural response of nomads to an uncertain environment, London, Oxford University Press, New York.[2310]

March, Candida (1991): Pastoralist women’s workshop, in: Wallace, Tina / March, Candida (eds.): Changing perceptions, Writings on Gender and Development, Oxfam Publications, Oxford, pp. 273-278.[2311]

Mulinge, Munyae / Melese, Getu (2013): Impacts of climate change and variability on pastoralist women in Sub-Saharan Africa, Fountain Publishers, Kampala.[2312]

Oxby, Clare (1991): The involvement of agropastoralist women in livestock programmes, in: Wallace, Tina / March, Candida (ed.): Changing perceptions, Writings on Gender and Development, Oxfam Publications, Oxford, pp. 202-209.[2313]

Toulmin, Camilla (1992): Cattle, women and wells, Managing household survival in the Sahel, Oxford University Press, Oxford.[2314]

education schooling and tertiary education

Adams, Milton / Kruppenbach, Susan (1987): Gender and access in the African school, in: International Education Review, vol. 33, no. 4, pp. 92-100.[2500]

Aikman, Sheila / Unterhalter, Elaine (eds.) (2007): Practicing gender equality in education, Oxfam Publications, Oxford.[2501]

Ainsworth, Martha (1996): The impact of women’s schooling on fertility and contraceptive use, A study of fourteen Sub-Saharan African countries, in: World Bank Economic Review, vol. 10. no. 1. pp. 85-122.[2502]

Ainsworth, Martha (1996): The impact of women’s schooling on fertility and contraceptive use, A study of fourteen Sub-Saharan African countries, in: World Bank Economic Review, vol. 10. no. 1. pp. 85-122.[2506]

Allison, Caroline (1985): Health and education for development: African women’s status and prospects, in: Rose, Tore (ed.): Crisis and recovery in Sub-Sahran Africa, Paris, pp. 111-123.[2503]

Ampofo, Akosua Adomako / Beoku-Betts, Josephine / Osirim, Mary et al. (2004): Women and Gender Studies in English-Speaking Sub-Saharan Africa, A review of the literture in the Social Sciences, in: Gender and Society, vol. 18, no. 6, pp. 685-713.[2504]

Arigbede, M.O. (1994): High illiteracy rates among women and high drop-out rates among girls, in: Convergence, vol. 28, no. 4, pp. 15-22.[2505]

Assie-Lumumba, Ndri Therese (2000): Educational and economic reforms, gender equality, and access to scholling in Africa, in: International Journal of Comparative Sociology, vol. XLI, no. 1, pp. 89-120[2507]

Barnes, Teresa / Mama, Amina (eds.) (2007): Rethinking universities, Africa Gender Institute, AGI, Cape Town.[2508]

Baxen, B.J. / Breidlid, A. (2004): Researching HIV/AIDS and education in Sub-Saharan Africa, Examining the gaps and challenges, in: Journal of Education, vol. 34, pp. 9-29.[2509]

Bennett, Jane (2002): Exploring of a ‘gap’, Strategising gender equality in African universities, in: Feminist Africa, no. 1, pp. 34-63.[2510]

Bennett, Jane / Pereira, Charmaine (eds.) (2013): Jacketed women, Qualitative research methods on sexualities in Africa, United Nations University Press, New York.[2511]

Bloch, Marianne (ed.) (1998): Women and education in sub-saharan Africa, Power, Opportunities and constraints, Lynne Rienner Publishers, Boulder.[2512]

Brown, Angela / Barrett, Hazel (1991): Female education in Sub-Saharan Africa: The key to development? in: Comparative Education, vol. 27, no. 3, pp. 275-285.[2513]

Colclough, Christiopher (1994): Under-enrolment and low quality in African primary schooling: Towards a gender-sensitive solution, working paper, 7, IDS, Brighton.[2515]

Cotton, Ann / Synge, Richard (1998): Cutting the gordian knot, The benefits of girls’ education in Sub-Saharan Africa, CAMFED, Cambridge.[2514]

Endawoke, Yalew (1999): Differences in the mathematics and physics achievement of boy and girl high school students, A qualitative analysis, in: Hess, Jürgen (ed.): Education and social change, Empirical studies for the improvement of education in East Africa, DSE Publications, Bonn, pp. 173-192.[2516]

Etta, Florence Ebam (1994): Gender issues in contemporaray African education, in: Africa Development, vol. 19, no. 4, pp. 57-84.[2517]

Fuller, B. / Singre, J.D. / Keiley, M. (1995): Why do daughters leave school in Southern Africa? Family economy and mothers’s commitments, in: Social Forces, 74, pp. 657-680.[2518]

Glynn, Judith R. / Carael, Michel et al. (2004): Does increased general schooling protect against HIV infection? A study in four African cities, in: Tropical Medicine and International Health, vol. 9, no.1, pp. 4-14.[2519]

Göhring, Irmgard (1990): Bildung und Berufe afrikanischer Frauen, in: Zeitschrift für Kulturaustausch, 1, pp. 69-72.[2520]

Görgen, Regina (1985): Die Armut ist weiblich, Frauenbildung und ländliche Entwicklung in Afrika, in: Schürings, Hildegard / Sülberg, Walter (Hg.): Pädagogik Dritte Welt, Jahrbuch 1985, IKO Verlag, Frankfurt a.M., pp. 69-83.[2521]

Hall, Eve (1990): Vocational training for women refugees in Africa, in: International Labour Review, vol. 129, no. 1, pp. 91-107.[2523]

Harber, Clive (1988): Schools and political socialization in Africa, in: Education Review, vol. 50, no. 2, pp. 195-202.[2524]

Herz, Barbara / Subbarao, K. et al. (1991): Letting girls learn, Promising approaches in primary and secondary education, World Bank Discussion Papers, No. 133, World Bank, Washington D.C.[2522]

Hyde, Kathleen (1993): Sub-Saharan Africa, in: King, Elizabeth / Hill, Anne (eds.): Women’s education in developing countries - Barriers, benefits, and policies, Baltimore, pp. 100-135.[2525]

Imam, Ayesha / Mama, Amina / Sow, Fatouo (eds.) (1997): Engendering African social sciences, CODESRIA, Dakar.[2526]

Jabre, B. (1988): Women’s education in Africa, A survey of five countries, Unicef cooperative Programme, no. 26, New York.[2527]

Jha, Jyotsna (2007): An annotated bibliography on gender in secondary eduction, Research from selected Commonwealth Countries, London.[2528]

Kane, Eileen (1996): Seeing for yourself, Research handbook for girls’ education in Africa, World Bank Publication, New York.[2529]

Kitetu, Wawasi Catherine (ed.) (2008): Gender, science and technology, Perspectives from Africa, COSEDRIA, Dakar.[2530]

Kravdal, Oystein (2002): Education and fertility in Sub-Saharan Africa, in: Demography, vol. 39, no. 3, pp. 233-250.[2531]

Kritz, M.M. /Gurak, D.T. (1989): Women’s status, education and family formation in Sub-Saharan Africa, in: International Family Planning Perspectives, 15, 3, pp.100-105.[2532]

Kweseyiga, Joy (2002): Women’s access to higher education in Africa, Fountain Publishers, Kampala.[2533]

Lind, Agneta (1995): Women and literacy: With particular reference to Southern Africa, in: Journal of the Association for Literacy and Adult Education (AALAE), vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 1-11.[2534]

Lloyd, Cynthia / Blanc, Ann (1996): Children’s schooling in Sub-Saharan Africa, The role of fathers, mothers, and others, in: Population and Development Review, vol. 22, no. 2, pp. 265-298.[2535]

Logan, B.J. / Beoku-Betts, J.A. (1996): Women and education in Africa, An analysis of economic and sociocultural factors influencing observed trends, in: Journal of African and Asian Studies, 31, 3/4, pp. 217-239.[2536]

Mama, Amina (2012): The challenges of feminism, Gender, ethics and responsible academic freedom in African universities, in: Council for the Development of Social Science Research in Africa, vol. 14, no 1, pp. 1-23.[2537]

Maseman, Lea Vandra (1974): The hidden curriculum of a West African girls boarding school, in: Canadian Journal of African Studies, vol. 8, pp. 479-494.[2538]

McCaffery, Juliet / Merrifield, Juliet / Millican, Juliet (2007): Developing adult literacy, Approaches to Planning, implementing and delivering literacy initiatives, Oxfam Publications, Oxford.[2539]

Mkandawire, Thandike (ed.) (2005): African intellectuals, Rethinking politics, language, gender and development, CODESRIA/Zed Books, Dakar/London.[2540]

Morna, Colleen / Chola, Mulenga et al. (1993): When women learn, all benefit, in: African Farmer, No. 8, pp.15-21.[2541]

Nwonwu, Foc (2003): Empowering women through education, in: Africa Insight, vol. 32, no. 1, pp. 50-57.[2542]

Odaga, Adhiambo / Heneveld, Ward (1995): Girls and schools in Sub-Saharan Africa, From Analysis to Action, World Bank Technical Paper, No. 298, World Bank, Washington D.C.[2544]

Odei Akuffo, Felix (1989): Teenage pregnancies and school drop-outs, The relevance of family life education and vocational training to girls’ employment opportunities, in: Oppong, Christine (ed.):Sex roles, population and development in West Africa, Heinemann Publishers, Portsmouth, pp. 154-164.[2543]

Osafo-Gyima, Faustine (1987): Today’s African women: Her role in educating her children, in: Presence Africaine, pp. 141-145.[2545]

Pereira, Charmaine (2002): Between knowking and imagining, What space for feminism in scholarship in Africa, in: Feminist Africa, vol. 1, pp. 9-33.[2546]

Prah, Kwesi (ed.) (1991): Culture, gender, science and technology in Africa, Harp Publications, Windhoek.[2547]

Rathgeber, Eva M. (1995): Integrating gender into environmental education in Africa, in: Canadian Journal of Development Studies, special issue, pp. 89-103.[2548]

Robertson, Claire (1985): A growing dilemma: Women and change in African primary education, 1950-1980, in: Journal of Eastern African Research and Development, vol. 15, pp. 17-35.[2549]

Robertson, Claire (1986): Women’s education and class formation in Africa, 1950-1980, in: Robertson, Claire / Berger, Iris (eds.): Women and class in Africa, Africana Publishing Company, New York, pp. 92-113.[2550]

Sall, Ebrima (ed.) (2000): Women in the academia, Gender and academic freedom in Africa, CODESRIA, Dakar.[2551]

Stromquist, Nelly / Klees, Steven / Lin, Jing (2017): Women teachers in Africa, Challenges and possibilities, Routledge Publishers, London.[2552]

Suda, Collette (1996): The centrality of women in the moral teachings in African society, in: Nordic Journal of African Studies, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 71-83.[2553]

Sudarkasa, N. (1982): Sex roles, education and development in Africa, in: Anthropology and Education Quarterly, 13, pp. 279-289.[2554]

Tamale, Sylvia (1997): Bitches at the academy, Gender and academic freedom in the African university, in: Africa Development, vol. 22, no. 1, pp. 13-37.[2555]

Tanner, Frances / Levesque, Francoise / Zumstein, Johanna (1989): Training for life? Training in life, Vocational training for rural women in Africa, in: Entwicklung und ländlicher Raum, no. 23, pp. 12-13.[2556]

Thomas, Lynn (2007): Gendered reproduction: Placing schoolgirl pregnancies in African history in: Cole, Catherine / Manuh, Takyiwaa / Miescher, Stephan (eds.): Africa after gender? Indiana Unviersity Press, Bloomington, pp. 48-62.[2557]

Tietjen, Karen (1997): Educating girls in Sub-Saharan Africa, USAID’s approach and lessons for donors, SD Publication Series, Technical Paper, no. 54, US-Aid publications, Washington.[2558]

Wrziska, Alicja (1980): A young African girl, her school and her family environment, in: Africa, 35, pp. 357-385.[2559]

health - fgc fgm

Abdalla, Raqiya (1983): Sisters in affliction, Circumcision and infibulation of women in Africa, Zed Books, London[3000]

Abdel Halim, Asma Mohamed (1992): Claiming our bodies and our rights, Exploring female circumcision as an act of violence in Africa, in: Schuler, Margaret (ed.): Freedom from violence, Women’s strategies around the world, UNIFEM Publication, New York, pp. 141-156.[3001]

Abusharaf, Mustafa Rogaia (2006): Female circumcision, Multicultural perspectives, University of Pennesylvania Press, Philadelphia.[3002]

Accad, Evelyn (2001): Die Beschnittene, Horlemann Verlag, Bad Honnef.[3003]

Ahmadu, Fuambai (2000): Rites and wrongs, An insider/outsider reflects on power and excision, in: Shell-Duncan, Bettina / Hernlund, Ylva (eds.): Female circumcision in Africa, Culture, controversy, and change, Lynne Rienner, Boulder, pp. 283-312.[3004]

Amnesty International (AI) (2000): What is female genital mutilation? AI Publications, London.[3005]

Annas, Catherine (1999): Irreversible error, The power and prejudice of female genital mutilation, in: Mann, Jonathan / Gruskin, Sofia / Grodin, Michael / Annas, George (eds.): Health and human rights, Routledge, London, pp. 336-362.[3006]

Arbesman, M. / Kahler, L. / Buck, G.M. (1993): Assessment of the impact o female circumcision on the gynaecological, genitouriaray and obstetrical health problems of women from Somalia, Literature review and case studies, in: Women and Health, vol. 20, pp. 27-42.[3007]

Asefa, Semra (1998): Female genital mutilation, Violence in the name of tradition, religion and social imperative, in: French, Stanley / Teays, Wanda / Purdy, Laura (eds.): Violence against women, Philosophical perspectives, Cornell University Press, Ithaca, pp. 92-104.[3008]

Bekers, Elisabeth (2010): Rising anthills, African and African American writing on female genital excision, 1960-2000, University of Wisconsin Press, Madison.[3009]

Berggren, Vanja (2005): Female genital mutilation, Studies on primary and repeat female genital cutting, Karolinska University Press, Stockholm.[3010]

Boody, Janice (1998): Violence embodied, Circumcision, Gender politics and cultural aesthetics, in: Dobash, Emerson / Dobash, Russel (eds.): Rethinking violence against women, Sage Publications, London, pp. 77-110.[3014]

Boyle, Elisabeth Heyer (2003): Female genital cutting, John Hopkins University Press, New York.[3011]

Bradley,Tamsin (2011): Women, violence and tradition, Taking FGM and other practices to a secular state, Zed Books, London.[3012]

Braun, Ingrid / Levin, Tobe / Schwarzbauer, Angelika (1979): Materialien zur Unterstützung von Aktionsgruppen gegen Klitorisbeschneidung, Frauenoffensive, München.[3013]

Caldwell, John / Caldwell, Pat / Orubuloye, I.O. (2000): Female genital mutilation, Conditions of decline, in: Population Research, vol. 19, no. 3, pp. 233-254.[3016]

Carr, Dara (1997): Female genital cutting, Findings from the demographic and health survey program, Marco International, Calverton.[3015]

Davide, Arne (2005): Female genital cutting, Save the Children, Stockholm.[3017]

Davis, Anne (1998): Female genital mutilation, Some ethical questions, in: Medicine and Law, 17, pp. 143-148.[3018]

Dawit, Seble (1993): Female Genital Mutilation, Violence and women's human rights, Zed Books, London.[3019]

Denniston, George / Mansfield, Frederick / Hodges, Marilyn (eds.) (1999): Male and female circumcision, Medical, legal and ethical considerations in pediatric practive, Kluwer Academic Publishers, New York.[3020]

Diaby-Pentzlin, Friederike / Göttke, Edith (Hg.) (1999): Einschnitte, Materialband zu Female Genitale Cuttings (FGC), Eschborn.[3021]

Dinslage, Sabine (1981): Mädchenbeschneidung in Westafrika, Kulturanthropologische Studien Bd.5, Klaus Renner Verlag, Hohenschäftlarn/München.[3022]

Dinslage, Sabine (1986): Kindheit der Leyla, Kindheit und Jugend im kulturellen Wandel bei den Leyla in Burkina Faso, Klaus Renner Verlag, Hohenschäftlarn/München.[3023]

Dokenoo, Efna / Elworthy, Scilla (1994): Female genital mutilation, in: Davies, Miranda (ed.): Women and violence, Zed Books, London, pp. 137-148.[3027]

Dorkenoo, Efna (1994): Cutting the rose, Female genital mutilation, its practice and its prevention, Minority Rights Group Publication, London.[3024]

Dorkenoo, Efna (1999): Combating female genital mutilation, An agenda for the next decade, in: Women’s Studies Quarterly, vol. 27, no. 1-2, pp. 87-96.[3025]

Dorkenoo, Efna (2006): Female genital mutilation, Politics and prevention, Hurst, London.[3026]

Dualeh, R.H. (1982): Sisters in affliction, Circumcision and infibulation of women in Africa, Zed Books, London.[3028]

Easton, Peter / Monkman, Karen / Miles, Rebecca (2003): Social policy from the bottom up, Abandoning FGC in Sub-Saharan Africa, in: Development in Practice, vol. 13, no. 5, pp 445-458.[3029]

El Darrer, Asma (1982): Woman, why do you weep? Female circumcision and its consequence, Zed Books, London.[3030]

Erchak, Gerald (1979): Socialization and subsistence, Symbol and surgery, Women in West African society, in: Sociology, no. 29, pp. 84-96.[3031]

Erhardt, Bettina (Hg.) (1999): Beschnittene Lust, Ein grausames Ritual im Brennpunkt der Diskussion, Berlin.[3032]

Faveli, Lydia / Pateman, Roy (2003): Blood, land and sex, Legal and political pluralism in Eritrea, Indiana University Press, Bloomington.[3033]

Frank, Silvia (1999): Beschneidung von Frauen und Mädchen in Afrika, Möglichkeiten der Bildungsarbeit im Kontext beharrender Stammestraditionen, unveröffentlichte Studie, Köln.[3034]

Gevins, Adi (1987): Tackling tradition, African women speak out against female circumcision, in: Davies, Miranda (ed.): Third world – Second sex, vol. 2, London, pp. 244-249.[3035]

Ginsburg, Faye (1991): What do women want? Feminist anthropology confronts clitoridectomy, in: Medical Anthropology Quarterly, vol. 5, pp.17-19.[3036]

Gruenbaum, E. (2000): Is female circumcision a maladaptive cultural pattern? in: Shell-Duncan, Bettina / Hernlund, Ylva (eds.): Female circumcision in Africa, Culture, controversy, and change, Lynne Rienner, Boulder, pp. 41-54.[3037]

Gruenbaum, E. (2001): The female circumcision controversy, An anthropological perspective, University of Pennsylvania Press, Philadelphia.[3038]

Grunning, Isabelle (1988): Women and Traditional Practices: Female Genital Surgery, in: Askin, Kelly / Koening, Dorean (eds.): Women and International Human Rights Law, Vol.1, Transnational Publishers, Ardsley.[3039]

Grunning, Isabelle (1992): Arrogant perception: World travelling and multicultural feminism: The case of female genital surgeries, in: Columbia Human Rights Law Review, vol. 23, pp. 189-248.[3040]

Hale, Sondra (1994): A question of subjects: The 'female circumcision', Controversy and the politics of knowledge, in: Ufahamu, vol. 22, no. 3, pp. 26-35.[3041]

Hassan, Amna (2000): Kampf gegen genitale Verstümmelung, in: Frauensolidarität, Nr. 3, pp. 14-17.[3042]

Hermann, Conny (Hg.) (1998): Das Recht auf Weiblichkeit, Hoffnung im Kampf gegen Genitalverstümmelung, Dietz Verlag, Bonn.[3043]

Hicks, Ester (1993): Infibulation, Female mutilation in Islamic Northeastern Africa, Transaction Publishers, New Brunswick.[3044]

Hosken, Fran P. (1976): Female circumcision and fertility in Africa, in: Women and Health, vol. 1, pp. 3-11.[3045]

Hosken, Fran P. (1979): The Hosken Report, Genital and sexual mutilation of females, Lexington.[3046]

Hosken, Fran P. (1981): Female genital mutilation and human rights, in: Feminist Issues, 1, pp. 3-23.[3047]

Hrzán, Daniela (2004): TOSTAN, Eine Herausforderung für die Entwicklungstheorie? Weibliche Genitalverstümmelung im Kontext von Geschlecht, Kultur und postkolonialer Kritik, in: Boekle, Bettina / Ruf, Michael (Hrsg.): Eine Frage des Geschlechts, ein Gender-Reader, Verlag für Sozialwissenschaften, Wiesbaden, pp. 167-178.[3048]

Huber, Alfons (1961): Genitalverletzungen afrikanischer Mädchen durch rituelle Eingriffe, in: Ethnomedizin, 1, pp. 71-79.[3049]

Izett, Susan / Toubia, Nahid (1999): Learning about social change, A research and evaluation guidebook using female circumcision as a case study, New York.[3050]

James, Stanlie (1998): Shades of othering, Reflections on female circumcision, Genital mutilation, in: Signs, vol. 23, no. 1, pp.1031-1048.[3051]

James, Stanlie / Robertson, Claire (eds.) (2005): Genital cutting and transnational sisterhood, University of Illinois Press, Urbana.[3052]

Kalthegener, Regina (2003): Rechtliche Regelungen gegen Genitalverstümmelung in Afrika, in: Terre des Femmes (Hg.): Schnitt in die Seele, Mabuse Verlag, Frankfurt a.M., pp. 203-214.[3053]

Kassamali, Noor J. (1998): When modernity confronts traditional practices: Female genital cutting in Northeast Africa, in: Bodman, Herbert / Tohidi, Nayereh (eds.): Women in Muslim societies: Diversity within unity, Lynne Rienner, Boulder, pp. 39-61.[3054]

Kisaakye, Esterh (2002): Women, culture and human rights, Female genital mutilation, Polygamy and bride price, in: Benedeck, Wolfgang / Kisaaklye, Esther / Oberleitner, Gerd (eds.): The human rights of women, International instruments and African experiences, London, Zed Books, pp. 268-285.[3055]

Koso-Thomas, O. (1987): The circumcision of women, A strategy for eradiction, London.[3056]

Kouba, Leonard / Muasher, Judith (1985): Female circumcision in Africa: An overview, in: African Studies Review, vol. 28, no. 1, pp. 95-110.[3057]

Kwaak, Anke van der (1992): Female circumcision and gender identity: A questionable alliance? in: Social Science and Medicine, vol. 35, no. 6, pp. 777-787.[3058]

Lewnes, Alexia (ed.) (2005): Changing a harmful social convention, Female genital mutilation/cutting, UNICEF, New York.[3059]

Lightfoot-Klein, Hanny (1989): Rites of purification and their effects, Some psychological aspects of female genital circumcision and infibulation (pharaonic circumcision) in an Africo-Arabic Islamic society (Sudan), in: Journal of Psychology and Human Sexuality, vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 79-91.[3060]

Lightfoot-Klein, Hanny (1989): The sexual experience and marital adjustment of genitally circumcised and infibulated females in Sudan, in: The Journal of Sex Research, vol. 26, no. 3, pp. 375-393.[3061]

Lightfoot-Klein, Hanny (1993): Das grausame Ritual - Sexuelle Verstümmelung afrikanischer Frauen, Fischer Verlag, Frankfurt a.M.[3062]

Lightfoot-Klein, Hanny (2003): Der Beschneidungsskandal, Orlanda Verlag, München.[3063]

Lyons, Harriet (1981): Anthropologists, moralists, and relativists, The problem of genital mutilation, in: Canadian Review of Sociology and Anthropology, vol. 18, no. 4, pp. 499-518.[3064]

Mascia-Lees, France / Sharpe, Patricia (eds.) (1992): Tatoo, torture, mutilation and adornment, The denaturalization of the body in culture and text, State University of New York Press, Albany.[3065]

McLean, Scilla / Graham, Stella Efua (eds.) (1983): Female circumcision, Excision and infibulation, The facts and proposals for change, Minority Rights Group, London.[3066]

Mende, Janne (2012): Begründungsmuster weiblicher Genitalverstümmelung, Zur Vermittlung von Kulturrelativismus und Universalismus, Transcript Verlag, Bielefeld.[3067]

Momoh, Comfort (ed.) (2005): Female genital mutilation, Radcliff Publishing, Abington.[3068]

Mottin-Sylla Marie-Helene / Palmieri, Joelle (2011): Confronting female genital mutilation, The role of Youth, Pambazuka News, Nairobi/London.[3069]

Nnaemeka, Obioma (2001): If female circumcision did not exist, Western feminism would invent it, in: Perry, Susan / Schenck, Celeste (eds.): Eye to eye, Women practicing development across cultures, Zed Books, pp. 171-189.[3070]

Nnaemeka, Obioma (2005): Female circumcision and the politics of knowledge, Greenwood Publishing Group, Westport.[3071]

Norbakk, Mari / Tonnessen, Liv (2020): Prevalence, drivers, and review of the literature on the effects of interventions to reduce the prevalence of female genital mutilation, CMI, Bergen.[11630]

Nypan, A. (1991): Revival of female circumcision, A case of neo-traditionalism, in: Stolen, K.A. / Vaa, M. (eds.): Gender and change in developing countries, Norwegian University Press, Oslo, pp. 39-65.[3072]

Ogiamien, T.B.E. (1988): A legal framework to eradicate female circumcision, in: Medicine, Science and the Law, vol. 28, no. 2, pp. 115-119.[3073]

Okwubanego, John Tochukwu (1999): Female circumcision and the girl child in Africa and the Middle East, The eyes of the world are blind to the conquered, in: International Lawyer, vol. 33, no. 1, pp. 159-187.[3074]

Packer, Corinne (2005): Understanding the sociocultural and traditional context of female circumcision and the impact of the Human Rights discourse, in: Nnaemeka, Obioma / Ezeilo, Joy Ngozi (eds.): Engendering human rights, Cultural and socio-economic realities in Africa, Palgrave, Houndsmills, pp. 223-247.[3077]

Parker, Melissa (1995): Rethinking female circumcision, in: Africa, vol. 65, no. 4, pp. 507-523.[3078]

Pedersen, Susan (1991): National bodies, unspeakable acts, The sexual politics of colonial policymaking, in: Journal of Modern History, vol. 63, pp. 647-680.[3079]

Peller, Annette (2002): Chiffrierte Körper, Disziplinierte Körper, Female genital cutting, Rituelle Verwundung als Statussymbol, Weißensee Verlag, Berlin.[3075]

Peller, Annette (2003): No pain, no gain – Zur Verbesserung sozialer Chancen durch das Ertragen von Schmerz, in: Afrika Spectrum, vol. 38, no. 2, pp. 197-214.[3076]

Rahman, Anika / Toubia, Nahid (eds.) (2000): Female Genital Mutilation: A guide to laws and policies worldwide, Zed Books, London.[3080]

Ramsay, Susan Jane (2004): Female genital mutilation (FGM) and human rights, GTZ, Eschborn.[3081]

Rosenke, Marion (2001): Die rechtlichen Probleme im Zusammenhang mit der weiblichen Genitalverstümmelung, Peter Lang Verlag, Frankfurt a.M.[3082]

Sanderson, Lilian Passmore (1981): Against the mutilation of women, The struggle to end unnecessary suffering, Ithaca Press, London.[3083]

Schnüll, Petra / Terre des Femmes (1999): Weibliche Genitalverstümmelung, Eine fundamentale Menschenrechtsverletzung, Textsammlung, Göttingen.[3084]

Schnüll, Petra / Terre des Femmes (2003): Schnitt in die Seele, Mabuse Verlag, Frankfurt am Main.[3085]

Shell-Duncan, Bettina (2001): The medicalization of female „circumcision“: Harm reduction or promotion of a dangerous practice, in: Social Science and Medicine, vol. 52, pp. 1013-1028.[3086]

Shell-Duncan, Bettina / Herlund, Ylva (eds.) (1992): Visions and discussion on genital mutilation of girls, An international survey, Netherlands Directorate for Development Cooperation, The Hague.[3087]

Shell-Duncan, Bettina / Herlund, Ylva (eds.) (2000): Female „circumcision“ in Africa, Culture, controversy, and change, Lynne Rienner Publications, Boulder.[3088]

Skaine, Rosemarie (2005): Female genital mutilation: Legal, cultural and medical issues, McFarland Publishers, New York.[3089]

Skinner, Elliott (1988): Female circumcision in Africa, The dialectics of equality, in: Randolph, Richard / Schneider, David / Diaz, May (eds.): Dialectics in gender, Anthropological perspectives, Boulder, pp. 195-210.[3090]

Slack, Alison (1988): Female circumcision, A critical appraisal, in: Human Rights Quarterly, vol. 10, no. 4, pp. 439-486.[3091]

Smith, Jaqueline / Longbottom, Peter (1995): Visions and discussions on genital mutilation of girls, An international survey, Defence for Children International / Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Amsterdam / Den Haag.[3092]

Strong-Leek, Linda (2009): Excising the spirit, A literary analysis of female circumcision, Africa World Press, Trenton.[3093]

Thiam, Awa (1983): Women’s fight for the abolition of sexual mutilation, in: International Social Science Journal, vol. 35, no. 4, pp. 747-756.[3094]

Thiam, Awa (1986): Die Stimme der schwarzen Frau, Reinbek.[3095]

Toubia, Nahid (1995): Female Genital Mutilation, in: Peters, Julie / Wolper, Andrea (eds.): Women's rights, Human rights: International Feminist Perspectives, Routledge Publishers, New York, pp. 224-36.[3096]

Toubia, Nahid (1995): Female genital mutilation, A call for global action, Women’s Inc., New York.[3097]

Toubia, Nahid / Izett, Susan (1998): Female genital mutilation, An overview, WHO Publications, Geneva.[3098]

UNICEF (2008): Changing a harmful social convention, Female genital cutting, New York.[3107]

United Nations (1995): Harmful traditional practices affecting the health of women and children, Fact sheet 23, New York.[3099]

Wallerstein, Edward (1989): Säkulare Beschneidung in den USA, ein medizinischer Skandal, in: Zeitschrift für Sexualforschung, vol. 2, pp. 160-170.[3103]

Walley, Christine J. (1997): Searching for 'Voices': Feminism, Anthropology and the Global Debate Over Female Genital Operations, in: Cultural Anthropology, vol. 12, no. 3, pp. 405-438.[3100]

WHO / UNICEF / UNDP (eds.) (1995): Female genital mutilation, A joint WHO / UNICEF / UNDP statement, Geneva.[3102]

WHO – World Health Organisation (2000): Female genital mutilation, A handbook for frontline workers, Geneva.[3101]

Wiggings, Desmond (2001): Male and female circumcision in Africa, Pharaonic Egyptian and religious origins, in: Africa Update, vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 1-9.[3104]

Winter, Browyn (1996): Frauen, Recht und Kulturelativismus in Frankreich, Das Problem der Exzision, in: Lenz, Ilse / Germer, Andrea (Hrsg.): Wechselnde Blicke, Frauenforschung in internationaler Perspektive, Leske und Budrich, Opladen, pp. 152-187.[3105]

Winthrop, R. (2001): The real world and the limits of relativism: debating female circumcision, in: Practicing Anthropology, vol. 23, no. 4, pp. 39-40.[3106]

health - HIV AIDS and gender

Akeroyd, Anne (1997): Socio-cultural aspects of AIDS in Africa, Occupational and gender issues, in: Bond, George / Krenishe, John / Susser, Ida / Vincent, Joan (eds.): AIDS in Africa and in the Carribean, Westview Press, Boulder.[3300]

Akeroyd, Anne (1998): Some gendered and occupational aspects of HIV and AIDS in Eastern and Southern Africa, Changes, continuities and issues for further consideration at the end of the first decade, Occasional Papers no. 60, Centre for African Studies, Edinburgh University, Edinburgh.[3301]

Ali, Mohamed / Cleland, John G. / Carael, Michel (2001): Sexual risk behavior in urban populations of Northeastern Africa, in: AIDS and Behavior, vol. 5, pp. 343-352.[3302]

Ankrah, E.M. (1996): AIDS – Socio-economic decline and health, A double crisis for the African woman, in: Sherr, L / Hankins, C. / Bennett, L (eds.): AIDS as a gender issue, Psychological perspectives, Taylor and Francis, London, pp. 99-118.[3303]

Annas, Catherine (1999): Human rights and maternal-fetal HIV transmission prevention trials in Africa, in: Mann, Jonathan / Gruskin, Sofia / Grodin, Michael / Annas, George (eds.): Health and human rights, Routledge, London, pp. 373-379.[3304]

Appiah-Donyina, Evelyn (2002): Gender impact of HIV/AIDS/STIs, Some implications for adult education practitioners in West Africa, in: Adult Education and Development, vol. 59, pp. 59-67.[3305]

Auvert, Betran / Buve, Anne et al. (2001): Male circumcision and HIV-infection in four cities in sub-Saharan Africa, in: AIDS, vol. 15, no. 4, pp. 31-40.[3306]

Baier, Erich (1997): The impact of HIV/AIDS on rural households/communities and the need for multisectoral prevention and mitigation strategies to combat the epidemic, FAO, Rome.[3307]

Barker, G. / Ricardo, C. (2005): Young men and the construction of masculinity in Sub-Saharan Africa, Implications for HIV/AIDS, conflict and violence, The World Bank, Washington D.C.[3308]

Barrett, Tony el al. (1995): The social and economic impact of HIV/AIDS on farming systems and livelihoods in rural Africa, Some experiences from Uganda, Tanzania, and Zambia, in: Journal of International Development, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 163-176.[3309]

Baylies, Carolyn / Bujra, Janet (2000): AIDS, sexuality and gender in Africa, Collective strategies and struggles for protection against AIDS in Tanzania and Zambia, Routledge Publications, London.[3310]

Bennell, Paul (2005): The impact of the AIDS epidemic on the schooling of orphans and other directly affected children in Sub-Saharan Africa, in: Journal of Development Studies, vol. 41, no. 3, pp. 467-488.[3311]

Bhattacharjee, Parinita (2000): Stepping stone – A participatory tool to integrate gender into HIV/AIDs work, in: Development in Practice, vol. 10, no. 5, pp. 691-700.[3312]

Bruce, Judith / Hallman, Kelly (2008): Reaching the girls left behind, in: Gender and Development, vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 227-245.[3313]

Bujra, Janet (2000): Targeting men for change, AIDS discourse and activism in Africa, in: Cleaver, Frances (ed.): Masculinities matter! Men, gender and development, Zed Books, London, pp. 209-234.[3314]

Buve, Anne / Weiss, Helen et al. (2001): The epidemiology of gonorrhoea, Chlamydial infection and syphilis in women in four African Cities, in: AIDS, vol. 15, Supplement 4, pp. 9-88.[3315]

Bwajo, J.J. et al. (1991): Long-distance truck drivers, Knowledge and attitudes concerning seyually transmitted diseases and sexual behaviour, in: East African Medical Journal, vol. 68, no. 9, pp. 714-719.[3316]

Clark, Shelly (2004): Early marriage and HIV risks in Sub-Saharan Africa, in: Studies in Family Planning, vol. 35, no. 3, pp. 149-160.[3317]

Cleland, John / Ali, Mohamed M. / Capo-Chichi, V. (1999): Post-partum sexual abstinence in West Africa: Implications for AIDS-control and family planning programmes, in: AIDS, vol. 13, pp. 125-131.[3319]

Cleland, John / Ferry, B. (eds.) (1995): Sexual behaviour and AIDS in Sub-Saharan Africa, Taylor and Francis, London/Geneva.[3318]

Cornwall, Andrea / Welbourn, Alice (eds.) (2002): Realizing rights, Transforming approaches to sexual and reproductive well-being, Zed Books, London.[3320]

Coutsoudis, Anna (2002): New perspectives on the breastfeeding dilemma for HIV-infected women in Sub-Saharan Africa, in: Agenda, vol. 51, pp. 33-42.[3321]

Crush, Jonathan / Grant, Miriam / Frayne, Bruce (2007): Linking migration, HIV/AIDS and urban food security in Southern and Eastern Africa, African Migration and Development Series, no. 3, IDASA, Cape Town.[3322]

De Waal, Alex / Tumushabe, Joseph (2003): HIV/AIDS and food security in Africa, Department for International Development, DIFD, London. (and Southern African Regional Poverty Network, HSRC, Pretoria.)[3323]

Deininger, Klaus / Garcia, Marito / Subbaro, K. (2003): AIDS-induced orphanhood as a systematic shock, Magnitude, impact, and program interventions in Africa, in: World Development, vol. 31, no. 7, pp. 1201-1220.[3324]

Dennis, Suzanna / Zuckerman, Elaine (2008): Mapping multilateral development bank’s spending on reproductive health and HIV and AIDS, in: Gender and Development, vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 227-245.[3325]

Diawara, Tamboura (2003): Gender and HIV/AIDS in Africa, AAWORD Book Series, no. 4, AAWORD, Dakar.[3326]

Djamba, Yanyi (ed.) (2004): Sexual behaviour of adolescents in contemporary Sub-Saharan Africa, Lewiston.[3327]

Duvvury, Nata / Corman, Helen /Long, Carolyn (2005): The global fund to fight AIDS, tuberculosis and malaria, Strenghtening civil society participation and gender expertise, Recommendations and action points, International Centre for Research on Women (ICRW Publications), Washington D.C.[3328]

Epprecht, Marc (2008): Heterosexual Africa? The history of an idea from the age of exploitation to the age of AIDS, Ohio University Press, Ohio.[3329]

Epstein, Debbie / Morrell, Robert et al. (2004): Gender and HIV/AIDS in Africa South of the Sahara, in: Transformation, 54.[3330]

Falola, Toyin / Heaton, Matthew (eds.) (2007): Endangered bodies, Women, children and health in Africa, Africa World Press, Trenton.[3331]

Freeman, E.E. / Glynn, J.R. (2004): Factors affecting HIV concordancy in married couples in four African cities, in: AIDS, vol. 18, no. 12, pp. 1715-1721[3332]

Gazel, Jeanne / Naidoo, Pat (2004): Stricking the rock with impunity, The consequences of gendered practices in 21th century Sub-Saharan Africa, Working Paper no. 280, Women and International Development, Michigan State University, East Lansing.[3333]

Gibson, Diana / Hardon, Anita (eds.) (2005): Rethinking masculinities, violence and AIDS, Het Spinhuis, Amsterdam.[3334]

Glick, Peter / Sahn, David (2008): Are Africans practicing safer sex? Evidence from demographic and health surveys for eight countries, in: Economic Development and Cultural Change, vol. 56, no. 2, pp. 397-440.[3335]

Glynn, Judith R. / Carael, Michel et al. (2004): Does increased general schooling protect against HIV infection? A study in four African cities, in: Tropical Medicine and International Health, vol. 9, no.1, pp. 4-14.[3336]

Grannis, Susanna (2011): Hope amidst despair, HIV/AIDS-affected children in sub-saharan Africa, Pluto Press, London.[3337]

Gregson, S. (1994): Will HIV become a major determinant of fertility in Sub-Saharan Africa? in: Journal of Development Studies, vol. 30, no. 3, pp. 650-679.[3338]

Grove, K.A. / Kelly, D.P. / Liu, J. (1996): „But nice girls don’t get it“: Women symbolic capital and the construction of AIDS, in: Journal of Contemporary Ethnography, 26, 3, pp. 317-337.[3339]

Guest, Emma (2003): Children of AIDS, African orphan crisis, Pluto Press, London.[3340]

Hemrich, Günter / Schneider, Bettina (1997): HIV/AIDS as a cross-sectoral use for technical cooperation, Focus on agriculture and rural development, HIV/AIDS Prevention and Control in Developing Countries, no. 1, GTZ Publications, Eschborn.[3341]

Hunt, C.W. (1989): Migrant labour and sexually transmitted diseases, AIDS in Africa, in: Journal of Health and Social Behaviour, vol. 30, no. 4, pp. 353-373.[3342]

Hunter, Susan (2004): Who cares? AIDS in Africa, Palgrave Macmillan Publishers, Houndsmills.[3343]

ICRW (International Centre for Research on Women) (2004): To have and to hold, Women’s property and inheritance rights in the context of HIV/AIDS in Sub-Saharan Africa, ICRW, Washington D.C.[3344]

Iliffe, John (2006): The African AIDS epidemic, A history, James Currey, Oxford.[3345]

Izumi, Kaori (2006): Reclaiming our lives, HIV and AIDS, women’s land, property rights and livelihoods in Southern and Eastern Africa, HSRC Publications, Pretoria.[3346]

Izumi, Kaori (2007): Gender based violence and property grabbing in Africa, A denial of women’s liberty and security, in: Gender and Development, vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 11-23.[3347]

Kakuru, Doris Muhwezi (2006): The combat for gender equality in education, Rural livelihood pathways in the context of HIV/AIDS, Wageningen Academic Press, Wageningen.[3348]

Kalipeni, Ezekiel / Craddock, Susan / Oppong, Joseph / Ghosh, Jayati (eds.) (2003): HIV/AIDS in Africa, Beyond Epidemiology, Blackwell Publishing, London.[3349]

Kemp, Julia (1993): Women and sexual transmitted disease in West Africa, A discussion of the determinants of risk, GAID 7, School of Development Studies, University of East Anglia, Norwich.[3350]

Kloss-Quiroa, Barbara / Pochanke-Alff, Angelika / Görgens, Regina (eds.) (2000): Sexual education and reproductive health of young people in African countries South of the Sahara, DSE-Publication, Berlin.[3351]

Laga, Marie / Schwartlander, Berhard (2001): To stem HIV in Africa, prevention of transmission to young women, in: AIDS, vol. 15, no. 7, pp. 931-934.[3352]

Lagarde, E. / Auvert, B. et al. (2001): Condome use and its association with HIV/sexually transmitted diseases in four urban communities in Sub-Saharan Africa, in: AIDS, vol. 15, no. 4, pp. 71-78.[3353]

Lagarde, Emmanuel / Carael, Michel et al. (2001): Educational level is associated with condom use within non-spousal partnerships in four cities of Sub-Saharan Africa, in: AIDS, vol. 15, no. 11, pp. 1399-1408.[3354]

Lawson, Agathe Latré-Gato (1999): Women and AIDS in Africa, Socio-cultural dimensions of the AIDS epidemic, in: International Social Science Journal, vol. 51, no. 3, pp. 391-400.[3355]

Leclerc-Madlala, Suzanne (2000): Silence, AIDS and sexual culture in Africa, in: AIDS Bulletin, 9, 3, pp.27-30.[3356]

Ligiéro, Daniela / Kostermans, Kees (2004): Integration of gender issues in selected HIV/AIDS projects in the Africa Region, A baseline assessment, World Bank, Washington D.C.[3357]

Luke, Nancy (2003): Age and economic asymmetries in the sexual relationships of adolescent girls in sub-Saharan Africa, in: Studies in Family Planning, vol. 29, no. 2, pp. 167-184.[3358]

Luke, Nancy / Kurz, Kathleen (2002): Cross-generational and transactional sexual relations in Sub-Saharan Africa, Prevalence of behaviour and implications of negotiating safer sex practices, International Centre for Research of Women, Washington D.C.[3359]

MacMillan, Colleen (1996): Women and AIDS in Africa, The mortal significance of an inferior social position, in: Scandinavian Journal of Development Alternatives and Area Studies, vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 21-27.[3360]

Madhavan, S. (2004): Fosterage patterns in the age of AIDS, Continuity and Change, in: Social Science and Medicine, vol. 58, pp. 1443-1454.[3361]

Maman, Suzanne / Campbell, Jacqueline / Sweat, Michael / Gielen, Andrea (2000): The intersections of HIV and violence, Directions for future research and interventions, Social Science and Medicine, vol. 50, no. 4, pp. 459-478.[3362]

McFadden, Patricia (1992): Sex, sexuality, and the problem of AIDS in Africa, in: Meena, R. (ed.): Gender in Southern Africa, Conceptual and theoretical issues, SAPES, Harare, pp. 157-195.[3363]

McFadden, Patricia (1995): Geschlecht, Sexualität und AIDS in Afrika, in: Peripherie, Nr. 57/58, pp. 86-111.[3364]

Meekers, D. / Calves, A.E. (1997): ‘Main’ girlfriends, girlfriends, marriage and money, The social context of HIV risk behaviour in Sub-Saharan Africa, in: Health Transition Review, vol. 7 (supplement), pp. 361-375.[3365]

Mhone, Guy (1997): African women workers, globalisation, AIDS and poverty, in: Date-Bah, Eugenia (ed.): Promoting gender equality at work, Zed Books, London, pp. 85-104.[3366]

Morison, Linda / Weiss, Helen et al. (2001): Commercial sex work and the spread of HIV in four cities in Sub-Saharan Africa, in: AIDS, vol. 15, Supplement 4, pp. 61-69.[3367]

Mueller, Tanja (2005): HIV/AIDS, gender and rural livelihoods in Sub-Sahran Africa, Wageningen University Press, Wageningen.[3368]

Mulindi, Sobbie (1992): How women are affected by AIDS in Africa, in: Scandinavian Journal of Development Alternatives, vol. 11, no. 3-4, pp. 211-216.[3369]

Murphry, Laura / Harvey, Paul / Silvestre, Eva (2005): How do we know what we know about the impact of AIDS on food and livelihood insecurity? A review of empirical research from rural Sub-Saharan Africa, in: Human Organization, vol. 64, no. 3, pp. 265-275.[3370]

Mutangadura, Gladys / Mukurazita, C. / Jackson, H. (1999): A review of household and community responses to the HIV/AIDS epidemic in the rural areas of South Africa, UNAIDS Publications, Geneva.[3371]

Mutangadura, Gladys / Sandkjaer, Bjorg (2009): Mitigating the impact of HIV and AIDS on rural livelihoods in Southern Africa, in: Development in Practice, vol. 19, no. 2, pp. 214-226.[3372]

Mwale, Genevieve and Philip Burnard (1992): Women and AIDS in rural Africa: Rural women's views of AIDS in Africa, Ashgate Publishing Limited, Avebury.[3373]

Ndiaya, Faye Charlotte (2000): Women and AIDS in Africa, The experience of the society for women and Aids in Africa, in: South African Journal for International Affairs, vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 59-66.[3374]

Nduati, Ruth / Kiai, Wambui (2000): Communicating with adolescents about AIDS, Experiences from Eastern and Southern Africa, International Development Research Centre, Ottawa.[3375]

Ng’weshemi, Japheth / Boerma, J.T. / Bennett, J. (eds.) (1997): HIV prevention and AIDS care in Africa, A district level approach, Kit-Press, Amsterdam.[3376]

Nyanzi, Stella / Jassey, Katja (2007): How to be a proper woman in the times of HIV and AIDS, Publications of the Nordic Africa Institute, Uppsala.[3377]

Obermeyer, Carla Makhlouf (2005): Reframing research on sexual behaviour and HIV, in: Studies in Family Planning, vol. 36, no. 1, pp. 1-12.[3378]

Oglethrope, Judy / Gelman, Nancy (2008): AIDS, women, land and natural resources in Africa, Current challenges, in: Gender and Development, vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 85-100.[3379]

Okeyo, T.M. / Allen, A.K. (1994): Influence of widow inheritance on the epidemiology of AIDS in Africa, in: African Journal of Medical Practice, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 20-25.[3380]

Orubuloye, I.O. / Caldwell, DP / Caldwell J.C. (1993): African women’s control over their sexuality in an era of AIDS, in: Social Science and Medicine, vol. 37, no. 3, pp. 859-872.[3381]

Painter, Thomas (2001): Voluntary counselling and testing of couples, A high leverage intervention for HIV/AIDS prevention in Sub-Saharan Africa, in: Social Science and Medicine, vol. 53, pp. 1397-1411.[3382]

Phiri, Isabel / Haddard, Beverly / Masenya, Madipoene (eds.) (2003): African women, HIV/AIDS and faith communities, Cluster Publishers, Pretoria.[3383]

Pietrzyk, Susan (2005): AIDS and feminism, in: Jenda, A Journal of Culture and African Women’s Studies, 7.[3384]

Richter, Linda / Manegold, Julie (2004): Family and communtiy interventions for children affected by AIDS, HSRC Press, Pretoria.[3385]

Rugalema, Gabriel (2000): Coping or struggling, A journey to the impact of AIDS on rural livelihoods in Southern Africa, in: Review of African Political Economy, vol. 27, pp. 537-545.[3386]

Schmitt, Ellen (2005): Genderstereotypen und HIV/AIDS in Afrika, in: Peripherie, Sonderband, 1, pp. 241-254.[3387]

Schoepf, Brooke, Grundfest (1998): Inscribing the body politics, Women and AIDS in Africa, in: Lock, Margaret / Kaufert, Patricia (eds.): Pragmatic women and body politics, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 98-126.[3388]

Setel, Philip / Lewis, Milton et al. (eds.) (1999): Histories of sexually transmitted diseases and HIV / Aids in Sub-Saharan Africa, Greenwood Press, London.[3389]

Stillwaggon, Eileen (2003): Racial metaphors, Interpreting sex and AIDS in Africa, in: Development and Change, vol. 34, no. 5, pp. 809-832.[3390]

Strickland, Richard (2004): To have and to hold, Women’s property and inheritance rights in the context of HIV/AIDS in Sub-Saharan Africa, International Centre for Research on Women, Washington D.C.[3391]

Susser, Ida (2000): The female condome, Preventing HIV in Southern Africa, in: Mwaria, Cheryl / Federici, Silvia / McLaren, Joseph (eds.): African visions, Literary images, political change and social struggle in contemporary Africa, Greenwoo Press, London.[3392]

Thiuri, Philip J. (1997): The treat of AIDS to women and development in Sub-Saharan Africa, in: Kalipeni, Ezekiel / Thiuri, Philip (eds.): Issues and perspectives on health care in contemporary Sub-Saharan Africa, Edwin Mellen Press, Lewiston, pp. 73-114.[3393]

Ulin, P.R. (1992): African women and AIDS, Negotiating behavioural change, in: Social Science and Medicine, vol. 34, no. 1, pp. 63-73.[3394]

Umerah-Udezulu, Ifeyinwa (2001): Resensitizing African health care and policy practitioners, the gendered nature of AIDS epidemics in Africa, in: Jenda, A Journal of Culture and Women’s Studies, vol. 1, 2, 20 pages. www.jendajournal.com/jenda/vol.1.2/udezulu.html[3395]

UNICEF (2006): Girls, women and HIV/AIDS in Eastern Africa, UNICEF Publications, New York.[3396]

Vambe, Taonezvi Maurice (2003): HIV/AIDS, African sexuality and the problem of representation in African literature, in: Journal of Contemporary African Studies, vol. 21, no. 3, pp. 473-487.[3397]

Wagt, A. (2005): Orphans and the impact of HIV/AIDS in Sub-Saharan Africa, in: Food, Nutrition and Agriculture, no. 34, pp. 24-31.[3398]

Welbourn, Alice (1999): Stepping stones, A training package on HIV/AIDS, communication and relationships skills, Strategies for Hope Training Series, no. 1, Action AID, London.[3399]

White, J. / Robinson, E. (2005): HIV/AIDS and rural livelihoods in Sub-Saharan Africa, National Resources Institute, University of Greenwich, London.[3400]

Wieringa, Aarmo, M. (2002): Gender, tradition, sexual diversity and AIDS in postcolonial Southern Africa, Some suggestions for research, in: Le Beau, Debie / Gordon, Robert (eds.): Challenges for anthropology in the ‘African renaissance’, A Southern African contribution, University of Namibia Press, Windhoek, pp. 124-137.[3401]

Young, L. / Ansell, N. (2003): Fluid households, complex families, The impact of children’s migration as a response to HIV/AIDS in Southern Africa, in: The Professional Geographer, vol. 55, no. 4, pp. 464-476.[3402]

Zabin, Laurie / Kiragu, Karungari (1998): The health consequences of adolescent sexual and fertility behaviour in Sub-Saharan Africa, in: Studies in Family Planning, vol. 29, no. 2, pp. 210-232.[3403]

health - reproduction and fertility

Adepoju, Aderanti (ed.) (1997): Family, population and development in Africa, Zed Books, London.[4201]

Adepoju, Aderanti / Oppong, Christine (eds.) (1994): Gender, work and population in Sub-Saharan Africa, James Currey, Oxford/London.[4202]

Adjetey, Fitnat Naa-Adjeley (1995): Religious and cultural rights: Reclaiming the African woman’s individuality: The struggle between women’s reproductive autonomy and African society and culture, in: American University Law Review, 44.[4200]

Agadjanian, Victor (2005): Reproductive intension and contraceptive choices in a Sub-Saharan fertility transition, in: Population Research and Policy Review, vol. 24, no. 6, pp. 617-645.[4203]

Agyei Mensah, Samuel (ed.) (2004): Reproduction and social context in Sub-Saharan Africa, Greenwood Press, Westport.[4204]

Ahlberg, Beth Maina (1991): Adolescents, sexuality and socio-economic and cultural change, Impact on reproductive health in an African setting, in: Stolen, Kristi Ann (ed.): Gender, culture and power, vol. II, University of Oslo, SUM, Oslo, pp. 38-54.[4206]

Ainsworth, Martha (1996): The impact of women’s schooling on fertility and contraceptive use, A study of fourteen Sub-Saharan African countries, in: World Bank Economic Review, vol. 10. no. 1. pp. 85-122.[4205]

Arnfred, Signe (ed.) (2004): Re-thinking sexualities in Africa, The Nordic Africa Institute, Uppsala.[4207]

Ashenafi, M. (2004): Advocacy for legal reform for safe abortion, in: African Journal of Reproductive Health, vol. 8, pp. 79-84.[4208]

Banwell, Suzanna Stout (1993): Law, women’s status, and family planning in Sub-Saharan Africa, Working Paper no. 237, Women and International Development, Michigan State University, East Lansing.[4209]

Barry, Herbert / Schlegel, Alice (1986): Cultural customs that influence sexual freedom in adolescence, in: Ethnology, 15, pp. 151-162.[4210]

Basu, Alaka (ed.) (2003): The socio-cultural and political context of abortion from an anthropological perspective, Claredon Press, Oxford.[4211]

Benefo, Kofi (1995): The determinants of the duration of postpartum abstience in West Africa, A multilevel analysis, in: Demography, vol. 32, pp. 139-157.[4212]

Berger, Iris (1995): Fertility as power: Spirit mediums, priestesses and the pre-colonial state in Interlacustrine East Africa, in: Anderson, D.M. / Johnson, D.H. (eds.): Revealing prophets, Prophecy in Eastern African History, London, pp. 65-82.[4213]

Blacker, John (1994): Some thoughts on the evidence of fertility decline in Eastern and Southern Africa, in: Population and Development Review, vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 200-205.[4214]

Bledsoe, Caroline (1990): Transformations in Sub-Saharan African marriage and fertility, in: Annales of the American Academy of Political and Social Sciences, pp. 115-125.[4215]

Bledsoe, Caroline (1994): ‘Children are like young bamboo trees': Potentiality and reproduction in Sub-Saharan Africa, in: Lindahl-Kiessling, Kerstin / Landberg, Hans (eds.): Population, economic development, and the environment, Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp. 105-138.[4216]

Bledsoe, Caroline (ed.) (1999): Contingent lives, Fertility, life and aging in West Africa, University of Chicago Press, Chicago.[4218]

Bledsoe, Caroline / Cohen, Barney (eds.) (1993): Social dynamics of adolescent fertility in Sub-Saharan Africa, National Academy Press, Washington D.C.[4219]

Bledsoe, Caroline / Lerner, Susana / Guyer, Jane (eds.) (2000): Fertility and male life-cycle in the era of fertility decline, Oxford University Press, Oxford.[4220]

Bledsoe, Caroline / Pison, Gills (eds.) (1994): Nuptiality in Sub-Saharan Africa, Contemporary anthropological and demographic perspectives, Clarendon Press, Oxford.[4221]

Bledsoe, Caroline H. / Banja, Fatoumatta / Hill, Allan G. (1998): Reproductive mishaps and Western contraception: An African challenge to fertility theory, in: Population and Development Review, vol. 24, pp. 15-57.[4217]

Boerma, Ties / Mgalla, Zaida (eds.) (2001): Women and infertility in Sub-Saharan Africa, A multi-disciplinary perspective, Publicatoin of the Royal Tropical Institute (KIT), Amsterdam.[4222]

Caldwell, J.C. / Oruboloye, I. / Caldwell, P. (1992): Fertility decline in Africa, A new type of transition, in: Population and Development Review, vol. 19, no. 2, pp. 211-242.[4225]

Caldwell, John C. / Caldwell, Pat (1994): Fertility in Sub-Saharan Africa, Status and prospection: Population and Development Review, vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 179-187.[4223]

Caldwell, John C. / Caldwell, Pat (1995): Male gender roles and sexuality, Some implications for women’s AIDS risk and prevention, in: Social Science and Medicine, vol. 4, 2, pp. 197-210.[4224]

Clark, Shelly (2004): Early marriage and HIV risks in Sub-Saharan Africa, in: Studies in Family Planning, vol. 35, no. 3, pp. 149-160.[4226]

Cohen, Barney (1998): The emerging fertility transition in Sub-Saharan Africa, in: World Development, vol. 26, no. 8, pp. 1431-1461.[4228]

Conklin, Alice (1998): Redefining “frenchness”, Citizenship, race regneration, and imperial motherhood in France and West Africa, 1914-1940, in: Clancy-Smith / Gouda, Frances (eds.): Domesticating the Empire - Race, gender and family life in French and Dutch colonialism, University of Virginia Press, Charlottesville.[4229]

Cook, Rebecca / Dickens, Bernard (1981): Abortion laws in African commonwealth countries, in: Journal of African Law, vol. 25, no. 2, pp. 60-79.[4227]

Cornwall, Andrea / Welbourne, Alice (ed.) (2002): Realizing rights, Transforming approaches to sexual and reproductive well-being, Zed Books, London.[4230]

Coutsoudis, Anna (2002): New perspectives on the breastfeeding dilemma for HIV-infected women in Sub-Saharan Africa, in: Agenda, vol. 51, pp. 33-42.[4231]

CRLP (1997): Women of the world: Laws and policies affecting their reproductive lives: Anglophone Africa, Center for Reproductive Law and Policy, New York.[4232]

CRLP (2001): Women of the world: Laws and policies affecting their reproductive lives: Anglophone Africa 2001 Progress Report, Center for Reproductive Law and Policy, New York.[4233]

Davi-Floyd, Robbie / Sargent, Carolyn (eds.) (1997): Childbirth and autorative knowledge, Cross-cultural perspectives, Berkeley.[4234]

Djamba, Yanyi et al. (eds.) (2005): Sexual behaviour of adolescents in contemporary Sub-Saharan Africa, Edwin Mellen Press, Lewiston.[4237]

Dodoo, F. Nii-Amoo (1996): Women and the fertility question in Sub-Saharan Africa, in: African Studies Review, vol. 39, no. 3, pp. 29-41.[4235]

Dodoo, F. Nii-Amoo (1998): Marriage type and reproductive decisions: A comparative study in Sub-Saharan Africa, in: Journal of Marriage and Family, vol. 60, pp. 232-242.[4236]

Ekouevi, Koffi / Adepoju, Aderanti (1995): Adjustment, social sectors and demographic change in Sub-Saharan Africa, in: Journal of International Development, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 47-59.[4238]

Ezeh, Alex (1997): Polygyny and reproductive behavior in Sub-Saharan Africa: A contextual analysis, in: Demography, vol. 34, pp. 355-368.[4239]

Foote, Karen / Hill, Kenneth / Martin, Linda (eds.) (1993): Demographic change in Sub-Saharan Africa, National Academy Press, Washington D.C.[4240]

Frank, O. (1983): Infertility in Sub-Saharan Africa, Etimates and implications, in: Population and Development Review, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 137-144.[4241]

Frank, O. (1988): The childbrearing family in Sub-Saharan Africa, ICRW Publications, Washington D.C.[4242]

Frank, O. (1991): Behavioural and biological determinants of fertility transition in sub-Saharan Africa, in: Statistics in Medicine, vol. 10, pp. 161-175.[4243]

Gage, Anastasia J. / Meekers, Dominique (1994): Sexual activity before marriage in Sub-Saharan Africa, in: Social Biology, vol. 41, 1-2, pp. 44-60.[4244]

Goody, Esther (2007): Parenthood and social reproduction, Fostering and occupational roles in West Africa, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. (first edition 1982)[4245]

Greenlagh, Susan (ed.) (1995): Situating fertility, Anthropology and demographic inquiry, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.[4246]

Handwerker, W.P. (ed.) (1986): Culture and reproduction, Lynne Rienner, Boulder.[4247]

Handwerker, W.P. (ed.) (1990): Birth and power, social change and the politics of reproduction, Westview Press, Boulder.[4248]

Hill, Allan (ed.) (1985): Population, health and nutrition in the Sahel, Kegan Paul Publishers, London.[4249]

Hunt, Nancy Rose (2005): Fertility fires and empty wombs in recent Africanist writing, in: Africa, vol. 75, no. 3, pp. 421-435.[4250]

International Federation of Women Lawyers (1997): Women of the world, Laws and policies affecting their reproductive lives, Anglophone Africa, Centre for Reproductive Law and Policy, New York.[4251]

Jacobson-Widding, Anita (ed.) (1991): Body and space, Symbolic models of unity and division in African cosmology and experience, Stockholm Studies in Anthropology 16, University of Stockholm, Stockholm.[4252]

Jacobson-Widding, Anita / Beek, van Walter (ed.) (1991): Creative communication, African folk models of fertility and the regeneration of life, Stockholm Studies in Cultural Anthropology 15, University of Stockholm, Stockholm.[4253]

Kirchengast, Sylvia (1999): Frauen in den Wechseljahren, eine interkulturelle Studie, Campus Verlag, Frankfurt a.M.[4254]

Kirk, Dudley / Pillet, Bernard (1998): Fertility levels, trends, and determinants in Sub-Saharan Africa in the 1980s and 1990s, in: Studies in Family Planning, vol. 29, no. 1, pp. 1-22.[4255]

Klepp, Knut-Inge / Flisher, Alan / Kaaya, Sylvia (eds.) (2008): Promoting adolescent and reproductive health in East and Southern Africa, Nordic Africa Institute, Uppsala.[4256]

Knieper, Barbara (2000): Zur Kritik einer westlichen Familienplanung in Afrika, Westfälisches Dampfboot, Münster.[4257]

Kravdal, Oystein (2002): Education and fertility in Sub-Saharan Africa, in: Demography, vol. 39, no. 3, pp. 233-250.[4258]

Larsen, Ulla (1994): Sterility in Sub-Saharan Africa, in: Population Studies, vol. 48, no. 3, pp. 459-474.[4259]

Lestaeghe, Ron / Jolly, Carole (1995): The start of the Sub-Saharan fertility transition, Some answers and questions, in: Journal of International Development, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 25-45.[4261]

Lesthaeghe, Ron (ed.) (1989): Reproduction and social organisation in Sub-Saharan Africa, University of California Press, Berkeley.[4260]

Levine, Robert / Dixon, Suzanne / LeVine, Sarah et al. (1994): Child care and culture, Lessons from Africa, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.[4262]

Lewis, Barbara (1982): Fertility and employment, An assessment of role incompartibility among African urban women, in: Bay, Edna (ed.): Women and work in Africa, Westview Press, Boulder, pp. 249-276.[4263]

Lloyd, Cynthia (1994): Adolescent fertility in Sub-Saharan Africa, in: Population and Development Review, vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 194-199.[4264]

Locoh, T. / Hertrich, V. (eds.) (1995): The onset of fertility transition in Sub-Saharan Africa, Ordina Edition, Liege.[4265]

Lucas, D. (1992): Fertility and family planning in Southern and Central Africa, in: Studies in Family Planning, vol. 23, no. 3, pp. 145-.158.[4266]

Luig, Ute (1997): Ethnographische Anmerkungen zum Verhältnis von Fruchtbarkeit, Macht und Geschlecht in Afrika, in: Braig, Marianne et al. (Hg.): Begegnungen und Einmischungen, Akademischer Verlag, Stuttgart, pp. 246-267.[4267]

Luig, Ute (1997): Fruchtbarkeit und die Macht der Frauen, Sozialanthropologische Arbeitspapiere, Nr. 69, Berlin.[4268]

Luke, Nancy (2003): Age and economic asymmetries in the sexual relationships of adolescent girls in sub-Saharan Africa, in: Studies in Family Planning, vol. 29, no. 2, pp. 167-184.[4269]

MacCormack, Carol (ed.) (1980): Ethnography of fertility and birth, Academic Press, London.[4270]

Makinwa, Paulina / Jensen, An-Margit (eds.) (1995): Women’s position and demographic change in Sub-Saharan Africa, IUSSP Publishers, Liege, Belgium.[4272]

Maticka-Tyndale, Eleanor / Tiemoko, Richard / Makinwa-Adebusoye, Paulina (eds.) (2008): Human sexuality in Africa, Beyond reproduction, Fanele Publishers, Johannesburg / Cape Town.[4273]

Mbacke, Cheikh (1994): Family planning programs and fertility transistion in Sub-Saharan Africa, in: Population and Development Review, vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 188-193.[4271]

Meekers, Dominique (1994): Sexual initiation and premarital childbearing in Sub-Saharan Africa, in: Population Studies, vol. Volume 48, no. 1, pp. 47-64.[4274]

Miller, Robert / Stein, Karen et al. (1996): Measuring reproductive health care after Cairo, Findings from four situation analysis studies in Africa, in: African Journal of Fertility, Sexuality and Reproductive Health, vol. 1, pp. 92-100.[4275]

Moore, Henrietta (1999): Those who play with fire, gender, fertility and transformation in East and Southern Africa, Athlone Press, New York.[4276]

Mott, Frank / Mott, Susan (1985): Household fertility decisions in West Africa, A comparison of male and female survey results, in: Studies in Family Planning, vol. 21, no. 4, pp. 197-208.[4277]

Ngom, Pierre (1997): Men’s unmet need for family planning, Implications for African fertility in transitions, in: Studies in Family Planning, vol. 28, no. 3, pp. 192-202.[4278]

Obono, Oka (ed.) (2010): A tapestry of human sexuality in Africa, Fanele, New York.[4279]

Oheneba-Sakyi, Yaw / Awusabo-Asare, Kofi (1999): Female autonomy, Family decision making, and demographic behavior in Africa, Edwin Mellen Press, New York.[4281]

Oheneba-Sakyi, Yaw / Takyi, Baffour K. (1997): Effects of couples' characteristics on contraceptive use in Sub-Saharan Africa: The Ghanaian Example, in: Journal of Biosocial Science. Volume 29 #1 January, 1997. pp. 33-49.[4280]

Olukoya, Peju (2004): Reducing maternal mortality from unsafe abortion among adolescents in Africa, in: African Journal of Reproductive Health, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 57-62.[4282]

Onuoha, Nelson C. / Timaeus, Ian M. (1995): Has a fertility transition begun in West Africa? in: Journal of International Development, vol. 7, pp. 93-116.[4283]

Oppong, Christine (ed.) (1978): Marriage, fertility and parenthood in West Africa, Australian University Press, Canberra.[4284]

Oppong, Christine (ed.) (1987): Sex roles, population and development in West Africa: Policy-related studies on work and demographic issues, Heinemann, Portmouth.[4285]

Page, H. / Laesthageghe, R. (eds.) (1981): Child spacing and fertility in tropical Africa, Traditions and hange, Academic Press, London.[4287]

Page, Hilary (1989): Childrearing versus childbearing: Coresidence of mother and child in Sub-Saharan Africa, in: Lesthaeghe, Ron (ed.): Reproduction and social organization in Sub-Saharan Africa, Universtiy of Californis Press, Berkeley, pp. 401-441.[4286]

Perkins, Annabel (1998): Media inluence and differential fertility preference formation of couples in Sub-Saharan Africa, in: African Journal of Reproductive Health, vol. 2, pp. 66-81.[4288]

Potts, Deborah (2001): Fertility in Southern Africa, in: Journal of Southern African Studies, vol. 27, no. 2, pp. 189-302.[4289]

Radloff, Scott / Selingman, Barbara et al. (1989): Reproductive risks and intentions in six countries in Sub-Saharan Africa, in: International Family Planning Perspectives, vol. 15, no. 4, pp. 136-143.[4290]

Raphael, Dane (ed.) (1975): Being female, Reproduction, power and change, The Hague.[4291]

Rwomire, Apollo (ed.) (2001): African women and children, Crisis and response, Praeger Publishers, Westport.[4292]

Shah, I. (1998): Sexual and reproductive health in Sub-Saharan Africa, An overview, in: African Journal of Reproductive Heath, vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 98-107.[4293]

Shapiro, David (2008): Fertility transition in sub-saharan Africa, Falling and stalling, in: African Population Studies, vol. 23, no. 1, pp. 3-23.[4294]

Sonko, S. (1994): Fertility and culture in Sub-Saharan Africa, A review, in: International Social Science Journal, 46, 3, pp. 397-413.[4295]

Sween, J. / Clingnet, R. (1978): Female matrimonial roles and fertility in Africa, in: Oppong, Christine (ed.): Marriage, fertility and parenthood in West Africa, Canberra, Australian National University Press, pp. 562-600.[4296]

Uchudi, Joseph M. (2001): Spouses' socioeconomic characteristics and fertility differences in Sub-Saharan Africa: Does spouse's education matter?" Journal of Biosocial Science, vol. 33, no.4, pp. 481-502.[4297]

van der Waale, Etienne / van der Walle, Francine (1993): Post-partum sexual abstinence in Tropical Africa, in: Gary, Ronald / Leridon, Henri / spira, Alfred (eds.): Biomedical and demographic determinants of reproduction, Claredon Press, Oxford, pp. 446-460.[4298]

Ware, Helen (1976): Motivations for the use of birth control, Evidence from West Africa, in: Demography, vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 479-494.[4299]

Westhoff, Charles (2000): Effects of birth spacing preferences on fertility and child health in Africa, in: Studies in Family Planning, vol. 31, no. 2, pp. 99-110.[4300]

health

Allison, Caroline (1985): Health and education for development: African women’s status and prospects, in: Rose, Tore (ed.): Crisis and recovery in Sub-Sahran Africa, Paris, pp. 111-123.[5000]

Falola, Toyin / Heaton, Matthew (eds.) (2007): Endangered bodies, Women, children and health in Africa, Africa World Press, Trenton.[5001]

Kalipeni, Ezkiel / Thiuri, Philip (eds.) (1997): Issues and perspectives on health care in contemporary Sub-Saharan Africa, Edwin Mellen Press, Lewiston.[5002]

Karim, Abdool Quarraisa / Froehlich, Janet (eds.) (2000): African women’s health, Africa World Press, Trenton.[5003]

Raikes, A. (1989): Women`s health in East Africa, in: Social Science and Medicine, vol. 28, pp. 447-459.[5004]

Shelley, Karen (1997): Impacts on health status of African women and children, 1978-1994, in: Kalipeni, Ezekiel / Thiuri, Philip (eds.): Issues and perspectives on health care in contemporary Sub-Saharan Africa, Edwin Mellen Press, Lewiston, pp. 179-193.[5005]

Stein, Howard / Fadlalla, Amal Hassan (eds.) (2012): Gendered insecurities, Health and development in Africa, Routledge, London.[5006]

Trasi, Reshma (2008): Leadership for women’s health in Africa, The parlamentarians for women’s health project, in: Gender and Development, vol. 16, no. 3, pp. 495-508.[5007]

Turshen, Meredeth (ed.) (1991): Women and health in Africa, Africa World, Trenton.[5008]

history colonialism and pre-colonial history

Achebe, Nwando / Robertson, Claire (2019): Holding the world together, African women in changing perspective, University of Wisconsin Press, Madison.[11593]

Agorsah, Kofi (1990): Women in African traditional politics, in: Journal of Legal Pluralism and Unofficial Law, no. 30, pp. 30-86.[5100]

Allman, Jean / Geiger, Susan / Musisi, Nakanyike (eds.) (2002): Women in colonial African histories, Indiana University Press, Bloomington.[5102]

Andrade, Susan (2007): Rioting women and writing women, Gender, class and the public sphere in Africa, in: Cole, Catherine / Manuh, Takyiwaa / Miescher, Stephan (eds.): Africa after gender? Indiana Unviersity Press, Bloomington, pp. 85-107.[5101]

Barnes, Sandra (1997): Gender and the politics of support and protection in precolonial West Africa, in: Kaplan, Flora Edouwaye (ed.): Queens, Queen Mothers, Priestresses, and power, Case studies in African gender, Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, New York, pp. 1-18.[5103]

Berger, Iris / White, Frances / Skidmore-Hess, C. (eds.) (1999): Women in Sub-Saharan Africa, Restoring women to history, Indiana University Press, Bloomington.[5104]

Campbell, Gwyn / Miller, Joseph C. / Miers, Suzanne (Eds.) (2007): Women and slavery, vol. I - Africa, the Indian Ocean World, and the Medieval North Atlantic, Ohio University Press, Ohio.[5105]

Campbell, Gwyn / Miller, Joseph C. / Miers, Suzanne (Eds.) (2007): Women and slavery, vol. II - Africa, the Indian Ocean World, and the Medieval North Atlantic, Ohio University Press, Ohio.[5106]

Cohen, Ronald (1977): Oedipus Rex and Regina, The Queen Mother in Africa, in: Africa, vol. 47, no. 1, pp. 14-30.[5107]

Coquery-Vidrovitch, Catherine (1997): African women, A modern history, Westview Press, Boulder.[5108]

Cromwell, Adelaide (1986): An African victorian feminist, The life and times of Adelaide Smith Saely Hayford 1868-1960, Frank Class Publishers, London.[5109]

Dennis, Carolyn (1988): Women in African labour history, in: Journal of Asian and African Studies, vol. 23, no. 1-2, pp. 125-140.[5111]

Denzer, La Ray (1976): Towards a study of the history of West African women’s participation in nationalist politics, the early phase, 1935-1950, in: Africana Research Bulletin, vol. VI, no. 4, pp. 65-85..[5110]

Donaldson, Laura (1992): Decolonizing feminisms - Race, Gender and empire-building, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill.[5112]

Everett, J. / Charlton, S.E. / Staudt, Kathleen (eds.) (1991): Women, development and the state, Suny Publishers, Albany.[5113]

Gawanas, Bience (1987): Women’s struggle within the national liberation struggle, in: Journal of African Marxists, vol. 10, pp. 50-64.[5114]

Geschiere, Peter (2017): A vortex of identities, Freemansory, witchcraft and postcolonial homophobia, in: African Studies Review, vol. 60, no 2, pp. 7-35.[5115]

Geschiere, Peter / Orock, Rogers (2020): Anusocratie? Freemanonry, sexual transgression and illicit enrichment in postcolonial Africa, in: Africa, vol. 90, no. 5, pp. 831-851.[5116]

Grosz-Ngaté, Maria / Kokole, Omari (eds.) (1997): Gendered encounters, Challenging cultural boundaries and social hierarchies in Africa, Routledge Publishers, London.[5117]

Günther, Ursula (2003): Postcolonialism – gender – Africa, Herausforderungen für Afrikaforschende, in: Böll, Verena et al. (Hrsg.): Umbruch – Bewältigung – Geschlecht, Waxmann Verlag, Münster, pp. 15-41.[5118]

Hay, Margaret (1988): Queens, prostitutes and peasants, Historical perspectives on African women, 1971-1986, in: Canadian Journal of African Studies, vol. 22, no.3, pp. 431-447.[5119]

Hendrickson, Hildi (ed.) (1996): Clothing and difference, Embodied identities in colonial and post-colonial Africa, Duke University Press, Durham.[5120]

Hunt, Rose Nancy (ed.) (1989): Placing African woman’s history and locating gender, in: Social History, vol. 14, no. 3, pp. 359-379.[5121]

Hunt, Rose Nancy (ed.) (1997): Gendered colonialism in African history, Blackwell, Oxford.[5122]

Imam, Mei-Tje Ayeha (1988): The presentation of Afrian women in historical writing, in: Keinberg, S. J. (ed.): Retrieving women’s history, Changing perceptions of the role of women in politics and society, Berg Publishers, Oxford, pp. 30-40.[5123]

Johnson-Odim, Cheryl / Strobel, Margaret (eds.) (1992): Expanding the boundaries of women’s history, Indiana University Press, Bloomington.[5124]

Jones, Adam (1990): Prostitution, Polyandrie oder Vergewaltigung? Zur Mehrdeutigkeit europäischer Quellen über die Küste Westafrikas zwischen 1660 und 1860, in: Jones, Adam (Hg.): Außereuropäische Frauengeschichte, Centaurus Verlag, Pfaffenweiler, pp. 123-156.[5125]

Kaplan, Flora (ed.) (1997): Queens, queen mothers, priestress, and power, Case studies in African gender, New York Academy of Sciences, New York.[5126]

Kent, Susan (ed.) (1998): Gender in African pre-history, Alta Mira, London.[5127]

Leis, Nancy (1976): West African women and the colonial experience, in: Western Canadian Journal of Anthropology, vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 123-132.[5128]

Nnaemeka, Obioma et al. (eds.) (1996): African women and imperialism, Africa University Press, Trenton.[5129]

Ogbomo, Onaiwu (2005): Women, power and society in pre-colonial Africa, Lagos Historical Review, vol. 5, pp. 49-74.[5130]

Parpart, Jane (ed.) (1989): Women and development in Africa, Comparative perspectives, University of America Press, Lanham[5132]

Parpart, Jane / Staudt, Kathleen (eds.) (1989): Women and the state in Africa, Lynne Rienner, Boulder.[5131]

Pederson, Susan (1991): National bodies, unspeakable acts, The sexual politics of colonial policy-making, in: Journal of Modern History, vol. 63, pp. 647-680.[5133]

Reinwald, Brigitte (1989): Weiblichkeitsbilder – Geschlechtergeschichte? Historische Perspektiven afrikabezogener Frauenforschung, in. Zeitschrift für Sozialgeschichte des 20. und 21. Jh., 3, pp. 76-96.[5134]

Robertson, Claire (1987): Developing economic awareness, Changing perspectives in Studies of African women, 1976-1985, in: Signs, no. 13, pp. 97-135.[5135]

Robertson, Claire (1988): Invisible workers: African women and the problem of the self-employed in labour history, in: Journal of African and Asian Studies, vol. 23, pp. 180-188.[5136]

Robertson, Claire (1988): Newer underestimate the power of women, the transforming visions of African women’s history, in: Women’s Studies International Forum, vol. 11, no. 5, pp. 439-454.[5137]

Robertson, Claire / Klein, Martin (eds.) (1983): Women and slavery in Africa, University of Wisconsin Press, Madison.[5138]

Romero, Patricia (1987): Life histories of African women, Ashfield Press, London.[5139]

Rosen, David (1974): The peasant context of feminist revolt in West Africa, in: Anthropology Quarterly, vol. 47, no. 3, pp. 35-43.[5140]

Rybalkina, I.G. (1990): Women in African history, in: African Quarterly, vol. 29, no. 3-4, pp. 83-91.[5141]

Saidi, Christine (2010): Women’s autority and society in early East-Central Africa, University of Rochester Press / James Currey, Oxford.[5142]

Schler, Lynn (2004): Writing African women’s history with male sources, Possibilities and limitations, in: History in Africa, vol. 31, pp. 319-333.[5146]

Schmidt, Heike (1998): Geschlechterverhältnisse, Gegenstand und Methode, in: Deutsch, Jan-Georg / Wirz, Albert (Hrsg.): Geschichte Afrikas, Einführung in Probleme und Debatten, Verlag Das Arabische Buch, Berlin, pp. 175-200.[5143]

Sheldon, Kathleen (2005): A historical dictionary of women in Sub-Saharan Africa, Scarecrow, New York.[5144]

Sheldon, Kathleen (2017): African women, Early history to the 21st century, Indiana University Press, Bloomington.[5145]

Stavropoulos, Pam (1997): Women in colonial Africa: Agency, theory and literature, in: Darby, Phillip (ed.): At the edge of international relations: Postcolonialism, gender and dependency, Pinter Publishers, New York/London, pp. 197-213.[5148]

Stoler, Ann (1989): Making the empire respectable, The politics of race and sexual morality in the 20th century colonial cultures, in: American Ethnologist, vol. 16[5147]

Tadese, Zenebeworke (1988): Breaking the silence and broadening the frontiers of history, Recent studies on African women, in: Keinberg, S. J. (ed.): Retrieving women’s history, Changing perceptions of the role of women in politics and society, Berg Publishers, Oxford, pp. 356-364.[5149]

Tamale, Sylvia (2020): Decolonization and Afro-Feminism, Daraja Press, Cantley, Quebec, Canada. [5150]

Thomas, Greg (2007): The sexual demon of colonial power, Pan-African embodiement and erotic schemes of Empire, Indiana University Press, Bloomington.[5151]

Wadley, Lyn (ed.) (1997): Our gendered past, Archeological studies of gender in Southern Africa, Witwatersrand University Press, Johannesburg.[5152]

White, Francis E. / Berger, Iris et. al (eds.) (1999): Women in Sub-Saharan Africa, Restoring women’s history, Indiana University Press, Bloomington.[5153]

Wipper, Audrey (1985): Riot and rebellion among African women: Three examples of political clout, Working Paper 108, Michigan State University. (and in: O’Barr, Jean F. (eds.): Perspectives on power: Women in Africa, Asia and Latin America, Durham, pp. 50-72.)[5154]

Wright, Marcia (1975): Women in peril, A commentary on the life stories of captives in nineteenth-century East-Central Africa, in: African Social Research, vol. 20, pp. 800-819.[5155]

Wright, Marcia (1993): Strategies of slaves and women, Life-stories from East Central Africa, James Currey, London.[5156]

Zeleze, Tiyambe (1993): Gendering African history, in: Africa Development, vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 99-117.[5157]

Literature

Martin, Karen / Xaba, Makhosazana (2013): Queer Africa, New and Collected Fiction, Modjaji Books, Johannesburg. [11721]

Andrade, Susan (2002): Gender and the public sphere in Africa, Writing women and rioting women, in: Agenda, vol. 54, pp. 45-59.[5700]

Andrade, Susan (2011): The nation writ small, African fictions and feminisms, 1958–1988, Duke University Press, Durham.[11691]

Arndt, Susan (1997): ‘Womanism’ und bärtige Frauen, in: Literaturnachrichten, Nr. 55, pp. 10-12.[5701]

Arndt, Susan (2000): Feminismus im Widerstreit, Afrikanischer Feminismus in Gesellschaft und Literatur, Unrast Verlag, Münster. (The dynamics of African feminism, Defining and classifying African feminist literatures, Africa World Press, Trenton 2002)[5702]

Arndt, Susan (2000): Optimismus und militante Resignation, Strömungen der afrikanischen feministischen Literatur, in: IZ3W, Nr. 242, pp. 36-38.[5703]

Arndt, Susan (2003): Grenzenloses Weiß-Sein, Weiß-Sein ohne Grenzen? Konzeptionen von Weiß-Sein und Feminismus in der afrikanisch-feministischen Literatur, in: Ehlers, Monika et al. (eds.): Fremdes Begehren, Repräsentationsformen transkultureller Beziehungen, Böhlau Verlag, Weimar, pp. 107-120.[5704]

Arndt, Susan (2006): Beyond the boundaries of identities and differences, The dynamic relationship of ‘race’ and gender in African literatures, in: Arndt, Susan et al. (ed.): Africa, Europe and (post)colonialism, Racism, migration and new diasporas in African literatures, Bayreuth Africa Series, Bayreuth, pp. 139-158.[5705]

Arndt, Susan (2007): Kritische Distanz, Konzepte des afrikanischen Feminismus in Theorie und Literatur, in: Frauensolidarität, 2, pp. 10-11.[5706]

Assah, Augustine (2004): Thematic representation of traditional culture in francophone African women’s novels, in: Journal of Cultural Studies, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 67-93.[5707]

Berrian, Brenda (1985): Bibliography of African women writers and journalists, Washington.[5708]

Boehmer, Elleke (1993): Transfiguring, Colonial body in post-colonial narrative, Stories of Women, in: African Literature Issues, vol. 26, no. 3, pp. 266-277.[11583]

Boyce-Davies, Carol / Fido E. S. (eds.) (1994): Destroying the emptyness of silence, Francophone African women writers, University of Miami Press, Miami.[5709]

Brillmann-Ede, Heike (1997): Schriftstellerinnen aus Schwarzafrika, in: Loimeier, Manfred (Hg.): Zum Beispiel Afrikanische Literatur, Göttingen, pp. 69-77.[5710]

Brown, Lloyd Weslesley (1981): Women writers in black Africa, Greenwood Press, Westport Conn. [5711]

Bruner, Carlotte (1985): Unwinding threads: Writing by women in Africa, London.[5712]

Burger, Bibi (2020): Editorial, Engaged queerness in African speculative fiction, in: Scrutiny2, vol. 25, issuue 2, pp. 1-12. [11727]

Cazenave, Odile (1995): Writing the child, youth, and violence into the fancophone novel from Sub-Saharan Africa, The impact of age and gender, in: Research in African Literatures, vol. 36, no. 2, pp. 59-71.[5713]

Cazenave, Odile (1999): Rebellious women, the new female African novelists, Oxford.[5714]

Collins, Georgina (ed.) (2007): The other half of history, Francophone African women’s writing, Hea Ventree, London.[5715]

Counihan, Clare (2007): Reading the figure of woman in African literature: Psychoanalysis, difference, and desire, in: Research in African Literatures, vol. 38, no. 2, pp. 161-180.[5716]

Davies, Boyce Carol (1987): Wrapping one’s self in mother’s Akatado cloths, Mother-daughter relationships in the works of African women writers, in: Sage, Scholary Journal on Black Women, 4, 2, pp. 11-19.[5719]

Davies, Boyce Carol (1989): Black women’s writing: Crossing the boundaries, Routledge, London.[5720]

Davies, Boyce Carol (1990): Private selves and public spaces, Autobiography and the African woman writer, in: Neohelicon, 17, 2, pp. 183-210.[5721]

Davies, Boyce Carol (2015): Gender/class intersection and African women’s rights, in: Meridians, Feminism, Race, Transnationalism, vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 1-25.[5722]

Davies, Boyce Carol (ed.) (1995): Moving beyong boundaries, International dimensions of black women’s writing, Pluto Press, London.[5723]

Davies, Boyce Carol / Fido, Elaine Savory (1989): African women writers, Towards a literary history, in: Owomoyela, Oyekan (ed.): A history of twentieth century African literature, University of Nebraska Press, pp. 311-346.[5724]

Davies, Carole Boycs / Graves, Anne Adams (eds.) (1986): Ngambika - Studies of women in African literature, Africa World Press, Trenton.[5725]

Daymond, M.J. / Driver, Dorothy et al. (eds.) (2003): Women writing Africa, The Southern region, Witwatersrand University Press, Johannesburg.[5718]

Diaw, Amniata / Sutherland-Addy, Esi (eds.) (2005): Women writing Africa, West Africa and the Sahel, Witwatersrand University Press, Johannesburg.[5726]

D’Almeida, Irène (1994): Francophone African women writers, Destroying the emptyness of silence, University of Florida Press, Gainesville.[5717]

Egejuru Akubueze, Phanuel / Katrak, Ketu (eds.) (1998): Nwanyibu, Women being in African literature, Africa World Press, Trenton.[5727]

Emenyonu, Ernest (ed.) (2004): New women’s writing in African Literature, African Literature Today, no. 24, James Currey Publishers, Oxford.[5728]

Englund, Harri (2004): Gender relations in African-language literature, Interpretative politics and possibilities, in: African Sociological Review, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 154-175.[5729]

Evans, Mari (ed.) (1985): Black women writers, Arguments and interviews, Pluto Publishing, London.[5730]

Flewellen, Elionor (1985): Assertiveness versus submissiveness in selected works by African women writers, in: Ba Shira, A Journal of African Languages and Literature, 12, 2, pp. 3-18.[5731]

Fonchingong, Charles (2006): Unbending gender narratives in African literature, in: Journal of International Women’s Studies, vol. 8, pp. 140-149.[5734]

Frank, Katherine (1984): Feminist criticism and the African novel, in: African Literature Today, vol. 14, pp. 34-48.[5732]

Frank, Katherine (1985): Women without men, The feminist novel in Africa, in: African Literature Today, vol. 15.[5733]

Harrow, Kenneth (1998): I’m not a Western feminist but …, A review of recent critical writings of African women’s literature, in: Research in African Literature, vol. 29, no. 4, pp. 171-190.[5735]

Harrow, Kenneth (2002): Less Than One and Double: A Feminist Reading of African Women's Writing. Studies in African Literature, Heinemann, Portsmouth.[5736]

Hawley, John (2017): In transition, self-expression in recent African LGBTIQ narratives, in: Journal of the African Literature Association, vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 120-134.[11743]

Hawley, John C. (ed.) (2018): Queer theory in film and fiction, African Literature Today, ALT 36, James Currey, Melton.[5737]

Hitchcott, Nicki (1997): African ‚herstory,’, The feminist reader and the African autobiographical voice, in: Research in African Literatures, vol. 28, no. 2, pp. 16-33.[5738]

Hitchcott, Nicki (2000): Women writers in francophone Africa, Berg Publishers, Oxford.[5739]

Holloway, Karla (1994): Morrings and metaphors, Figures of culture and gender in black women’s literature, Rutgers University Press, New Brunswick.[5740]

Innes, Lynn / Rooney, Caroline (1997): African writing and gender, in: Mpalive-Hangson / Hyland, Paul (eds.): Writing in Africa, Longman Publishers, London, pp. 193-215.[5741]

Jalloh, Martina (1996): Westafrikanische Schriftstellerinnen und ihr Echo in Deutschland, in: Internationales Afrikaforum, 4, pp. 383-393.[5742]

James, Adeola (ed.) (1996): In their own voices, African women writers talk, James Currey, London.[5743]

Jones, Eldred / Palmer, Eustance / Jones, Marjorie (eds.) (1987): Women in African literature today, special issue, African Literature Today, vol. 15, London.[5744]

Kalu, Anthonia (1994): Those who left lout in the rain, African literary theory and the re-invention of the African woman, in: African Studies Review, vol. 37, no. 2, pp. 77-95.[5745]

Kalu, Anthonia (1999): Women and development in West Africa: Traditional views in contemporary literature, in: James, Valentine U. / Etim, James S. (eds.): The feminization of development processees in Africa: Current and future perspectives. Praeger Publishers, Westport, pp. 199-214.[5746]

Kolawole, Mary Modupe (1997): Womanism and African consciousness, Africa World Press, Trenton.[5747]

LaPin, Deirdre (1984): Women in African literature, in: Hay, Margaret / Stichter, Sharon (eds.): African women South of the Sahara, London, pp. 102-118.[5748]

Le Roux, Elizabeth et al. (eds.) (2005): Gender, literature and religion in Africa, Codesria Publications, Dakar.[5749]

Lihamba, Amandian et al. (eds.) (2007): Women writing Africa, The Eastern Region, Feminist Press, New York.[5750]

Little, Kenneth (1980): The sociology of urban women’s image in African literature, Rowman and Littlefield, New York.[5751]

Makuchi, Nfah-Abbenyi Juliana (1997): Gender in African women`s writing, Identity, sexuality, and difference, Indiana University Press, Bloomington.[5752]

Mezu, Ure Rose (2004): A history of African women’s literature, Black Academie Press, New York.[5753]

Miller, Mary-Kay (1997): My mother/ my selves, (Re)reading a traditon of West African women’s autobiography, in: Research in African Literature Today, vol. 28, no. 2, pp. 5-15.[5754]

Morgan, Elizabeth (1998): Writing our way out, The cross-cultural dynamics of African women’s novels, in: World Literature Written in English, vol. 37, no. 1-2, pp. 102-117.[5755]

Mugambi, Helen Nabasuta / Allen, Tuzyline Jita (2010): Masculinities in African literary and cultural texts, Lynne Rienner, Boulder.[5760]

Mugambi, Nabasuta Helen / Allan, Tuzyline Jita (eds.) (2010): Masculinities in African literature and cultural texts, Lynne Rienner, Boulder.[5756]

Mugo, Micere (1994): The woman artist in Africa today, A critical commentary, in: Africa Development, vol. XIX, no. 1, pp. 49-99.[5757]

Munro, Brenna (2017): States of emergence, Writing African female same-sex sexuality, in: Journal of Lesbian Studies, vol. 21, issue 2, pp. 186-203.[11689]

Murray, Sally-Ann (2018): Queerying examples of contemporary South African short fiction, in: The Journal of Commonwealth Literature, vol. 55, no.1. [11726]

Musengezi, Chiedza et al. (eds.) (2003): Women writing Africa, The Southern region, University of Witwatersrand Press, Johannesburg.[5758]

Mutiso, G.C.M. (1971): Women in African literature, in: East African Journal, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 4-14.[5759]

Nasta, Susheila (ed.) (1992): Motherlands, Black women’s writing from Africa, the Carribean, and South Asia, Rutgers University Press, New Brunswick.[5761]

Newell, Stephanie (ed.) (1988): Writing African women, Gender, popular culture and literature, Zed Books, London.[5762]

Nfah-Abbenyi, Juliana Makuchi (1997): Gender in African women’s writing, Identity, sexuality, and difference, Indiana University Press, Bloomington.[5763]

Nnaemeka, Obioma (1994): From orality to writing, African women writers and the (re)inscription of womanhood, in: Research in African Literatures, vol. 25, no. 4, pp. 137-157.[5764]

Nnaemeka, Obioma (ed.) (1997): The politics of (m)othering: Womanhood, identity, and resistance in African literature, Routledge, London.[5765]

Ogundipe-Leslie, Molana (1987): The female writer and her commitment, in: Women in African Literature, Today, 15, pp. 5-13.[5768]

Ogundipe-Leslie, Molana (1994): Recreating ourselves, African women and critical transformations, Africa World Press, Trenton.[5769]

Ogunyemi, C.O. (1985): Womenism, The dynamics of the contemporary black female novel in English, in: Signs, vol. 11, no. 1.[5766]

Ogunyemi, Chikwene Okonjo & Allan, Tuzyline Jita (eds.) (2009): The twelve best books by African women, Critical readings, Ohio University Press, Bloomington.[5767]

Oje-Ade, Femi (1983): Female writers, male critics, in: African Literature Today, vol. 13, pp. 156-179.[5770]

Okonkwo, Juliet (1975): The talented women in African literature, in: African Quarterly, 15, 1-2, pp. 36-47.[5771]

Ouzgane, Lahoucine / Okome, Onookome (2007): Men and masculinities in African film and fiction, James Currey Publishers, Oxford.[5772]

Palmer, Pauline (1989): Contemporary women’s fiction, Narrative practice and feminist theory, University of Missisippi Press, Jackson.[5773]

Pandey, Anita (2004): ‘Women palava no be small, women wahala no be small’, Linguistic gendering and patriarchal ideology in West African fiction, in: Africa Today, vol. 50, no. 3, pp. 113-125.[5774]

Petersen, Kirsten Holst (ed.) (1988): Criticism and ideology, Nordic Africa Institute, Uppsala.[5776]

Petersen, Kirsten Holst / Rutherford, Anne (eds.) (1986): A double colonization, colonial and post-colonial women’s writing, Oxford.[5775]

Ricard, Alain / Veit-Wild, Flora (eds.) (2005): Interfaces between the oral and the written, Versions and Sub-Versions in African Literatures, 2, Matatu – Journal for African Cultures and Society, 31-32, Rodopi, Amsterdam.[5777]

Salami-Boukari, Safoura (2012): African literature, Gender discourse, religious values, and the African world view, African Books Collective, Oxford.[5778]

Scheldon, Kathleen / Rodrigues, Isabel Feo P.B. (2008): Outras vozes, Women’s writing in the Lusophone Africa, in: African and Asian Studies, vol. 7, pp. 423-445.[5779]

Schild, Ulla (1990): Steter Tropfen ..., Der Beitrag afrikanischer Schriftstellerinnen zum Gesellschaftswandel, in: Zeitschrift für Kulturaustausch, 1, pp. 34-39.[5780]

Schipper, Mineke (1996): Emerging from the shadows: Changing patterns in gender matters, in: Research in African Literatures, vol. 27, no. 1/2, pp. 155-171.[5781]

Schipper, Mineke (ed.) (1985): Unheard words, Women and literature in Africa, the Arab world, Asia, the Carribean and Latin America, Allison Publishers, London.[5782]

Schipper, Mineke (ed.) (1991): Sources of all evil, African proverbs and sayings on women, Allison and Busby, London / Chicago.[5783]

Sheldon, Kathleen (2008): ‘Outra vozes’, Women’s writing in lusophone Africa, in: African and Asian Studies, vol. 7, no. 4, pp. 423-445.[5784]

Stratton, Florence (1994): Contemporary African literature and the politics of gender, Routledge, London.[5785]

Taiwo, Oledele (1984): Female novelists in modern Africa, MacMillan Publishers, London.[5786]

Veit-Wild, Flora / Naguschewski, Dirk (eds.) (2005): Body, sexuality and gender, Versions and sub-versions in African Literature, 1, (Matatu 29-30), Rodopi, Amsterdam.[5787]

Volet, Jean-Marie (1992): Francophone women writers from Sub-Saharan Africa, An annotated bibliography, in: African Literature Association Bulletin, vol. 18, no. 4, pp. 15-22.[5788]

Volet, Jean-Marie (1999): Tradition and modernity are here to stay, An analysis of francophone African women’s writings published 1997-1998, in: Research in African Literature, vol. 30, no. 2, pp. 182-193.[5789]

Wallace, Karen Smyley (1986): Women and alienation: Analysis of the works of two francophone African novelists, in: Davies, Carole Boycs / Graves, Anne Adams (eds.): Ngambika - Studies of women in African literature, Trenton, pp. 63-73.[5790]

Ward, Cynthia (1996): Reading African women readers, in: Research in African Literature Today, vol. 27, pp. 78-86.[5791]

Weiss, Bettina (2004): Tangible vice throwing, Empowering corporeal discourses in African women’s writing of Southern Africa, Peter Lang Verlag, Frankfurt a.M.[5792]

Weiss, Bettina (ed.) (2004): The end of the unheard narratives, Contemporary perspectives on Southern African literatures, Kalliope Paperbacks, Bettina Weiss Verlag, Heidelberg.[5793]

Wesley, Paul Macheso (2021): Fiction as prosthesis, Reading the contemporary African queer short story, in: Tydskr.vir letterkunde, vol. 58, n.2, pp. 1-17. [11749]

Xaba, Makhosazana / Martin, Karen (2017): Queer Africa 2, New Stories, Ma´Thokos Books, Johannesburg.[11722]

Zabus, Chantal (2013): Out in Africa, Same-sex desire in Sub-Saharan literature and cultures, James Currey, Melton/Woodbridge.[5794]

media

Adagala, Esther / Kiai, Wambui (1994): Folk, interpersonal and mass media, The experience of women in Africa, in: Gallagher, Margaret / Quindoza-Santiago, Lilia (eds.): Women empowering communication, A resource book on women and globalization of media, Women’s International Tribune Centre, Washington, D.C., pp. 11-35.[6500]

Adja, Olive (ed.) (2005): Women and information in Africa, Sage Publications, London.[6501]

Arndt, Susan / Breitinger, Eckhard / von Brisinski, Marek Spitzcok (eds.) (2007): Theatre, performance and new media in Africa, Bayreuth African Studies, Bayreuth.[6502]

Buskens, Ineke / Webb, Anne (eds.) (2009): African women and ICTs, Investigating technology, gender and empowerment, Zed Books, London.[6503]

Dralega, Azungi Carol (ed.) (2016): Media, capacity building and gender party, Why we shouldn’t look away, in: Journal of African Media Studies, vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 247-249.[6504]

Gadzekpo, Audrey (2009): Missing links, African media studies and feminist concerns, in: Journal of African Medica Studies, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 69-80.[6505]

Gadzekpo, Audrey (eds.) (2013): Special issue on gender and media, in: African Media Review.[6509]

Harrow, Kenneth (ed.) (1997): With open eyes, Women and African cinema, Matatu, vol. 19, Rodipi Publishers, Amsterdam.[6506]

Jay, Mary / Kelly, Susan (eds.) (2002): Courage and consequences, Women publishing in Africa, London.[6507]

Kitetu, Catherine Wawasi (ed.) (2008): Gender, science and technology, Perspectives from Africa, Codesria, Dakar.[6508]

Morna, Lowe Colleen / Khan, Zohra (2002): Net gains, African women take stoke of ICTs, Women’s Inc., New York.[6510]

Morna, Lowe Colleen / Khan, Zohra (2006): The Southern Africa Media Diversity Journal, vol. 2, Gender Links, Johannesburg.[6511]

Ochieng, Ruth (2002): Information and communication technologies as a tool for women’s empowerment and social transformation in Africa, in: Feminist Africa, no. 1, pp. 108-115.[6512]

Ouzgane, Lahoucine / Okome, Onookome (2007): Men and masculinities in African film and fiction, James Currey Publishers, Oxford.[6513]

Prah, Kwesi (ed.) (1991): Culture, gender, science and technology in Africa, Harp Publications, Windhoek.[6514]

Radloff, Jennifer (2005): Claiming cyperspace, Communication and networking for social change and women’s empowerment, in: Feminist Africa, no. 4, pp. 85-98.[6515]

Rathgeber, Eva M. (2000): Gender and the information revolution in Africa, Women`s Inc, New York.[6516]

Somolu, Oreoluwu (2007): ‘Telling our true stories’, African women blogging for social change, in: Gender and Development, vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 477-489.[6517]

Stamp, Patricia (1989): Technology, Gender and Power in Africa, Ottawa, International Development Centre.[6518]

Veney, Rachel Cassandra / Zeleza, Paul Tiyambe (eds.) (2001): Women in African studies scholary publishing, Africa World Press, Trenton.[6519]

Wanyeki, Muthoni (2005): The African Women’s Development and Communication Network, Experiences of feminist continental organising, in: Feminist Africa, vol. 4, pp. 105-115.[6520]

Zerai, Assata (2019): African women, ICT and neoliberal politics, The challenge of gendered digital divides to people-centred governane, Routledge, London.[6521]

Zuiderveld, Maria (2011): ‘Hitting the glass ceiling’, in: Gender and media management in Sub-Saharan Africa, in: Journal of African Media Studies, vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 401-415.[6522]

politics - wars violent conflicts

Affi, Ladan / Tonnessen, Liv / Tripp, Aili Mari (2021): Women and peacebuilding in Africa, Boydell and Brewer, Rochester.[11613]

Apeadu, Nana (1993): An ignored population: Female-headed households among refugees in Africa, in: Mencher, Joan P. / Okongwu, Anne (eds.): Where did all the men go? Female-headed/female-supported households in cross-cultural perspective, Westview Press, Boulder, pp. 171-191.[6600]

Baaz, Maria Eriksson / Utas, Mat (eds.) (2012): Beyond ‘gender and stir’, Reflections on gender and SSR in the aftermath of African conflits, Nordic Africa Institute, Uppsala.[6601]

Bennett, Olivia / Bexley, Jo / Warnock, Kitty (eds.) (1995): Arms to fight, arms to protect, women speak out about conflict, Panos, London.[6602]

Bouta, Tsjeard / Frerks, Georg / Hughes, Bib (2005): Gender and peacemaking in the West African context, Netherlands Institute of International Relations, ‘Clingendael’, Conflict Research Unit, The Hague.[6603]

Buckley-Zistel, Susanne / Krause, Ulrike (eds.) (2017): Gender, Violence, Refugees, Berghahn, New York, Oxford.[11566]

Cheldelin, Sandra / Mutisi, Martha (eds.) (2015): Deconstructing women, peace and security, A critical review of approaches to gender and empowerment, HSRC Press, Pretoria. [11604]

Coulter, Chris / Persson, Mariam / Utas, Mats (2008): Young female fighters in African wars, conflict and its consequences, Nordic Africa Institute, Uppsala.[6604]

Das, Veena / Kleinman, Arthur / Lock, Margaret / Ramphele, Mamphela / Reynolds, Pamela (eds.) (2001): Remaking a world, Violence, social suffering, and recovery, University of California Press, Berkeley.[6605]

El-Bushra, Judy (2000): Transforming conflict, Some thoughts on a gendered understanding of conflict processes, in: Jacobs, Susie / Jacobson, Ruth / Marchbank, Jen (eds.): States of conflict, Gender, violence and resistance, Zed Books, London, pp. 66-86.[6606]

El-Bushra, Judy (2003): Fused in combat, Gender relations and armed conflict, in: Development in Practice, vol. 13, no. 2-3, pp. 252-265.[6607]

El-Bushra, Judy / El-Karib, Asha / Hadjipateras, Angela (2002): Gender sensitive programme design and planning in conflict affected situations, Research Report, Acord, London.[6608]

El-Bushra, Judy / Mukarubuga, Cécile (1995): Women, war and transition, in: Gender and Development, vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 16-22.[6609]

El-Bushra, Judy / Sahl, Ibrahim (2005): Cycles of violence, Gender relations and armed conflict, ACORD Publications, London.[6610]

Farr, Vanessa (2000): ‘The pain of violence is a powerful silencer’, African women writing about conflict, in: Canadian Journal of Women`s Studies, vol. 19, pp. 102-107.[6611]

Higate, Paul (2004): Men, masculinities and peacekeeping in Sub-Saharan Africa, in: Karamé, Kari (ed.): Gender and peacebuilding in Africa, Training for Peace Programme, Norsk Utenrikspolitisk Institutt, Oslo, pp. 67-90.[6612]

Higate, Paul / Henry, Marsha (2004): Engendering (in)security in peace support operations, in: Security Dialogue, vol. 35, no. 4, pp. 481-498.[6613]

Hudson, Heidi (2005): Peacekeeping trends and their gender implications for regional peacekeeping forces in Africa, Progress and challenges, in: Mazurana, Dyan E. / Raven-Roberts, Angela / Parpart, Jane L. (eds.): Gender, Conflict and Peacekeeping, Rowman and Littlefield Lanham, pp. 111-133.[6614]

Hudson, Heidi (2017): The power of mixed messages, Women, peace, and security language in National Action Plans from Africa, in: Africa Spectrum, vol. 52, no. 3, pp. 3-29.[6615]

International Crisis Group (2006): Beyond victimhood, Women’s peacebuilding in Sudan, Congo and Uganda, Brussels.[6616]

Jacobs, Susie / Jacobson, Ruth / Marchbank, Jen (eds.) (2000): States in conflict, Gender violence and resistance, Zed Books, London.[6617]

Karamé, Kari (2004): Gender and peacebuilding in Africa, Training for Peace Programme, Norsk Utenrikspolitisk Institutt, Oslo.[6618]

Krause, Ulrike (2020): Violence Against Women in Camps? Exploring Links between Refugee Camp Conditions and the Prevalence of Violence, in: Crepaz, Katharina / Becker, Ulrich / Wacker, Elisabeth (eds.): Health in Diversity – Diversity in Health,(Forced) Migration, Social Diversification, and Health in a Changing World Springer, Wiesbaden, pp. 187-208[11564]

Kumar, Krishna (ed.) (2001): Women and civil war - Impact, organisations, and action, Lynne Rienner, Boulder.[6619]

MacDonald P. / Ardener, A. (eds.) (1987): Images of women in peace and war: Cross-cultural perspectives, London.[6620]

Maloba, Wunyabari (2007): African women and revolution, Africa World Press, Trenton.[6621]

Meintjes, Sheila / Pillay, Anu / Turshen, Meredeth (eds.) (2001): The aftermath, Women in post-conflict transformation, Zed Books, London [6622]

Moser, Caroline / Clark, Fiona (eds.) (2001): Victims, perpetrators or actors? Gender, armed conflict and political violence, Zed Books, London[6623]

Muthien, Bernedette (2000): Human security paradigms through a gendered lens, in: Agenda, no. 43, pp. 46-56.[6624]

Oloka-Onyango, J. (1996): The plight of the larger half, Human rights, gender violence and the legal status of refugee and internally displaced women in Africa, in: The Denver Journal of International Law and Policy, vol. 24, no. 2-3, pp. 349-394.[6625]

Schäfer, Rita (2008): Frauen und Kriege in Afrika, ein Beitrag zur Gender-Forschung, Brandes und Apsel Verlag, Frankfurt a.M.[11876]

Sideris, Tina (2000): Rape in war and peace, some thoughts on social contexts and gender roles, in: Agenda, no. 43, pp. 41-45.[6626]

Tadesse, Z. (1989): African women`s report, Post-conflict reconstrution in Africa, United Nations Economic Commission for Africa, ECA, Addis Abeba.[6627]

Tamale, Sylvia (1996): Taking the beast by its horns, Formal resistance to women`s oppression in Africa, in: Africa Today, vol. 22, no. 4, pp. 5-21.[6628]

Turshen, Meredeth / Twagiramariya, Clothilde (eds.) (1998): What women do in wartime, Gender and conflict in Africa, Zed Books, London.[6629]

United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) / UNESCO et al. (2001): Best practices in peace buildung and non-violent conflict resolution, Some documented African Women’s Peace Initiatives, UNHCR/UNESCO Publication, Geneva/Paris.[6630]

Urdang, Stephanie (1984): Women in national liberation movements, in: Hay, Margaret / Stichter,Sharon (eds.): African Women South of the Sahara, Longman Publishers, London, pp. 156-169.[6631]

Vickers, Jeanne (1993): Women and war, Zed Books, London.[6632]

Zdunnek, Gabriele (1997): Geschlechterverhältnisse in ethnischen Konflikten und Bürgerkriegen, in: Peripherie, No. 68, pp. 24-39.[6633]

politics

Abdulmelik, Nebila / Belay, Tsion (2019): Advancing women’s political rights in Africa, The promise and potential of ACDEG, in: Africa Spectrum, vol. 54, no. 2, pp. 147-161.[7100]

Achebe, Nwando (2020): Female Monarchs and Merchant Queens in Africa, Ohio University Press, Athens.[11653]

Achebe, Nwando / Robertson, Claire (ed.) (2019): Holding the world together, African women in changing perspective, University of Wisconsin Press, Madison.[11594]

Afshar, Haleh (1987): Women, state and ideology, Studies from Africa and Asia, MacMillan Press, London.[7102]

Allen, Chris (1991): Gender, participation, and radicalism in African nationalism, Its contemporary significance, in: Cohen, Robin / Goulbourne, Harry (eds.): Democracy and socialism in Africa, Westview Press, Boulder, pp. 199-215.[7103]

Amri, Laroussi, Ramtohul, Ramola (eds.) (2014): Gender and citizenship in the global age, CODESRIA, Dakar.[7101]

Apt, Nana Araba / Agyemang-Mensah, Nana / Grieco, Margaret (eds.) (1998): Maintaining the momentum of Beijing, The contributions of African gender NGO’s, Ashagte Publishers, Aldershot.[7104]

Aubrey, Lisa (2001): Gender, development, and democratization in Africa, in: Journal of Asian and African Studies, vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 103-111.[7105]

Bauer, Gretchen / Britton, Hannah (eds.) (2006): Women in African parliaments, Lynne Rienner, Boulder.[7106]

Blystad, Astrid / Haukanes, Haldis / Zenebe, Mulumebet (2014): Mediating development? Exchanges on gender policies and development practies in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, in: Africa Today, vol. 60, no. 4, pp. 25-45.[7107]

Bunwaree, Sheila (2007): African renaissance, The need for gender-inclusive development states, in: Journal of African Renaissance Studies, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 73-87.[7108]

Callaway, Barbara / Creevey, Lucy (1989): Women and state in Islamic West Africa, in: Charlton, Ellen et al. (eds.): Women, state and development, Suny Press, St. Albany, pp. 96-113.[7109]

Callaway, Barbara / Creevey, Lucy (1994): Islam – Women, religion and politics in West Africa, Lynne Rienner Publishers, Boulder.[7110]

Charles, Maria (2020): Gender attitudes in Africa, Liberal egalitarianism across 34 countries, Social Forces, vol. 99, no. 1, pp. 86-125.[7111]

Chazan, Naomi (1990): Gender perspectives on African states, in: Parpart, Jane / Staudt, Kathleen (eds.): Women and the state in Africa, Westview Press, Boulder, pp. 185-202.[7112]

Cohen, Ronald (1993): Women, status and high office in African politics, in: Henderson, J.S. / Netherly, P.J. (eds.): Configurations of power, Holistic anthropology in theory and practice, Cornell University Press, Ithaca, pp. 181-208.[7113]

Coquery-Vidropvitch, Catherine (1998): African women, A modern history, Westview Press, Boulder.[7114]

Cornwall, Andrea / Goetz, Anne Marie (2005): Democratizing democracy, Feminist perspectives, in: Democracy, vol. 12, no. 5, pp. 783-802.[7115]

Edgell, Amanda (2018): Vying for a man seat, Gender quotas and sustainable representation in Africa, in: African Studies Review, vol. 61, no. 1, pp. 185-214.[7116]

Gawaya, Rose / Mukasa, Rosemary (2005): The African women’s protocol, A new dimension for women’s rights in Africa, in: Gender and Development, vol. 13, no. 3, pp. 42-50.[7117]

Geiger, Susan (1990): Women and African nationalism, in: Journal of Women’s History, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 227-244.[7118]

Guyer, Jane (1987): Women and the state in Africa, Marriage law, inheritance and resettlement, Working Paper, no. 127, African Studies Centre, Boston University, Boston.[7119]

Hingston, Claudine Anita (2016): Towards gender equality in Africa, a review of aspiration 6 in Agenda 2063, in: Journal of African Union Studies, vol. 5, no. 2/3, pp. 39-49.[7120]

Hirschman, D. (1991): Women and political participation in Africa, Broadening the scope of research, World Development, 19, 12, pp. 1679-1694.[7121]

Ibrahim, Jibrin (2004): The first lady syndrome and the marginalization of women from power, Opportunities or compromises for gender equality, in: Feminist Africa, issue 3. www.feministafrica.org[7122]

Kuumba, Bahati / White, M. (eds.) (2003): Transnational transgressions, African women, struggle and transformation in global perspective, Africa World Press, Trenton.[11805]

Lachenmann, Gudrun (1996): Transformationsprozesse in Westafrika, Widersprüche und Chancen für Frauenpolitik und Wandel der Geschlechterverhältnisse, in: Afrika, Asien, Lateinamerika, 24, pp. 231-251.[7123]

Lindberg, Steffen (2004): Women`s empowerment and democratization, The effects of electoral systems, participation and experience in Africa, in: Studies in Comparative International Development, vol. 39, no. 1, pp. 28-53.[7124]

Madsen, Hojlund Diana (ed.) (2020): Gendered institutions and women’s political representation in Africa, Nordic Africa Institute, Uppsala / Zed Book, London.[7125]

Muriaas, Ranghild / Wang, Vibeke / Murray, Rainbow (eds.) (2020): Gendered electorcal financing, Money, power and representation in comparative perspective, Routledge, New York.[7126]

Nwapa, Flora (1987): Women in politics, in: Présence Africaine, Nr. 141, pp. 115-121.[7127]

Ogunsanya, Kemi (2007): Qualifying women’s leadership in Africa, in: Conflict Trends, vol. 2, pp. 50-54.[7129]

Okeke-Ihejirika, Philomina (2006): Women, NEPAD and nation building, Revisiting a dying debate, in: African Sociologial Review, vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 72-93.[7130]

Okeke-Ihejirika, Philomina / Franceschet, Susan (2002): Democratization and state feminism, Gendered politics in Africa and Latin America, in: Development and Change, vol. 33, no. 3, pp. 439-466.[7131]

O‘Barr, Jean (1984): African women in politics, in: Hay, Margaret Jean / Stichter, Sharon (eds.): African women south of the Sahara, Longman, London, pp. 145-156. (and first version in: African Studies Review, vol. 18, no. 3, pp. 19-27.[7128]

Parpart, Jane (1988): Women and the state in Africa, in: Rothchild, Donald / Chazan, Naomi (eds.): The precarious balance, State and society in Africa, Boulder, Westview Press, pp. 208-230.[7132]

Parpart, Jane / Staudt, Kathleen (eds.) (1990): Women and the state in Africa, Lynne Rienner Publishers, Boulder.[7133]

Presley, Cora (1989): Women and the state in Africa, Boulder, Lynne Rienner.[7134]

Roberts, Pepe (1991): Democracy and agrarian question in Africa, Reflections on the politics of states and the representation of peasants’ and women’s interests, in: Roberts, Pepe / Williams, Gavin (eds.): Democracy and socialism in Africa, Westview Press, Boulder, pp. 70-92.[7135]

Ross, Marc (1986): Female political participation: A cross-cultural explanation, in: American Anthropologist, vol. 88, pp. 843-858.[7136]

Ruppert, Uta (1998): Demokratisierung und Modernisierung von Machtlosigkeit? Geschlechterverhältnisse in den Prozessen gesellschaftlicher Transformation in Afrika, in: Kreisky, Eva / Sauer, Birgit (Hrsg.) Geschlechterverhältnisse im Kontext politischer Transformation, Westdeutscher Verlag, Herford, pp. 491-511.[7137]

Sacks, Karen (1986): An overview of women and power in Africa, in: O’Barr, J. (ed.): Perspectives on power, Women in Africa, Asia and Latin America, Garvin und Unwill Publishers, London.[7138]

Skaine, Rosemarie (2008): Women political leaders in Africa, McFarland and Company, London.[7139]

Staudt, Kathleen (1985): Women’s political consciousness in Africa: A framework for analysis, in: Monson, Janie (ed.): Women as food producers in developing countries, UCLA Publications, Los Angeles, pp. 71-84.[7140]

Staudt, Kathleen (1986): Women, development and the state, in: Development and Change, vol. 17, no. 2.[7141]

Staudt, Kathleen (1986): Stratification, Implications for women politics, in Robertson, Claire / Berger, Iris (eds.) Women and class in Africa, pp. 197-215.[7142]

Staudt, Kathleen (1987): Women’s politics, the state, and capitalist transformation in Africa, in: Markowitz, I.L. (ed.): Studies in power and class in Africa, New York.[7143]

Staudt, Kathleen (1989): The state and gender in colonial Africa, in: Charlton, E.M. / Everett, J. / Staudt, K. (eds.): Women, the state and development, New York.[7144]

Staudt, Kathleen / Col, Jeanne-Marie (1991): Diversity in East Africa: Cultural pluralism, public policy and the state, in: Gallin, Rita / Ferguson, Anne (eds.): The women and international development annual, vol. 2, Boulder, pp. 241-264.[7145]

Steady, Filomina (2005): Women and collective action in Africa, Development, democratisation and empowerment, Palgrave, London.[7146]

Stewart, Ann (1996): Should women give up the state? The African experiences, in: Rai, Shirin / Lievesley, Geraldine (eds.): Women and the state, International perspectives, Taylor and Fracis, London, pp. 23-44.[7147]

Tamale, Sylivia (2006): Taking the beast by its horns, Formal resistance to women’s oppression in Africa, in: Africa Development, vol. 21, no 4, pp. 5-21.[7148]

Tamale, Sylivia (2006): Think globally, act locally, Using international treties for women’s empowerment in East Africa, in: Agenda, no. 50, pp. 97-104.[7149]

Thabane, Tebello (2008): Bridging the gap between de jure and de facto parliamentary representation of women in Africa, in: Comparative and International Law Journal of Southern Africa, vol. 41, no. 2, pp. 175-204.[7150]

Tripp, Alili Mari (1996): Urban women's movements and political liberalization in East Africa, in: Sheldon, Kathleen (ed.): Courtyards, markets, city streets, Urban women in Africa, Westview Press, Boulder, pp. 285-308.[7151]

Tripp, Alili Mari (2001): Women's movements and challenges to neopatrimonial rule, Preliminary observations from Africa, in: Development and Change, vol. 32, pp. 33-54.[7152]

Tripp, Alili Mari (2001): The new political activism in Africa, in: Journal of Democracy, vol. 12, no. 3, pp. 141-155.[7153]

Trushen, Meredeth / Alidou, Ousseina (2000): Africa, women in the aftermath of civil war, in: Race and Class, vol. 41, 4, pp. 81-99.[7154]

Van Allen, Judith (1974): Memsahib, militante, femme libre: Political and apolitical style of modern West African women, In: Jaquette, Jean (ed.): Women in politics, New York.[7155]

Van Allen, Judith (1976): African women, „Modernisation“, and national liberation, in: Iglitzin, L. / Ross, R. (eds.): Women and the world, A comparative study, Santa Barbara.[7156]

Van Allen, Judith (2001): Women’s rights movements as a measure of African democracy, in: Journal of Asian and African Studies, vol. 36, no. 1, pp. 39-63.[7157]

Van der Westhuizen, Christi (ed.) (2005): Gender instruments in Africa, Critical perspectives and future strategies, Institute for Global Dialogue, Pretoria.[7158]

Wendoh, Senorina / Wallace, Tina (2005): Re-thinking gender mainstreaming in African gender NGOs and communities, in: Gender and Development, vol. 13, no. 2, pp. 57-69.[7159]

Yoon, Mi Ming (2001): Democratisation and women’s legislative representation in Sub-Saharan Africa, in: Democratisation, vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 169-190.[7160]

Religion - Christianity

Achebe, Nwando / Robertson, Claire (ed.) (2019): Holding the world together, African women in changing perspective, University of Wisconsin Press, Madison.[11595]

Addai-Mensah, Peter (2009): Mission, communication and relationship, A Roman catholic response to the crisis of male youth in Africa, Peter Lang Verlag, Frankfurt a.M.[7600]

Bowie, F. / Kirkwood, D. et al. (eds.) (1993): Women missions, Past and present, Anthropological and historical perceptions, Berg Publishers, Oxford.[7601]

Chitando, Ezra (2005): Complex circles, Historiography of African Christian women’s organizations, in: Journal of Religion in Africa, vol. 35, no. 2, pp. 232-238.[7602]

Chitando, Ezra / van Klinken, Adriaan (eds.) (2016): Christianity and controversies over homosexuality in contemporary Africa, Routledge, London.[7603]

Crumbley, Deidre Helen (2003): Patriarchies, prophets, and procreation, Sources of gender pratices in three African churches, in: Africa, vol. 73, pp. 584-605.[7604]

Diduk, Susan (2001): Women and religious movements in Sub-Saharan Africa, in: Glazier, S. (ed.): Encyclopedia of African and African American religions, Routledge, London, pp. 375-391.[7605]

Hillmann, C.S.S.P. (1975): Polygyamy reconsidered, African plural marriages and the Christian churches, New York.[7606]

Jules-Rosette, Benetta (1985): Cultural ambicalences and ceremonial leadership: The role of women in Africa’s new religions, in: John, C.B. / Webster, Ellen Low (eds.): The church and women in the third world, Philadelphia, Westminster Press, pp. 88-104.[7607]

Jules-Rosette, Benetta (1987): Privilege without power: Women in African cults and churches, in: Terborg-Penn, rosalynn / harley, Sharon / Rushing, Andrea (eds.): Women and the African diaspora, Washington, Howard University Press, pp. 99-119.[7608]

Jules-Rosette, Benetta (ed.) (1979): The new religions of Africa, Norwood.[7609]

Kaunda, Chamnah (ed.) (2020): Gender, sexualities and spiritualities in African pentecostalism, ‘Your body is a temple of the Holy Spirit’, Palgrave MacMillan, London.[7610]

Le Roux, Elizabeth / Ndela, Mildred (eds.) (2006): Gender, literature and religion in Africa, CODESRIA Books, Dakar.[7611]

Ngunjiri, Faith Wambura (2010): Women’s spiritual leadership in Africa, Tempered radicals and critical servants, State University of New York Press, New York.[7612]

Oduyoye, Mercy Amba (2001): Introducing African women’s theology, Sheffield Academic Press, Sheffield.[7614]

Pemberton, Carrie (2003): Circle thinking, African women theologians in dialogue with the West, Studies of Religion in Africa, no. 25, Brill Publishers, Leiden.[7613]

Robins, Catherine (1979): Convention, life crisis, and stability among women in the East African revival, in. Jules-Rosette, Benetta (ed.): New religion of Africa, Ablex Publishing, Norwood, pp. 185-202.[7615]

Sackey, Brigid (2006): New directions in gender and religion, The changing status of women in African independent churches, Lexington Books, Lanham.[7616]

Semple, Rhonda (2008): Missionary manhood, Professionalism, belief and masculinity in the nineteenth-century British imperial field, in: Journal of Imperial and Commonwealth History, vol. 36, no. 3, pp. 397-415.[7617]

Religion - Islam

Achebe, Nwando / Robertson, Claire (ed.) (2019): Holding the world together, African women in changing perspective, University of Wisconsin Press, Madison[11598]

Badran, Margot (ed.) (2011): Gender and Islam in Africa, Rights, sexuality and law, Stanford University Press, Stanford.[7800]

Bodman, Herbert / Tohidi, Nayereh (eds.) (1998): Women in Muslim societies, Lynne Rienner Publishers, Boulder.[7801]

Callaway, Barbara / Creevey, Lucy (1984): The heritage of Islam: Women, religion and politics in West Africa, Lynne Rienner, Boulder.[7802]

Callaway, Barbara / Creevey, Lucy (1994): Islam – Women, religion and politics in West Africa, Lynne Rienner Publishers, Boulder.[7803]

Dunbar, R.A. (2000): Muslim women in African history, in: Levtzion, N. / Pouwels, R.L: (eds.): The history of Islam in Africa, Ohio University Press, Athens.[7804]

Mahmood, Saba (2001): Feminist theory, embodiment, and the docile agent, Some reflections on the Egyptian Islamic revival, in: Cultural Anthropology, vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 202-236.[7805]

Schulz, Dorothea / Janson, Marloes (2016): Introduction, Religion and masculinities in Africa, in: Journal of Religion in Africa, vol. 46, no. 2-3, pp. 201-209.[7806]

Wallace, Adryan (2015): Holistic development, Muslim women’s civil society groups in Nigeria, Ghana and Tanzania, in: African Sociological Review, vol. 19, no. 2, pp. 53-74.[7807]

Religion - traditional rituals and spirit mediumship

Arens, W. / Karp, Ivan (eds.) (1989): The creativity of power, Cosmology and action in African societies, Smithonian Institution Press, Washington.[10200]

Berger, Iris (1976): Rebels or status seekers: Women as spirit mediums in East Africa, in: Hafkin, Nancy / Bay, Edna (eds.): Women in Africa, Studies in Social and economic change, New York.[10201]

Berger, Iris (1995): Fertility as power: Spirit mediums, priestesses and the pre-colonial state in Interlacustrine East Africa, in: Anderson, D.M. / Johnson, D.H. (ed.): Revealing prophets, Prophecy in Eastern African History, London, pp. 65-82.[10202]

Boddy, Janice (1994): Spirit posession revisited, Beyond instrumentality, in: Annual Review of Anthropology, 23, pp. 407-434.[10203]

Burton, John (1991): Representations of the feminine in Nilotic cosmologies, in: Jacobson-widding, Anita (ed.): Body and space, Almquist and Wiksell, Uppsala, pp. 81-98.[10204]

Castleman, Virginia (1996): Mommi water, Spirit of the river, Flatland Tales Publishing, Ottawa.[10205]

Diduk, Susan (2001): Women and religious movements in Sub-Saharan Africa, in: Glazier, S. (ed.): Encyclopedia of African and African American religions, Routledge, London, pp. 375-381.[10206]

Herbert, Eugenia (1993): Iron, gender and power, Rituals of transformation in African societies, Indiana University Press, Bloomington.[10207]

Hoch-Smith, Judith / Spring, Anita (eds.) (1978): Women in ritual and symbolic roles, Plenum Press, New York.[10208]

Hopkins, Elizabeth (1970): The Nyabingi cults, in: Mazrui, Ali / Rotberg, Robert (eds.): Protest and power in black Africa, New York.[10209]

Jules-Rosette, Bennetta (ed.) (1979): New religion of Africa, Ablex Publishing, Norwood.[10210]

Kaplan, Flora (ed.) (1997): Queens, queen mothers, priestress, and power, Case studies in African gender, Academy of Sciences, New York.[10211]

Keller, Mary (2002): The hammer and the flute, Women, power and spirit possession, John Hopkins University Press, Baltimore.[10212]

Kilson, Marion (1976): Women in African traditional religions, in: Journal of Religion in Africa, vol. 8, 2, pp. 133-143.[10213]

MacClain, C. (ed.) (1989): Women as healers, cross-cultural perspectives, Rutgers University Press, New Jersey.[10214]

Moore, Henrietta (1999): Those who play with fire, gender, fertility and transformation in East and Southern Africa, Athlone Press, New York.[10216]

Wilson, Peter (1967): Status ambiguity and spirit possession, in: Man, 2, pp. 366-378.[10215]

Rights - human rights violations gender based violence

Armstrong, Alice (1989): Evidence in rape cases in four Southern African Countries, in: Journal of African Law, vol. 33, no. 2, pp. 172-184.[10400]

Bunch, Charlotte (ed.) (1994): Gender violence and women’s human rights in Africa, Publications of the Centre for Women’s Global Leadership, Rutgers University, New Brunswick.[10401]

Burrill, Emily / Roberts, Richard / Thornberry, Elizabeth (eds.) (2010): Domestic violence and the law in colonial and post-colonial Africa, Ohio University Press, Athens.[10402]

Falola, Toyin/ Heaton, Matthews (eds.) (2007): Endangerd bodies, Women, children and health in Africa, Africa World Press, Trenton.[10403]

Green, December (1999): Gender violence in Africa, African women’s responses, St. Martin’s Press, New York.[10404]

Hoare, Joanna (2007): Gender-based violence, Oxfam Publications, Oxford.[10405]

Izumi, Kaori (2007): Gender based violence and property grabbing in Africa, A denial of women’s liberty and security, in: Gender and Development, vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 11-23.[10406]

Lindorfer, Simone (2007): Sharing the pain of bitter harvests, Liberation psychology and gender-related violence in Eastern Africa, Lit-Verlag, Münster.[10407]

Muchina, Pauline (2000): What are you doing to stop violence against women and girls in Africa? in: Barstow, Anne Llewellyn (ed.): War’s dirty secrets, Rape, prostitution, and other crimes against women, The Pilgrim Press, Cleveland, pp. 101-123.[10408]

Oyekanmi, Felicia (ed.) (2000): Men, women and violence, CODESRIA Publications / African Books Collective, Dakar / London.[10409]

Rights - Women Human Rights and legal system

Apt, Araba Naana / Naana Agyeman-Mensah, Naana al. (eds.) (1998): Maintaining the momentum of Bejing: The contributions of African gender NGOs, Ashgate Publishers, Aldershot.[10805]

Armstrong, Alice et al. (1990): Maintenance statutes in six countries in Southern Africa, in: Journal of African Law, vol. 34, no. 2, pp. 132-144.[10800]

Armstrong, Alice et al. (1993): Uncovering reality, Excarving women’s rights in African Family Law, in: International Journal of Law and the Family, vol. 7, pp. 314-369.[10801]

Armstrong, Alice et al. (1997): Struggling over scare resources, Women and maintenance in Southern Africa, WLSA Publications, Harare.[10802]

Armstrong, Alice et al. (1997): Law and the family in Southern Africa. In: Aderanti Adepoju & Christine Oppong (eds.): Family, population and development in Africa, Zed Books, London, pp. 183-202.[10803]

Arnfred, Signe (1996): Rethinking law in a gender perspective, in: Schlyter, Ann (ed.): A place to live, Gender research on housing in Africa, Publications of the Nordic Africa Institute, Uppsala, pp. 32-46.[10804]

Ashenafi, M. (2004): Advocacy for legal reform for safe abortion, in: African Journal of Reproductive Health, vol. 8, pp. 79-84.[10806]

Badran, Margot (ed.) (2011): Gender and Islam in Africa, Rights, sexuality and law, Stanford University Press, Stanford.[10807]

Banda, Fareda (1998): Meaningless gestures? African nations and the Convention on the Elemination of all Forms of Discrimination against Women, in: Eekelaar, John / Nhlapo, Thandabantu (eds.): The changing family – International perspectives on the family and family law, Hart Publishing, Oxford, pp. 529-544.[10808]

Banda, Fareda (2004): The end of ‘culture’? African women and human rights, in: Murison, Jude / Griffith, Anne / King, Kenneth (esd.): Remaking law in Africa, Publication of the Centre of African Studies, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, pp. 115-136.[10809]

Banda, Fareda (2005): Women, law and human rights, An African perspective, Hart Publishing, Oxford.[10810]

Banda, Fareda (2006): Blazing a trail, The African Protocol on women’s rights comes to force, in: Journal of African Law, vol. 50, no. 1, pp. 72-84.[10811]

Banwell, Stout Suzanna (1993): Law, women’s status, and family planning in Sub-Saharan Africa, Working Paper, no. 237, Women in International Development, Michigan State University, East Lansing.[10812]

Bauer, Gretchen / Dawuni, Josephine (eds.) (2016): Gender and the judiciary in Africa, From obscurity to parity? Routledge, New York.[10813]

Benda-Beckmann, Keebet von (1990): Development, law and gender skewing, in: Journal of Legal Pluralism and Unofficial Law, no. 30-31, pp. 87-119.[10814]

Benedeck, Wolfgang / Esther Kisaakye et al. (eds.) (2002): Human rights of women: International instruments and African experiences, Zed Books, London.[10815]

Benshop, Marjolein (2002): Rights and reality, Are women equal rights to land, housing and property implemented in East Africa? United Nations Settlement Programme, UN-Habitat, Nairobi.[10816]

Berat, Lynn (1997): Towards equality for all? International human rights and African women, in: Siddiqui, Rukhsana (ed.): Subsaharan Africa in the 1990s, Challenges to democracy and development, Praeger Publishers, Westport, pp. 145-157.[10817]

Beyani, C. (1994): Toward a more effective guarantee of women`s rights in the African Human Rights system, in: Cook, Rebecca (ed.): Human rights of women, National and international perspectives, University of Pennsylvania Press, Philadelphia.[10818]

Bowman, Grant Cynthia / Kuenyehia, Akua (eds.) (2003): Women and law in Sub-Saharan Africa, Sedco Publishers, Accra.[10820]

Boyd, Lydia / Burrill, Emily (eds.) (2020): Legislating gender and sexuality in Africa, Human rights, society, and the state, University of Wisconsin Press, Madison.[10821]

Boye, Abd-el K. / Hill, Kathleen et al. (1991): Marriage law and practice in the Sahel, in: Studies in Family Planning, vol. 22, no. 6, pp. 343-349.[10819]

Bunch, Charlotte (ed.) (1994): Gender violence and women’s human rights in Africa, Publications of the Centre for Women’s Global Leadership, Rutgers University, New Brunswick.[10822]

Burnett, Patrick / Karmali, Shereen / Manji, Firoze (eds.) (2007): Grace, tenacity and eloquence, The struggle for women’s rights in Africa, FAHAMU and Solidarity for Women’s Rights, Oxford / New York.[10823]

Burrill, Emily / Roberts, Richard / Thornberry, Elizabeth (eds.) (2010): Domestic violence and the law in colonial and post-colonial Africa, Ohio State University Press, Ohio.[10824]

Butegwa, Florence / Mukasa, Stella / Mogere, Susan (1995): Human rights of women in conflict situations, WiLDAF-Publication, Harare.[10826]

Butegwa, Florence / Ndana, Sydia (1995): Legal rights, organizing for women in Africa, A trainers manual, WiLDAF Publication, Harare.[10825]

Caplan, Patricia (1984): Cognatic descent, Islamic law and women’s property on the East African coast, in: Hirshon, René (eds.): Women and property, women as property, London, pp. 23-43.[10827]

Chanock, Martin (1989): Neither customary no legal, African customary law in the era of family law reform, in: International Journal of Law and the Family, vol. 3, pp. 72-88.[10828]

Cook, Rebecca / Dickens, Bernard (1981): Abortion laws in African commonwealth countries, in: Journal of African Law, vol. 25, no. 2, pp. 60-79.[10829]

Cornwall, Andrea / Welbourn, Alice (eds.) (2002): Realizing rights: Transforming approaches to sexual and reproductive well-being, Zed Books, London.[10830]

Costa, Anthony (1998): The myths of customary law, in: South African Journal of Human Rights, 14, pp. 525-538.[10831]

Cutshall, Charles (1981): The role of women in disputing among the Ila of Zambia, Political adaptation in legal change, Working Papers, no. 46, African Studies Centre, Boston.[10832]

Dawuni, Jarpa (ed.) (2021): Gender, judging and the courts in Africa, Selected studies, Routledge, London.[11632]

Dawuni, Josephine / Kang, Alice (2015): Her ladyship chief justice, The rise of female leaders in the judiciary in Africa, in: Africa Today, vol 62, no. 2, pp. 45-69. [10833]

Dobkin, M. (1968): Colonialism and the legal status of women in francophone Africa, in: Cahiers d’Etudes Africaines, vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 390-405.[10834]

Drimie, S. (2002): The impact of HIV/AIDS on rural households and land issues in Southern and Eastern Africa, A background paper for the FAO Sub Regional Office for Southern and Eastern Africa, Nairobi.[10835]

Duarte, Vera (1999): The integration of women into the African Charta of Human and People’s Rights, in: Langthaler, Herbert (ed.): Sura za Afrika, Voices from Africa, Peter Lang Verlag, Frankfurt.[10836]

Dunton, Chris / Palmberg, Mai (1996): Human rights and homosexuality in Southern Africa, Paper: Current African Issue, no. 19, The Nordic Africa Institute, Uppsala.[10837]

Dyani, Ntombizozuko (2006): Protocol on the rights of women in Africa, Protecting women from sexual violence during armed conflict, in: African Human Rights Law Journal, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 166-187.[10838]

Ewekulwa, Uchechukwu (2002): Post-colonialism, gender and customary injustice, Widows in African societies, in: Human Rights Quarterly, 24, 2, pp. 424-486.[10839]

Farrior, Stephanei (2009): Human rights advocacy on gender issues, Challenges and opportunities, in: Journal of Human Rights Practices, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 83-110.[10840]

Ferree, Marx Myra / Tripp, Aili Mari (eds.) (2006): Global feminism, Transnational women’s activism, organizing and human rights, New York University Press, New York.[10841]

Fox, Diana / Hasci, Naima (eds.) (1999): The challenges of women’s activism and human rights in Africa, The Edwin Mellen Press, Lewiston.[10842]

Gawaya, Rose / Mukasa, Rosemary (2005): The African women’s protocol, A new dimension of women’s rights in Africa, in: Gender and Development, vol. 13, no. 3, pp. 42-50.[10843]

Gazel, Jeanne / Naidoo, Pat (2004): Stricking the rock with impunity, The consequences of gendered practices in 21th century Sub-Saharan Africa, Working Paper no. 280, Women and International Development, Michigan State University, East Lansing.[10844]

Goldblatt, Beth / Pantazis, Angelo (eds.) (2007): Sexuality and the law, Indiana University Press, Bloomington.[10846]

Gopal, Gita / Salim, Maryam (1998): Gender and Law: Eastern Africa Speaks, World Bank and Economic Commission for Africa, Addis Ababa.[10845]

Guyer, Jane (1987): Women and the state in Africa, Marriage law, inheritance and resettlement, Working Paper, no. 127, African Studies Centre, Boston University, Boston.[10847]

Hay, Margaret / Wright, Marcia (eds.) (1982): African women and the law, Historical perspectives, Boston University Press, Boston.[10848]

Hellum, Anne (1998): Women's human rights and African customary laws: Between universalism and relativism - Individualism and communitarianism, in: European Journal of Development Research 10, 2, pp. 88-104.[10849]

Hellum, Anne / Stewart, Julie et al. (1998): Pursuing grounded theory in law: South North experiences in developing women’s law, Tano Aschehoug Publishers, Oslo.[10850]

Hellum, Anne / Stewart, Julie et al. (2007): Paths are made for walking, Human rights intersecting plural legalism and gendered realities, Weaver Press, Harare.[10851]

Himonga, Chuma (1994): Women and Law in Southern Africa Research Project: Bridging the divide between scholarship and action, in: Mechthild Reh & Gudrun Ludwar-Ene (eds.): Gender and identity in Africa. Beiträge zur Afrikaforschung 8, Lit-Verlag, Münster, pp. 197-214.[10852]

Hirsch, Susan (2002): Feminist participatory research on legal consciousness, in: June Starr & Mark Goodale (eds.): Practicing ethnography in law: New dialogues, enduring methods, Palgrave/MacMillan, New York, pp.15-33.[10853]

Hodgson, Dorothy (2002): Women’s rights as human rights, Women in Law and Development in Africa (WILDAF), in: Africa Today, vol. 49, no. 2, pp. 3-26.[10854]

Howard, Rhoda (1984): Women’s rights in English speaking Sub-Saharan Africa. In: Claude Welch & Ronald Meltzer (eds.): Human rights and development in Africa,. State University of New York Press, St. Albany, pp. 46-74.[10855]

ICRW (International Centre for Research on Women) (2004): To have and to hold, Women’s property and inheritance rights in the context of HIV/AIDS in Sub-Saharan Africa, ICRW, Washington D.C.[10856]

Ikdahl, I. / Kameri-Mbote, Patricia et al. (2005): Human rights, formalisation of women’s land rights in Southern and Eastern Africa, IELRC Working Paper, no. 7, Nairobi.[10858]

Ilumoka, Adetoun (1994): African women’s economic, social and cultural rights – Toward a relevant theory and practice, in: Cook, Rebecca (ed.): Human rights of women: National and international perspectives, University of Pennsylvania Press, Philadelphia, pp. 307-324.[10857]

Izumi, Kaori (2006): Reclaiming our lives, HIV and AIDS, women’s land, property rights and livelihoods in Southern and Eastern Africa, HSRC Publications, Pretoria.[10859]

Izumi, Kaori (2007): Gender based violence and property grabbing in Africa, A denial of women’s liberty and security, in: Gender and Development, vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 11-23.[10860]

Jones, Christina (1995): Concepts of equality in cases of discrimination against women, Examples from Africa, in: Ludwar-Ene, Gudrun / Reh, Mechthild (eds.): Gender and identity in Africa, Beiträge zur Afrikaforschung 8, Lit-Verlag, Münster - Hamburg, pp. 169-186.[10861]

Knowles, Jane (1991): Women’s access to land in Africa, in: Third World Legal Studies, 1, pp. 1-14.[10862]

Kuenyehia, Akua (1995): Organizing at the regional level: The case of WiLDAF, in: Schuler, Margaret (ed.): From basic needs to basic rights, Women’s claims to human rights, Women, Law and Development International Publications, Washington D.C., pp. 515-528.[10863]

Kuenyehia, Akua (ed.) (2004): Women and law in West Africa, Situational analysis of some key issues affecting women, Sedco Publishing, Accra.[10864]

Lastarria-Cornhiel, Susana (1997): Impact of privatisation on gender and property rights in Africa, in: World Development, vol. 25, no. 8, pp. 1317-1333.[10865]

Lawson, David / Dubin, Adam / Mwambene, Lea (2021): Gender, poverty and access to justice, Policy implications in Sub-Saharan Africa, Routledge, London.[10866]

Lee Smith, Diana (1996): Women`s and men`s rights to land in Eastern Africa, in: Schlyter, Ann (ed.): A place to live, Gender research on housing in Africa, Publications of the Nordic Africa Institute, Uppsala, pp. 47-63.[10867]

Manji, Ambreena (1999): Imagining women’s ‘legal worlds’: Towards a feminist theory of legal pluralism in Africa. in: Social and Legal Studies, vol. 8, no. 4, pp. 435-455.[10870]

Manji, Ambreena (2003): Remortaging women’s lives, The World Bank`s land agenda in Africa, in: Feminist Legal Studies, vol. 11, pp. 139-162.[10871]

Martin, Doris / Hashi, Fatuma O. (1992): Women in development: The legal issues in Sub-Saharan African today, Working Paper No. 4, Technical Dept, Africa Region, World Bank, Washington D.C.[10869]

Martin, Mason Doris (2004): Law, custom and economic empowerment of women in Sub-Saharan Africa, A conceptual framework, in: Stewart, Ann (ed.): Gender, law and social justice, Blackstone, London, pp. 71-86.[10868]

Merali, Isafan (2000): Advancing women’s reproductive and sexual health rights: Using the International Human Rights System, in: Development in Practice, vol. 10, no. 5, pp. 609-624.[10872]

Molyneux, Maxine / Razavi, Shahra (eds.) (2002): Gender justice, development and rights, Oxford University Press, Oxford.[10873]

Munalula, Margaret M. / Mwenda, Winnie A. (1985): Case study: Women and Inheritance Law in Zambia, in: Hay, M.J. / Stichter, S. (eds.): African women south of the Sahara, Longman Publishers, London, pp. 93-110.[10875]

Murray, R. (2001): Feminist perspectives on reform of the African human rights system, in: African Human Rights Law Journal, 1, pp. 205-220.[10874]

Musa, Roselynn / Mohammed, Faiza Jama / Manji, Firoze (2006): Breathing life into the African Union Protocol on Women’s Rights in Africa, Solidarity for African Women’s Rights, African Books Collective, Oxford.[10876]

Newman, Katherine (1981): Women and law, Land tenure in Africa, in: Black, N. / Baker Cottrell, A. (eds.): Women and world change, London, pp. 120-137.[10877]

Ngondo a Pitshandenge, I. (1994): Marriage law in Sub-Saharan Africa, in: Bledsoe, Caroline / Pison, Gilles (eds.): Nuptiality in Sub-Saharan Africa, Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp. 117-129.[10878]

Nhlapo, Thandabantu (2000): The African customary law of marriage and the rights conundrum, in: Mamdani, Mahmood (ed.): Beyond rights talk and culture talk, Comparative essays on the politics of rights and culture, St. Martin’s Press, New York, pp. 136-148.[10879]

Niang, Cheikh Ibrahima / Foley, Ellen / Diop, Ndack (2020): Legalising gender and sexuality in Africa, Human rights, society, and the state, University of Wisconsin Press, Madison.[10880]

Nnaemeka, Obioma / Ezeilo, Joy (eds.) (2005): Engendering human rights, Cultural and economic rights in Africa, Palgrave, New York.[10881]

Nyamu-Musembi, Celestine (2002): Are local norms and practices fences or pathways? The example of women's property rights', in: An-Na'im, Abdullahi (ed.): Cultural Transformation and Human Rights in Africa, Zed Books, New York.[10882]

Nyamu-Musembi, Celestine (2005): For or against gender equality? Evaluating the post-cold war "Rule of Law" reforms in Sub-Saharan Africa', UNRISD Discussion Paper No. 7, UNRISD, Geneva.[10883]

Oglethrope, Judy / Gelman, Nancy (2008): AIDS, women, land and natural resources in Africa, Current challenges, in: Gender and Development, vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 85-100.[10884]

Oglethrope, Judy / Gelman, Nancy (2008): AIDS, women, land and natural resources in Africa, Current challenges, in: Gender and Development, vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 85-100.[10888]

Okafor-Obasi, Obasi (2001): Völkerrechtlicher Schutz der Frauen und Kinder unter besonderer Berücksichtigung der Rechtslage in Afrika südlich der Sahara, Berlin Verlag Arno Spitz, Berlin.[10885]

Okeyo, T.M. / Allen, A.K. (1994): Influence of widow inheritance on the epidemiology of AIDS in Africa, in: African Journal of Medical Practice, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 20-25.[10886]

Olaka-Onyango, J. (1996): The plight of the larger half, Human rights, gender violence and the legal status of refugee and internally displaced women in Africa, in: Denver Journal of International Law and Policy, vol. 24, no. 2-3, pp. 1-16.[10887]

Oloka-Onyango, J. / Tamale, Sylvia (1995): ‘The personal is political,’ or Why women’s rights are indeed human rights, An African perspective on international feminism, in: Human Rights Quarterly, vol. 17, pp. 691-731.[10889]

Paliwala, Abdul (1993): Family transformations and family law, Some African developments in financial support on relationship breakdown, Adelman, Sammy / Paliwala, Abdul (eds.): Law and the crisis in the third world, Hans Zell Publishers, London, pp. 270-300.[10890]

Peters, Julie / Wolper, Andrea (eds.) (1995): Women’s rights – Human rights, International feminist perspectives, Routledge Publishers, New York.[10891]

Phillips, A. / Morris, H. (1971): Marriage laws in Africa, Oxford University Press, New York.[10893]

Pitshandenge, Iman Ngondo (1994): Marriage law in Sub-Saharan Africa, in: Bledsoe, Caroline / Pison, Giles (eds.): Nuptiality in Sub-Saharan Africa, Oxford University Press, New York, pp. 117-129.[10892]

Roberts, Simon (ed.) (1976): Law and the family in Africa, Routlege, London.[10894]

Rwebangira, Magdalena (ed.) (1993): Women and law in East Africa, University of Dar es Salaam Press, Dar es Salaam.[10895]

Rwenzaura, B. (1995): Parting the long grass, Revealing and reconceptualizing the African family, in: Journal of Legal Pluralism and Unofficial Law, 35. Harare.[10896]

Röhrs, Stefanie / Smyths, Dee (eds.) (2014): In search of equality, Women, law and society in Africa, Juta Academic Press, Cape Town.[11820]

Salih, Mahjouba (1986): Legal aid, in: Schuler, Margaret (ed.): Empowerment and the law, Strategies of Third World Women, OEF Publications, Washington D.C., pp. 330-334.[10897]

Schuler, Margaret (ed.) (1986): Empowerment and the law: Strategies of third world women, OEF International Publications, Washington D.C.[10898]

Seidman, A. / Seidman, R.B. (1984): The political economy of customary law in the former British Territories of Africa, in: Journal of African Law, vol. 28, pp. 44-55.[10899]

Stewart, Ann (1993): The dilemmas of law in women’s development, in: Sammy Adelman & Abdul Paliwala (eds.): Law and crisis in the third world, Hans Zell Publishers, London, pp. 219-242.[10900]

Stewart, Ann (1996): Should women give up the state? The African experience. In: Shirin Rai & Geraldine Lievesley (eds.): Women and the state: International perspectives, Taylor and Francis, London, pp. 23-44.[10901]

Stewart, Ann (2004): Entitlements, pluralism and gender justice in Sub-Saharan Africa, in: Murison, Jude / Griffith, Anne / King, Kenneth (esd.): Remaking law in Africa, Publication of the Centre of African Studies, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, pp. 195-214.[10902]

Stewart, Ann (1993): The dilemmas of law in women’s development, in: Adelman, Sammy / Paliwala, Abdul (eds.): Law and the crisis in the third world, Hans Zell Publishers, London, pp. 219-242.[10904]

Stewart, Julie / Armstrong, Alice (1990): The legal situation of women in Southern Africa, University of Zimbabwe Publications, Harare.[10903]

Strickland, Richard (2004): To have and to hold, Women’s property and inheritance rights in the context of HIV/AIDS in Sub-Saharan Africa, International Centre for Research on Women / The Global Coalition on Women and AIDS, Washington D.C.[10905]

Tamale, Sylvia (2007): The right to culture and the culture of rights, A critical perspective on women’s sexual rights in Africa, in: Sex Matters, vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 149–165.[11804]

Tamale, Sylvia (2001): Think globally, act locally: Using international treaties for women’s empowerment in East Africa, in: Agenda, vol. 50, pp. 97-104.[10906]

Tamale, Sylvia (2004): Gender trauma in Africa, Enhancing women’s links to resources, in: Journal of African Law, vol. 48, no. 1, pp. 50-61.[10907]

Tripp, Aila Mari (2001): Women’s movements and challenges to neopatrimonial rule, Preliminary observations from Africa, in: Development and Change, vol. 32, no. 1, pp.33-54.[10908]

Tripp, Aila Mari (2005): Regional networking as transnational feminism, African experiences, in: Feminist Africa, vol. 4, pp. 46-63.[10909]

Tsanga, Amy Shupikai / Stewart, Julie (eds.) (2011): Women and law, Innovative approaches to teaching, research and analysis, Weaver Press, Harare.[10910]

Van Allen, Judith (2001): Women’s rights movements as a measure of African democracy, in: Journal of Asian and African Studies, 36, 1, pp. 39-63.[10911]

Vene Klasen, Lisa (1992): Women’s legal rights organizing and political participation in Africa, in: Margaret Schuler & Sakumtala Kadirgamar-Rajasingham (eds.): Legal literacy: A tool for women’s empowerment, UNIFEM Publications, New York, pp. 249-281.[10912]

Wanyeki, Muthoni (ed.) (2003): Women and land in Africa: Culture, religion and realizing women’s rights, Zed Books, London.[10913]

Welch, Claude E. (1993): Human rights and African women, A comparison of protection under two major treaties, in: Human Rights Quarterly, vol. 15, pp. 549-574.[10914]

Whitehead, Ann / Tsikata, D. (2003): Policy discourse on women’s land rights in Sub-Saharan Africa, The implications for a return to the customary, in: Journal of Agrarian Change, vol. 3, no. 1-2, pp. 67-79.[10915]

WLSA (2001): Reconceptualizing the family in a changing Southern African environment, written by Sara Mvududu and Patricia McFadden, WLSA Publication, Harare.[10916]

WLSA (2001): A critical analysis of women’s access to land in the WLSA countries, Botswana, Lesotho, Malawi, Mozambique, Swaziland, Zambia and Zimbabwe, WLSA Publication, Harare.[10917]

Wölte, Sonja (2002): Claiming women’s rights and contesting spaces: Women’s movements and the international women’s human rights discourse in Africa, in: Marianne Braig / Sonja Wölte (eds.): Common grounds or mutual exclusion? Women’s movements and international perspectives, Zed Books, London, pp. 171-188.[10918]

Yoon, Mi Yung (2004): Explaining women’s legislative representation in Sub-Saharan Africa, in: Legislative Studies Quarterly, vol. 29, no. 3, pp. 447-468.[10919]

society - families marriages

Abbas, Dey Jennie (1997): Gender asymmetries in intrahousehold resource allocation in Sub-Saharan Africa, Some policy implications for land and labour productivity, in: Haddad, Lawrence / Hoddinott, John / Alderman, Harold (eds.): Intrahousehold resource alloction in developing countries, Models, methods, and policy, John Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, pp. 249-262.[8500]

Adepoju, Aderanti (ed.) (1997): Family, population and development in Africa, Zed Books, London.[8501]

Aguilar, Mario (ed.) (2007): Rethinking age in Africa, Colonial, post-colonial, and contemporary interpretations of cultural representations, Africa World Press, Trenton.[8502]

Alber, Erdmute (ed.) (2007): Generations in Africa, Connections and conflicts, Lit-Verlag, Berlin.[8503]

Alber, Erdmute / Bochow, Astrid (2006): Familienwandel in Afrika, ein Forschungsüberblick, in: Paideuma, 52, pp. 227-250.[8504]

Baerends, Els (1998): Changing kinship, family and gender relations in Sub-Saharan Africa, in: Risseeuw, Carla / Ganesh, Kamala (eds.): Negotiated social space, A gendered analysis of changing kin and security networks in South Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa,Sage Publishers, London, pp. 47-86.[8505]

Ballot, Julia (1985): Heiratstransaktionen in Afrika südlich der Sahara - zur Diskussion des "Brautpreises" in: Völger,G./von Welck, K. (eds.): Die Braut: geliebt, verkauft, getauscht, geraubt, zur Rolle der Frau im Kulturvergleich, Veröffentlichungen des Rautenstrauch-Joest Museums, Köln, pp. 80-87.[8506]

Bledsoe, Caroline / Pison, Gills (eds.) (1994): Nuptiality in Sub-Saharan Africa, Contemporary anthropological and demographic perspectives, Clarendon Press, Oxford.[8507]

Boserup, Ester (1996): The economis of polygamy, in: Grinker, Richard Roy / Steiner, Christopher (eds.): Perspectives on Africa, A reade in culture, history and representation, Blackwell Publishers, Oxford, pp. 506-517.[8508]

Brabin, Loretta (1984): Polygyny, An indicator of nutritional stress in African agricultural societies? in: Africa, vol. 54, no. 1, pp. 31-45.[8509]

Caldwell, J. et al. (1992): The family and sexual networking in sub-saharan Africa, Historical regional differences and present day implications, in: Population Studies, vol. 46, no. 3, pp. 385-410.[8510]

Colson, Elizabeth (1970): Family change in contemporary Africa, in: Middleton, John (ed.): Black Africa, its peoples and their cultures, London, pp. 152-161.[8511]

Comaroff, John (ed.) (1980): The meaning of marriage payments, Academic Press, London.[8512]

Dodoo, F. Nii-Amoo (1998): Marriage type and reproductive decisions: A comparative study in Sub-Saharan Africa, in: Journal of Marriage and Family, vol. 60, pp. 232-242.[8513]

Dorjahn, Vernon (1959): The factor of polygyny in African demography, in: Bascom, William / Herscovits, Melville (eds.): Continuity and change in African cultures, pp. 87-112.[8514]

Douglas, Mary (1969): Is matriliny doomed in Africa? In: Douglas, Mary / Kaberry, Phyllis (eds.): Man in Africa, London, pp. 121-135.[8515]

Ekong, Julia Meryl (1992): Bridewealth, women and reproduction in Sub-Saharan Africa, Holos Verlag, Bonn.[8516]

Engelhardt, Eva (1994): “Wo es den Brautpreis gibt, kann es keine reproduktiven Rechte für Frauen geben” in: Blätter des IZ3W, Nr. 198, pp. 26-29.[8517]

Evans-Pritchard, E.E. (1931): An alternative term for ‘bride price’, in: Man, 31, pp. 36-39.[8518]

Ewulukwa, Uchechukwu (2002): Post-colonialism, gender and customary injustice, Widows in African societies, in: Human Rights Quarterly, vol. 24, no. 2, pp. 424-486.[8519]

Frank, Odile (1988): The childbearing family in Sub-Saharan Africa, Structure, fertility and the future, World Health Organisation, Geneva.[8520]

Gastellu, Jean-Marc (1987): Matrilineages, economic groups and differentiation in West Africa, A note, in: Development and Change, vol. 18, pp. 271-280.[8521]

Geisler, Gisela (1985): Der Preis der Frauen, wirtschaftsethnologische Untersuchungen zum Brautpreis in Afrika, Frankfurt a.M.[8522]

Gonzalez, Ana Marta / Olo, Florence / De Rose, Laurie (eds.) (2011): Frontiers in globalization, Kinship and family structures in Africa, Africa World Press, Trenton.[8523]

Goody, Esther (1982): Parenthood and social reproduction, Fostering and occupational roles in West Africa, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.[8524]

Goody, Esther (1986): Parental strategies: Calculation or sentiments? Fostering practicies among West Africans, in: Medick, Hans / Sabean, David Warren (eds.): Interest and emotion, Essays on the study of family and kinship, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.[8525]

Goody, Jack (1969): Comparative studies in kinship, London.[8526]

Goody, Jack (1973): Polygyny, economy and the role of women, in: Goody, Jack (ed.): The character of African kinship, Cambridge, pp. 175-190.[8527]

Hillmann, C.S.S.P. (1975): Polygyamy reconsidered, African plural marriages and the Christian churches, New York.[8528]

Howell, Signe / Melhuus, Marit (1991): The study of kinship, The study of person, A study of gender? in: Stolen, Kristi Ann (ed.): Gender, culture and power, vol. II, University of Oslo, SUM, Oslo, pp. 24-44.[8529]

Huber, Hugo (1968): ‘Women marriage’ in some East African societies, in: Anthropos, 63/64, pp. 745-752.[8530]

Isiugo-Abanihe, U. (1984): Child fosterage in West Africa, in: Population and Development Review, vol. 11, pp. 53-73.[8531]

Jackson, C. (2007): Resolving risk? Marriage and the creative conjugality, in: Development and Change, vol. 38, no. 1, pp. 107-129.[8532]

James, Wendy (1978): Matrifocus on African women, in: Ardener, Shirley (ed.): Defining females, The nature of women in society, London, pp. 140-163.[8533]

Kayongo-Male, Diane (1984): The sociology of the African family, Longman Publishers, Harlow.[8534]

Kilbride, Philip / Kilbride, Janet (1990): Changing family life in East Africa, Women and children at risk, Pennsylvania State University Press, Philadelphia.[8535]

Kirk, Dudley / Pillet, Bernard (1998): Fertility levels, trends and differentials in Sub-Saharan Africa in the 1980s and 1990s, in: Studies in Family Planning, vol. 29, no. 1, pp. 1-22.[8536]

Kirwen, Michael (1979): African widows, An empirical study to the problems of adapting Western Christian teaching on marriage and leviratic custom for the care of widows in four African rural societies, Orbis Books, New York.[8537]

Kisekka, Mere Nakaterregga (1976): Polygyny and the status of women, in: African Urban Notes, vol. 11, no. 3, pp. 21-42.[8538]

Krige, Eileen Jensen / Comaroff, John (eds.) (1981): Essays on African marriage in Southern Africa, Juta Press, Heinemann.[8539]

Kyewelyanga, Francis Xavier (1977): Marriage customs in East Africa, Renner Publication, Hohenschäftlarn.[8540]

Lachenmann, Gudrun (1997): Selbstorganisation sozialer Sicherheit von Frauen in Entwicklungsländern, in: Braig, Marianne (Hg.): Begegnungen und Einmischungen, Akademischer Verlag, Stuttgart, pp. 395-316.[8541]

Lachenmann, Gudrun (1998): Informal social security in Africa from a gender perspective, in: Baud, Isa / Smyth, Ines (eds.): Searching for security, Women’s responses to economic transformations, Routledge Publishers, London, pp. 45-66.[8542]

Little, Kenneth / Price, Anne (1967): Some trends in modern marriage among West Africans, in: Africa, 37, pp. 407-425.[8543]

Marks, Shula / Rathbone, Richard (1983): The history of the family in Africa, Introduction, in: Journal of African History, vol. 24, pp. 145-161.[8544]

Notermans, Catrien (2000): Polgygny and christianity, Local interpretations in Cameroon, in: Borsboom, A. / Kommers, J. (eds.): Anthropologists and the missionary endavour, Experiences and reflections, Verlag für Entwicklungspolitik, Saarbrücken, pp. 182-197.[8545]

Notermans, Catrien (2003): Lifetimes interwined, African grandparents and grandchildren, in: Africa, 74, 1, pp. 6-27.[8546]

Notermans, Catrien (2004): Sharing home, food and bed, Paths of grandmotherhood in East Cameroon, in: Africa, vol. 74, no. 1, pp. 6-27.[8547]

Obbo, Christine (1976): Dominant male ideology and female options, Three East African case studies, in: Africa, vol. 46, pp. 371-389.[8549]

Ogbu, John (1978): African bridewealth and women's status, in: American Ethnologist, vol. 5, pp. 241-262.[8550]

Oppong, Christine (1976): Dominant male ideology and female options, Three East African case studies, in:Africa, vol. 46, pp. 371-389.[8551]

Oppong, Christine (1992): Traditional family systems in rural settings, in: Berquo, E. / Xenos, C. (ed.): Family systems and cultural change, Oxford University Press, Oxford.[8552]

Oppong, Christine (2006): Family roles and social transformations, Old men and women in Sub-Saharan Africa, in: Research on Aging, vol. 28, no. 6, pp. 654-668.[8553]

Oppong, Christine (ed.) (1978): Marriage, fertility and parenthood in West Africa, Canberra.[8554]

Oppong, Christine (ed.) (1983): Male and female in West Africa, George Allen and Unvin, London.[8555]

Oppong, Christine (ed.) (1989): Sex roles, population and development, Heinemann Publishers, Portsmouth.[8556]

Owen, Margaret (ed.) (1998): A world of widows, London, Zed Books.[8557]

O’Brien, Denise (1977): Female husbands in Southern Bantu societies, in: Schlegel, Alice (ed.): Sexual stratification, A cross-cultural view, New York, pp. 109-126.[8548]

Palriwala, Rajni / Risseeuw, Carla (eds.) (1996): Shifting circles of support, Contextualizing kinship and gender in South Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa, Sage Publications, London/New York.[8558]

Parkin, David / Nyamwaya, David (eds.) (1987): Transformations of African marriages, Manchester University Press, Manchester.[8560]

Pool, Janet (1972): A cross-comparative study of aspects of conjugal behaviour among women of three West African countries, in: Canadian Journal of African Studies, vol. VI, no. ii, pp. 233-259.[8559]

Potash, Betty (ed.) (1986): Widows in African societies, Stanford University Press, Stanford.[8561]

Radcliffe-Brown, A.R. / Forde, Daryll (eds.) (1987): African systems of kinship and marriage, London.[8562]

Reynolds Whythe, Susan / Alber, Erdmute / Geissler, Wenzel P. (2004): Lifetimes intertwined, African grandparents and grandchildren, in: Africa, vol. 74, no. 1, pp. 1-5.[8563]

Risseeuw, C. / Ganesh, K. (eds.) (1998): Negotiations and social space - A gendered analysis of changing kin and security networks in South Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa, Sage Publications, Dehli / London.[8565]

Rwomire, Apollo (ed.) (2001): African women and children, Crisis and response, Praeger Publishers, Westport.[8564]

Rwomire, Appollo (ed.) (2001): African women and children, Crisis and response, Praeger Publishers, Westport.[8566]

Sabean, Warren David (1983): The history of the family in Africa and Europe, Some comparative perspectives, in: Journal of African History, vol. 24, pp. 163-171.[8567]

Sahn, David / Stiefel, David (2002): Parental preferences for nutrition of boys and girls, Evidence from Africa, in: Journal of Development Studies, vol. 39, no. 1, pp. 21-45.[8568]

Smith, Daniel Jordan (2001): Romance, parenthood, and gender in a modern African society, in: Ethnology, vol. 40, no. 2, pp. 129-151.[8570]

Sono, Themba (1994): African family and marriage under stress, CDA Publication, Pretoria.[8569]

Sudarkasa, Niara (1985): Female employment and family organization in West Africa, in: Steady, Filomina Chioma (ed.): The black woman cross-culturally, Schenkman Books, Rochester.[8571]

Sween, J. / Clingnet, R. (1978): Female matrimonial roles and fertility in Africa, in: Oppong, Christine (ed.): Marriage, fertility and parenthood in West Africa, Canberra, Australian National University Press, pp. 562-600.[8572]

Sweetman, Caroline (ed.) (2003): Gender, marriage and development, Focus on Gender, Oxfam Publications, Oxford.[8573]

Takyi, Baffour / Broughton, Christopher (2006): Marital stability in Sub-Saharan Africa, Do women’s autonomy and socio-economic situation matter? in: Journal of Family and Economic Issues, vol. 27, S.1, pp. 113-132.[8574]

Therborn, Göran (ed.) (2004): African families in a global context, Nordic Africa Institute, Uppsala.[8575]

Tietmeyer, Elisabeth (1985): Frauen heiraten Frauen, Eine vergleichende Studie zur Gynaegamie in Afrika, Klaus Renner Verlag, Hohenschäftlarn.[8576]

Tietmeyer, Elisabeth (1991): Gynaegamie im Wandel, Lit-Verlag, Münster.[8577]

Tranberg Hansen, Karen / Strobrel, Margaret (eds.) (1985): Family history in Africa, in: Trends in History, vol. 3, pp. 127-149.[8578]

Udvary, Monica / Cattell, M. (eds.) (1992): Gender, aging and power in Sub-Saharan Africa, Challenges and puzzles, Kluwer Academics, Dordrecht.[8579]

Weisner, Thomas / Bradley, Candice / Kilbride, Philip (eds.) (1997): African families and the crisis of social change, Bergin and Garvey Publishers, Westport.[8580]

White, Douglas (1988): Re-thinking polygyny, Co-wives, codes and cultural systems, in: Current Anthropology, vol. 29, no. 4, pp. 529-572.[8581]

WLSA (2002): Reconceptualizing the family in a changing Southern African environment, written by Sara Mvududu and Patricia McFadden, WLSA, Harare.[8582]

Young, K. (2006): Widows without rights, Challenging marginalisation and dispossession, in: Gender and Development, vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 199-209.[8583]

society - homosexuality / sexual minorities

Afro-Benin / EGIDES (2020): COVID-19 et les LBTQ, Afro-Benin, Cotonou, 2020[11928]

Amony, Deborah (1997): ‘Homosexuality’ in Africa, issues and debates, in: Issue, A Journal of Opinion, vol. 25, no. 1, pp. 5-10.[9000]

Audi, Sonia / Hoosen, Nas / Müllerr, Alex (2020): 2070 by Qintu Collab, in: Scrutiny2, Issues in English Studies in Southern Africa, vol. 25, Issue 2, pp. 13-22[11724]

Awondo, Patrick / Geschiere, Peter / Reid, Graeme (2012): Homophobic Africa? Toward a more nuanced view, in: African Studies Review, vol. 55, no. 3, pp. 145-168. [9001]

Burger, Bibi (2020): Editorial, Engaged queerness in African speculative fiction, in: Scrutiny2, vol. 25, issuue 2, pp. 1-12. [11728]

Chitando, Ezra / van Klinken, Adriaan (eds.) (2016): Christianity and controversies over homosexuality in contemporary Africa, Routledge, London.[9002]

Currier, Ashley / Migraine-George, Thérèse (2018): The incommensurability of the ‘transnational’ in queer African Studies, vol. 45, no. 4, pp. 613-622.[9003]

Devji, Zahrah Z. (2016): Forging paths for the African queer, Is there an "African" mechanism for realizing LGTBIQ rights? in: Journal of African Law, vol. 60, no. 3, pp.343-363. [11840]

Dreier, Sarah / Long, James / Winkler, Stephen (2020): African, religious, and tolerant? How religious diversity shapes attitudes towards sexual minorities in Africa, in: Politics and Religion, vol. 13, no 2, pp. 273-303.[9004]

Dunton, Chris / Palmberg, Mai (1996): Human rights and homosexuality in Southern Africa, Paper: Current African Issue, no. 19, The Nordic Africa Institute, Uppsala.[9005]

Edwin, Kwame Otu (2020): Heteroerotic failure and “Afro-queer Futurity” in Mohamed Camara’s Dakan, in: Journal of African Cultural Studies, vol. 33, no. 1, pp. 10-25. [11815]

Ekine, Sokari / Abbas, Hakima (eds.) (2013): Queer African reader, Fahamu Books, Pambazuka Press, Wantage, Oxfordshire UK. [11683]

Epprecht, Marc (2004): Hungochani, The history of a dissident sexuality in Southern Africa, McGill-Queens University Press, Montreal.[9006]

Epprecht, Marc (2006): Bisexuality and the politics of normal in African ethnography, in: Anthropologica, vol. 48, no. 2, pp. 187-201.[9007]

Epprecht, Marc (2008): Heterosexual Africa? The history of an idea from the age of exploitation to the age of AIDS, Ohio University Press, Ohio.[9008]

Epprecht, Marc (2008): Unspoken facts, A history of homosexuality in Africa, GALZ Publications, Harare.[9009]

Epprecht, Marc / Nyeck, S.N. (2013): Sexual diversity in Africa, Politics, theory and citizenship, McGills-Queens University Press, Montréal.[9010]

GALA (ed.) (2021): Hopes and dreams that sound like yours, Taboom Media/Mathoko’s Books, Johannesburg.[11560]

Geschiere, Peter (2017): A vortex of identities, Freemansory, witchcraft and postcolonial homophobia, in: African Studies Review, vol. 60, no 2, pp. 7-35.[9011]

Geschiere, Peter / Orock, Rogers (2020): Anusocratie? Freemanonry, sexual transgression and illicit enrichment in postcolonial Africa, in: Africa, vol. 90, no. 5, pp. 831-851.[9012]

Gevisser, Mark (2020): The Pink Line, Profile Books, London.[11567]

Green-Simms, Lindsey / Z´étoile, Imma (2021): The possibilities and intimacies of Queer African screen cultures, in: Journal of African Cultural Studies, vol. 33, pp. 1-19.[11761]

Hawley, John (2017): In transition, self-expression in recent African LGBTIQ narratives, in: Journal of the African Literature Association, vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 120-134.[11742]

Hawley, John C. (ed.) (2018): Queer theory in film and fiction, African Literature Today, ALT 36, James Currey, Melton.[9013]

Hoad, Neville (2007): African intimacies, Race, homosexuality and globalization, University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis.[9014]

Human Rights Watch (2003): More than a name, State sponsored homophobia and its consequences in Southern Africa, Human Rights Watch, New York.[9015]

Ireland, Patrick (2013): A macro-level analysis of the scope, causes, and consequences of homophobia in Africa, in: African Studies Review, vol. 56, no. 2, pp. 44-66.[11825]

Martin, Karen / Xaba, Makhosazana (2013): Queer Africa, New and Collected Fiction, Modjaji Books, Johannesburg. [11720]

Matebeni, Zethu / Munro, Surya / Reddy, Vasu (eds.) (2018): Queer in Africa, LGBTQI Identities, Citizenship, and Activism, Routledge, London.[11735]

Mbaru, Monica / Tabengwa, Monica / Vance, Kim (2018): Envisioning global LGBT human rights, (Neo)colonialism, neoliberalism, resistance and hope, Institute of Commonwealth Studies, London.[9016]

Meer, Talia / Lunau, Marie /Oberth, Gemma / Daskilewicz, Kristen / Müller, Alex (2017): Lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and intersex human rights in Southern Africa, A contemporary literature review 2012-2016, HIVOS, Johannesburg.[11927]

Morgan, Ruth / Wieringa, Saskia (eds.) (2005): Tommy boys, Lesbian men and ancestral wives, Female same-sex practices in Africa, Jacana Media, Johannesburg.[9017]

Munro, Brenna (2017): States of emergence, Writing African female same-sex sexuality, in: Journal of Lesbian Studies, vol. 21, issue 2, pp. 186-203 [11687]

Murray, Rachel / Viljoen, Frans (2007): Towards non-discrimination on the basis of sexual orientiation, in: Human Rights Quarterly, vol. 29, no. 1, pp. 86-111.[9018]

Murray, Stephen / Roscoe, Will (eds.) (1998): Boy wives and female husbands, Studies in African homosexualities, St. Martin’s Press, New York.[9019]

Namwase, S. / Jjuuko, A. (eds.) (2017): Protecting the human rights of sexual minorities in contemporary Africa. Pretoria University Law Press (PULP), Pretoria.[11561]

Niang, Cheikh Ibrahima / Foley, Ellen / Diop, Ndack (2020): Legalising gender and sexuality in Africa, Human rights, society, and the state, University of Wisconsin Press, Madison.[9020]

Nyeck, S.N. (ed.) (2020): Routledge handbook of Queer African Studies, Routledge, London.[9021]

Nyongo, Tavia (2012): Queer Africa and the fantasy of virtual participation, in: Women´s Studies Quarterly, vol. 40, no. 1-2, pp. 40-63. [11719]

Osinubi, Taiwo Adetunji (2018): Introduction, Denormativizing imperatives in African Queer scholarship, in: College Literature, vol. 45, no. 4, pp. 596-612. [11718]

Pincheon, Stanford Bill (2000): An ethnography of silences, Race, homosexualities, and a discourse of Africa, in: African Studies Review, vol. 43, no. 3, pp. 39-58.[9022]

Qintu Collab, Meer, T. / Müller, A. (2020): Meanwhile, Graphic short stories about everyday queer life in Southern and East Africa, Mathokos Books, Braamfontein, Johannesburg.[11725]

Ratele, Kopano (2014): Hegemonic African masculinities and men’s heterosexual lives, Some uses of homophobia, in: African Studies Review, vol. 57, no. 2, pp. 115-130.[9023]

Reddy, V. (2001): Homophobia, human rights, and gay and lesbian equality in Africa, in: Agenda, 1, 50, pp. 3-86.[9024]

Spronk, Rachel / Hendriks, Thomas (eds.) (2020): Readings in sexualities from Africa, Indiana University Press, Bloomington.[9025]

Spronk, Rachel / Nyeck, S. N. (2021): Frontiers and pioneers in (the study of) queer experiences in Africa, in: Africa, voll. 91, no. 3, pp. 361-387[11681]

Spurlin, William (2007): Imperialism within the margins, Queer representation and the politics of culture in Southern Africa, Palgrave, London.[9026]

Tamale, S. (eds.) (2011): African sexualities, A reader, Pambazuka, Cape Town.[9027]

Tamale, Sylvia (2013): Confronting the Politics of Nonconforming Sexualities in Africa, in: African Studies Review, vol. 56, no. 2, pp. 31–45.[11848]

Wesley, Paul Macheso (2021): Fiction as prosthesis, Reading the contemporary African queer short story, in: Tydskr.vir letterkunde, vol. 58, no.2, pp. 1-17. [11750]

Wieringa, Saskia / Morgan, Ruth (eds.) (2005): Tommy boys, lesbian women and ancestral wives, Jacana Media, Johannesburg.[9028]

Zabus, Chantal (2013): Out in Africa, Same-sex desire in Sub-Saharan literature and cultures, James Currey, Melton/Woodbridge.[9029]

society - masculinities

Barker, Gary / Ricardo, Christine (2005): Young men and the construction of masculinity in Sub-Saharan Africa, Implications for HIV/AIDS, conflict and violence, Social Development Papers, no. 26, Conflict Prevention and Reconstruction, World Bank, Washington D.C.[9200]

Cleaver, F. (ed.) (2006): Making men matter, Men, masculinities and gender relations in development, Zed Books, London.[9201]

Cornwall, Andrea / Wellbourne, Alice (eds.) (2002): Realizing rights, Transforming approaches to sexual and reproductive health and well-being, Zed Books, London.[9203]

Cornwell, Andrea / Lindisfarne, Nancy (eds.) (1994): Dislocating masculinity, Comparative ethnographies, Routledge, New York.[9202]

Epprecht, Marc (1998): Uncovering masculinity in Southern African History, in: Review of Southern African Studies, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 117-142.[9204]

Epprecht, Marc (2000): Theorizing gender and feminisms in contemporary Africa, in: African Studies, vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 23-41.[9205]

Epprecht, Marc (2002): Enriching gender studies in Sub-Saharan Africa, in: Canadian Journal of African Studies, vol. 36, no. 1, pp. 119-123.[9206]

Epstein, Debbie (1998): Marked men, Whiteness and masculinity, in: Agenda, no. 37, pp. 49-59.[9207]

Epstein, Debbie (1998): Uncovering masculinity in Southern African History, in: Review of Southern African Studies, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 118-134.[9208]

Epstein, Debbie (2004): Hungochani, The history of a dissident sexuality in Southern Africa, Queens`s University Press, Montreal.[9209]

Gibson, D. / Hardon, A. (eds.) (2005): Rethinking masculinities, violence and AIDS, Issues related to health, Het Spinhuis, Amsterdam.[9210]

Gutman, M.C. (1997): Trafficking in men, The anthropology of masculinity, in: Annual Review of Anthropology, vol. 26, pp. 385-409.[9211]

Jones, Adam (ed.) (2006): Men of the global South, A reader, Zed Books, London.[9212]

Lindsay, Lisa / Miescher, Stephen (eds.) (2003): Men and masculinity in modern Africa, Heinemann Publishers, London.[9213]

Mazrui, Ali (ed.) (1977): The warrior tradition in modern Africa, Brill Publishers, Leiden.[9214]

Mugambi, Nabasuta Helen / Allan, Tuzyline Jita (eds.) (2010): Masculinities in African literature and cultural texts, Lynne Rienner, Boulder[9215]

Ngom, Pierre (1997): Men’s unmet need for family planning, Implications for African fertility in transitions, in: Studies in Family Planning, vol. 28, no. 3, pp. 192-202.[9216]

Ocaya-Lakidi, Dent (1979): Manhood, warriorhood and sex in Eastern Africa, in: Journal of Asian and African Studies, pp. 134-165.[9217]

Ouzgane, Lahoucine / Okome, Onookome (2007): Men and masculinities in African film and fiction, James Currey Publishers, Oxford.[9218]

Ratele, Kopano (2014): Hegemonic African masculinities and men´s heterosexual lives: Some uses for homophobia, in: African Studies Review vol. 57, pp. 115-30.[11741]

Schulz, Dorothea / Janson, Marloes (2016): Introduction, Religion and masculinities in Africa, in: Journal of Religion in Africa, vol. 46, no. 2-3, pp. 201-209.[9219]

Silberschmidt, Margarete (2001): Disempowerment of men in rural and urban East Africa, Implications for male identity and sexual behaviours, in: World Development, vol. 29, no. 4, pp. 657-671.[9220]

Silberschmidt, Margarete (2004): Masculinities, sexuality and socio-economic change in rural and urban East Africa, in: Arnfred, Signe (ed.): Re-thinking sexuality in Africa, Publications of the Nordic Africa Institute, Uppsala, pp. 233-248.[9221]

Silverman, E. (2004): Anthropology and circumcision, in: Annual Review of Anthropology, vol. 33, pp. 419-445.[9222]

Uchendu, Egodi (ed.) (2008): Masculinities in contemporary Africa, CODESRIA, Dakar.[9223]

Wachter, Kurt (2006): Fußball in Afrika, Kolonialismus, Nationsbildung und Männlichkeiten, in: Kreisky, Eva / Spitaler, Georg (eds.): Arena der Männlichkeiten, Über das Verhältnis von Fußball und Geschlecht, Campus Verlag, Frankfurt a.M., pp. 277-295.[9224]

society - migration and urbanisation

Achebe, Nwando / Robertson, Claire (ed.) (2019): Holding the world together, African women in changing perspective, University of Wisconsin Press, Madison.[11597]

Benshop, Marjolein (2002): Rights and reality, Are women equal rights to land, housing and property implemented in East Africa? United Nations Settlement Programme, UN-Habitat, Nairobi.[9600]

Brockerhoff, Martin / Hongsook, Eu (1993): Demographic and socio-economic determinants of female rural to urban migration in Sub-Saharan Africa, in: International Migration Review, vol. 27, no. 3, pp. 557-577.[9601]

Brydon, Lynne (1987): Who moves? Women and migration in West Africa in the 1980s, in: Eades, Jeremy (eds.): Migrants, workers and social order, Travistock, New York, pp. 165-180.[9602]

Crush, Jonathan /IDASA (2008): Gender, migration and remittances in Southern Africa, Institute for a Democratic Development in Southern Africa (IDASA), Cape Town.[9603]

Grawert, Elke (Hg.) (1994): Wandern oder bleiben? Veränderungen der Lebenssituation von Frauen im Sahel durch die Arbeitsmigration der Männer, Lit-Verlag, München-Hamburg.[9604]

Gugler, Josef (1989): Women stay on the farm no more, Changing patterns of rural-urban migration, in: Journal of Modern African Studies, vol. 27, pp. 347-352.[9605]

Gugler, Josef / Ludwar-Ene, Gudrun (1995): Gender and migration in Africa South of the Sahara, in: Baker, Jonathan / Aina Akin Tade (eds.): The migration experience in Africa, Publications of the Nordic Africa Institute, Uppsala, pp. 257-268.[9606]

Indra, Doreen (ed.) (1999): Engendering forced migration, Theory and practice, Berghahn Books, New York.[9607]

Jochelson, Karen (1995): Women, migrancy and morality, A problem of perspectives, in: Journal of Southern African Studies, vol. 21, no. 2, pp. 323-340.[9608]

Larsson, Anita (1991): Governmental housing strategies versus women’s housing strategies in urban Southern Africa, in: Stolen, Kristi Ann (ed.): Gender, culture and power, vol. II, University of Oslo, SUM, Oslo, pp. 160-180.[9609]

Larsson, Anita / Mapetla, Matseliso / Schlyter, Ann (eds.) (1998): Changing gender relations in Southern Africa: Issues of urban life, Institute of Southen African Studies, National University of Lesotho, Roma.[9610]

Larsson, Anita / Mapetla, Matseliso / Schlyter, Ann (eds.) (2003): Gender and urban housing in Southern Africa, Emerging issues, Institute of Southern African Studies, National University of Lesotho, Roma.[9611]

Lefko-Everett, Kate (2007): Voices from the margings, Migrant women’s experiences in Southern Africa, IDASA, Cape Town.[9612]

Little, Kenneth (1973): African women in towns, An aspect of Africa’s social revolution, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.[9613]

Mapetla, Matseliso (2005): Aspects of urban housing for women and men in Southern Africa, Institute of Southern African Studies, National University of Lesotho, Roma.[9614]

Mapetla, Matseliso / Schlyter, Ann et al. (eds.) (2005): Gender, generations and urban living conditions in Southern Africa, Institute of Southern African Studies, National University of Lesotho, Roma.[9615]

Matlou, Patrick (1999): Upsetting the cart, Forced migration and gender issues – The African experience, in: Indra, Doreen (ed.): Engendering forced migration, Theory and practice, Berghahn Books, New York, pp. 128-145.[9616]

Ranko, Limakatso (2003): Gender and urban housing in Southern Africa, Bibliography and information sources, GRUPEL, ISAS, Maseru.[9617]

Schlyter, Ann (1996): A place to live, Gender research on housing in Africa, The Nordic Africa Institute, Uppsala.[9618]

Simone, Abdoumaliqalim (1995): From reproduction to reinvention, Women’s roles in African cities, in: Africa Insight, vol. 25, no. 1, pp. 4-14.[9619]

Sithole-Fundire, Sylvia / Zhou, Agnes / Larsson, Anita / Schlyter, Ann (eds.) (1995): Gender research on urbanization, planning, housing and everyday life, ZWRCN Publications, Harare.[9620]

Sudarkasa, Niara (1977): Women and migration in contemporary West Africa, in: Signs, Journal of Women in Culture and Society, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 178-189.[9621]

Tabet, P. (1991): I’m the meat, I’m the knife: Sexual service, migration and repression in some African societies, in: Feminist Issues, vol. 4, pp. 3-21.[9622]

Van de Walle, Francine / Van de Walle, Etienne (1993): Urban women's autonomy and natural fertility in the Sahel Region of Africa, in: Federici, Nora / Mason, Karen O. / Sogner, Solvi (eds.): Women's position and demographic Change, in: Clarendon Press, Oxford, pp. 61-79.[9624]

Wright, Caroline (1995): Gender awareness in migration theory, Synthesizing actor and structure in Southern Africa, in: Develpment and Change, vol. 26, pp. 771-791.[9623]

society - women's organisations

Achebe, Nwando / Robertson, Claire (ed.) (2019): Holding the world together, African women in changing perspective, University of Wisconsin Press, Madison.[11596]

Adams, Melinda (2006): Regional women’s activism, African women’s networks and the African Union, in: Ferree, Myra Marx / Tripp, Aili Mari (eds.): Global feminism, Transnational women’s activism, organizing and human rights, New York University Press, New York, pp.187-218.[9900]

Alpizar, Lydia et al. (eds.) (2007): Building feminist movements, Global perspectives, Zed Books, London.[9901]

Antrobus, Peggy (2004): The global women’s movement – Origins, issues and strategies, Zed Books, London.[9903]

Apt, Nana Araba / Agyemang-Mensah, Nana / Grieco, Margaret (eds.) (1998): Maintaining the momentum of Beijing, The contributions of African gender NGO’s, Ashagte Publishers, Aldershot.[9902]

Apt, Nana Araba / Agyemang-Mensah, Nana / Grieco, Margaret (eds.) (1998): Maintaining the momentum of Beijing, The contributions of African gender NGO’s, Ashagte Publishers, Aldershot.[9905]

Arndt, Susan (ed.) (2002): Dynamics of African feminism, Africa World Press, Trenton.[9906]

Arnfred, Signe (2004): Gender activism and studies in Africa, CODESRIA Gender Series 3, Dakar.[9904]

Badis, Balghis / Tripp, Aili Marie (2017): Women’s activism in Africa, Struggles for rights and represenatation, Zed Books, London.[9907]

Basu, Amrita (ed.) (1996): Women’s movements in global perspectives, Westview Press, Boulder.[9908]

Gisela Geisler (2004): Women and the remaking of politics in Southern Africa, Negotiating autonomy, Incorporation and representation, The Nordic Africa Institute, Uppsala 2004.[9909]

Hodgson, Dorothy (2002): Women’s rights as human rights, Women in Law and Development in Africa (WILDAF), in: Africa Today, vol. 49, no. 2, pp. 3-26.[9910]

Kerr, Joanna / Sprenger, Ellen / Symington Alison (eds.) (2004): The future of women’s rights, Global visions and strategies, Zed Books, London.[9911]

Klein-Hesseling, Ruth (1999): Zivilgesellschaft, Frauenorganisationen und Netzwerke, Universität Bielefeld, Working Paper, No. 320, Bielefeld.[9912]

Lenz, Ilse / Mae, Michiko, Klose, Karin (Hrsg.) (2000): Frauenbewegungen weltweit – Aufbrüche, Kontinuitäten, Veränderungen, Leske u. Budrich Verlag, Opladen.[9913]

Molyneux, Maxine (1998): Analysing women’s movements, in: Jackson, Cecile / Pearson, Ruth (eds.): Feminist visions of development – Gender, analysis and policy, Routledge, London, pp.65-88.[9914]

Nakayi, Rose (2005): The women’s movement in Africa, Creative initiatives and lessons learnt, in: East African Journal of Peace and Human Rights, vol. 11, no. 2, pp.265-300.[9915]

Nelson, Barbara / Chowdhury, Najma (eds.) (1994): Women in politics worldwide, Yale University Press, New Haven / London.[9916]

Nzomo, Maria (1998): Women’s movement and democratic change, in: Villalon, Leonard / Huxtable, Philip (eds.): The African state at a critical jucture, Between disintegration and reonfiguration, Westview Press, Boulder.[9917]

Rosander, Eva Evers (1997): Tranforming female identities, Women’s organisational forms in West Africa, Nordic Africa Institute, Uppsala.[9918]

Ruppert, Uta (1998): Demokratisierung oder Modernisierung von Machtlosigkeit? Geschlechterverhältnisse in den Prozessen gesellschaftlicher Transition in Afrika, in: Kreisky, Eva / Sauer, Birgit (eds.): Geschlechterverhältnisse im Kontext politischer Transformation, Westdeutscher Verlag, Opladen, pp.491-511.[9919]

Ruppert, Uta (Hg.) (1998): Lokal bewegen – global verhandeln, Internationale Politik und Geschlecht, Campus Verlag, Frankfurt a.M.[9920]

Ruppert, Uta / Jung, Andrea / Schwarzer, Beatrix (Hrsg.) (2010): Beyond the merely feasible, Transnational women’s movements and politics today, Nomos Verlagsgesellschaft, Baden-Baden.[9921]

Schäfer, Rita (1995): Frauenorganisationen und Entwicklungszusammenarbeit, Traditionelle und moderne Frauenzusammenschlüsse im interethnischen Vergleich, Centaurus Verlag, Pfaffenweiler/Herbholzheim.[9922]

Tripp, Aila Mari (1996): Urban women's movements and political liberalization in East Africa, in: Sheldon, Kathleen (ed.): Courtyards, markets, city streets, Urban women in Africa, Westview Press, Boulder, pp.285-308.[9923]

Tripp, Aila Mari (2001): Women’s movements and challenges to neopatrimonial rule, Preliminary observations from Africa, in: Development and Change, vol. 32, no. 1, pp.33-54.[9924]

Tripp, Aila Mari (2003): Women in movements, Transformations in African political landscapes, in: International Feminist Journal of Politics, vol. 5, no. 2, pp.233-255 (and published in: Howell, Jude / Mulligan, Diana (eds.): Gender and civil society, Transcending boundaries, Routledge, New York, pp.78-101.)[9925]

Tripp, Aila Mari (2005): Regional networking as transnational feminism, African experiences, in: Feminist Africa, issue, 4.[9926]

Tripp, Aila Mari (2008): African women’s movements, Changing political landscapes, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.[9927]

Van Allen, Judith (2001): Women’s rights movements as a measure of African democracy, in: Journal of Asian and African Studies, vol. 36, no. 1, pp.39-63.[9928]

Veerman, Nel (1995): Women’s groups in Africa, Panacea or problem? in: Vena Journal, vol. 7, no. 2, pp.2-9.[9929]

Wieringa, pp. (ed.) (1995): Subversive women, Women’s movements in Africa, Asia, Latin-America, and the Carribean, Zed Books, London.[9930]

Wölte, Sonja (2002): Claiming women’s rights and contesting spaces, Women’s movements and the international women’s human rights discourse in Africa, in: Braig, Marianne / Wölte, Sonja (eds.): Common grounds or mutual exclusion? Women’s movements and international perspectives, Zed Books, London, pp.171-188.[9931]

Impressum   |   Datenschutz